Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Wine Related Abstracts

7 Simulation of Polymeric Precursors Production from Wine Industrial Organic Wastes

Authors: Apichit Svang-Ariyaskul, Tanapoom Phuncharoen, Tawiwat Sriwongsa, Kanita Boonruang

Abstract:

The production of dimethyl acetal, isovaleradehyde, and pyridine were simulated using Aspen Plus simulation. Upgrading cleaning water from wine industrial production is the main objective of the project. The winery waste composes of acetaldehyde, methanol, ethyl acetate, 1-propanol, water, isoamyl alcohol, and isobutanol. The project is separated into three parts; separation, reaction, and purification. Various processes were considered to maximize the profit along with obtaining high purity and recovery of each component with optimum heat duty. The results show a significant value of the product with purity more than 75% and recovery over 98%.

Keywords: Wine, dimethyl acetal, pyridine, aspen plus, isovaleradehyde, polymeric precursors

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6 Analysis of Histamine Content in Selected Food Products from the Serbian Market

Authors: Brizita Djordjevic, Bojana Vidovic, Milica Zrnic, Uros Cakar, Ivan Stankovic, Davor Korcok, Sladjana Sobajic

Abstract:

Histamine is a biogenic amine, which is formed by enzymatic decarboxylation from the amino acid histidine. It can be found in foods such as fish and fish products, meat and fermented meat products, cheese, wine and beer. The presence of histamine in these foods can indicate microbiological spoilage or poor manufacturing processes. The consumption of food containing large amounts of histamine can have toxicological consequences. In 62 food products (31 canned fish products, 19 wines and 12 cheeses) from the market of Serbia the content of histamine was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit according to the manufacturer's instructions (Immunolab GmbH, Kassel, Germany). The detection limits of this assay were 20 µg/kg for fish and cheese and 4 µg/L for wine. The concentration of histamine varied between 0.16-207 mg/kg in canned fish products, 0.03-1.47 mg/kg in cheeses and 0.01- 0.18 mg/L in wines. In all analyzed canned fish products the results obtained for the histamine were below the limits set by European and national legislation, so they can be considered acceptable and safe for the health consumers. The levels of histamine in analyzed cheeses and wines were very low and did not pose safety concerns.

Keywords: Wine, cheese, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, histamine, fish products

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5 Food Safety in Wine: Removal of Ochratoxin a in Contaminated White Wine Using Commercial Fining Agents

Authors: Luís Abrunhosa, António Inês, Davide Silva, Filipa Carvalho, Luís Filipe-Riberiro, Fernando M. Nunes, Fernanda Cosme

Abstract:

The presence of mycotoxins in foodstuff is a matter of concern for food safety. Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by certain molds, being ochratoxin A (OTA) one of the most relevant. Wines can also be contaminated with these toxicants. Several authors have demonstrated the presence of mycotoxins in wine, especially ochratoxin A. Its chemical structure is a dihydro-isocoumarin connected at the 7-carboxy group to a molecule of L-β-phenylalanine via an amide bond. As these toxicants can never be completely removed from the food chain, many countries have defined levels in food in order to attend health concerns. OTA contamination of wines might be a risk to consumer health, thus requiring treatments to achieve acceptable standards for human consumption. The maximum acceptable level of OTA in wines is 2.0 μg/kg according to the Commission regulation No. 1881/2006. Therefore, the aim of this work was to reduce OTA to safer levels using different fining agents, as well as their impact on white wine physicochemical characteristics. To evaluate their efficiency, 11 commercial fining agents (mineral, synthetic, animal and vegetable proteins) were used to get new approaches on OTA removal from white wine. Trials (including a control without addition of a fining agent) were performed in white wine artificially supplemented with OTA (10 µg/L). OTA analyses were performed after wine fining. Wine was centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 10 min and 1 mL of the supernatant was collected and added of an equal volume of acetonitrile/methanol/acetic acid (78:20:2 v/v/v). Also, the solid fractions obtained after fining, were centrifuged (4000 rpm, 15 min), the resulting supernatant discarded, and the pellet extracted with 1 mL of the above solution and 1 mL of H2O. OTA analysis was performed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The most effective fining agent in removing OTA (80%) from white wine was a commercial formulation that contains gelatin, bentonite and activated carbon. Removals between 10-30% were obtained with potassium caseinate, yeast cell walls and pea protein. With bentonites, carboxymethylcellulose, polyvinylpolypyrrolidone and chitosan no considerable OTA removal was verified. Following, the effectiveness of seven commercial activated carbons was also evaluated and compared with the commercial formulation that contains gelatin, bentonite and activated carbon. The different activated carbons were applied at the concentration recommended by the manufacturer in order to evaluate their efficiency in reducing OTA levels. Trial and OTA analysis were performed as explained previously. The results showed that in white wine all activated carbons except one reduced 100% of OTA. The commercial formulation that contains gelatin, bentonite and activated carbon reduced only 73% of OTA concentration. These results may provide useful information for winemakers, namely for the selection of the most appropriate oenological product for OTA removal, reducing wine toxicity and simultaneously enhancing food safety and wine quality.

Keywords: Food Safety, Wine, ota removal, fining

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4 Quantitative Ranking Evaluation of Wine Quality

Authors: A. Brunel, A. Kernevez, F. Leclere, J. Trenteseaux

Abstract:

Today, wine quality is only evaluated by wine experts with their own different personal tastes, even if they may agree on some common features. So producers do not have any unbiased way to independently assess the quality of their products. A tool is here proposed to evaluate wine quality by an objective ranking based upon the variables entering wine elaboration, and analysed through principal component analysis (PCA) method. Actual climatic data are compared by measuring the relative distance between each considered wine, out of which the general ranking is performed.

Keywords: Climate, Principal Component Analysis, Wine, Grape, rating, weather conditions, metric analysis

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3 Evaluating the Effect of 'Terroir' on Volatile Composition of Red Wines

Authors: María Luisa Gonzalez-SanJose, Mihaela Mihnea, Vicente Gomez-Miguel

Abstract:

The zoning methodology currently recommended by the OIVV as official methodology to carry out viticulture zoning studies and to define and delimit the ‘terroirs’ has been applied in this study. This methodology has been successfully applied on the most significant an important Spanish Oenological D.O. regions, such as Ribera de Duero, Rioja, Rueda and Toro, but also it have been applied around the world in Portugal, different countries of South America, and so on. This is a complex methodology that uses edaphoclimatic data but also other corresponding to vineyards and other soils’ uses The methodology is useful to determine Homogeneous Soil Units (HSU) to different scale depending on the interest of each study, and has been applied from viticulture regions to particular vineyards. It seems that this methodology is an appropriate method to delimit correctly the medium in order to enhance its uses and to obtain the best viticulture and oenological products. The present work is focused on the comparison of volatile composition of wines made from grapes grown in different HSU that coexist in a particular viticulture region of Castile-Lion cited near to Burgos. Three different HSU were selected for this study. They represented around of 50% of the global area of vineyards of the studied region. Five different vineyards on each HSU under study were chosen. To reduce variability factors, other criteria were also considered as grape variety, clone, rootstocks, vineyard’s age, training systems and cultural practices. This study was carried out during three consecutive years, then wine from three different vintage were made and analysed. Different red wines were made from grapes harvested in the different vineyards under study. Grapes were harvested to ‘Technological maturity’, which are correlated with adequate levels of sugar, acidity, phenolic content (nowadays named phenolic maturity), good sanitary stages and adequate levels of aroma precursors. Results of the volatile profile of the wines produced from grapes of each HSU showed significant differences among them pointing out a direct effect of the edaphoclimatic characteristic of each UHT on the composition of the grapes and then on the volatile composition of the wines. Variability induced by HSU co-existed with the well-known inter-annual variability correlated mainly with the specific climatic conditions of each vintage, however was most intense, so the wine of each HSU were perfectly differenced. A discriminant analysis allowed to define the volatiles with discriminant capacities which were 21 of the 74 volatiles analysed. Detected discriminant volatiles were chemical different, although .most of them were esters, followed by were superior alcohols and fatty acid of short chain. Only one lactone and two aldehydes were selected as discriminant variable, and no varietal aroma compounds were selected, which agree with the fact that all the wine were made from the same grape variety.

Keywords: Wine, viticulture zoning, terroir, volatile profile

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2 The Antioxidant Activity of Grape Chkhaveri and Its Wine Cultivated in West Georgia (Adjaria)

Authors: Maia Kharadze, Indira Djaparidze, Maia Vanidze, Aleko Kalandia

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Modern scientific world studies chemical components and antioxidant activity of different kinds of vines according to their breed purity and location. To our knowledge, this kind of research has not been conducted in Georgia yet. The object of our research was to study Chkhaveri vine, which is included in the oldest varieties of the Black Sea basin vine. We have studied different-altitude Chkaveri grapes, juice, and wine (half dry rose-colored produced with European technologies) and their technical markers, qualitative and quantitive composition of their biologically active compounds and their antioxidant activity. We were determining the amount of phenols using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, Flavonoids, Catechins and Anthocyanins using Spectral method and antioxidant activity using DPPH method. Several compounds were identified using –HPLC-UV-Vis, UPLC-MS methods. Six samples of Chkhaveri species– 5, 300, 360, 380, 400, 780 meter altitudes were taken and analyzed. The sample taken from 360 m altitude is distinguished by its cluster mass (383.6 grams) and high amount of sugar (20.1%). The sample taken from the five-meter altitude is distinguished by having high acidity (0.95%). Unlike other grapes varieties, such concentration of sugar and relatively low levels of citric acid ultimately leads to Chkhaveri wine individuality. Biologically active compounds of Chkhaveri were researched in 2014, 2015, 2016. The amount of total phenols in samples of 2016 fruit varies from 976.7 to 1767.0 mg/kg. Amount of Anthocians is 721.2-1630.2 mg/kg, and the amount of Flavanoids varies from 300.6 to 825.5 mg/kg. Relatively high amount of anthocyanins was found in the Chkhaveri at 780-meter altitude - 1630.2 mg/kg. Accordingly, the amount of Phenols and Flavanoids is high- 1767.9 mg/kg and 825.5 mg/kg. These characteristics are low in samples gathered from 5 meters above sea level, Anthocyanins-721.2 mg/ kg, total Phenols-976.7 mg/ kg, and Flavanoids-300.6 mg/kg. The highest amount of bioactive compounds can be found in the Chkhaveri samples of high altitudes because with rising height environment becomes harsh, the plant has to develop a better immune system using Phenolic compounds. The technology that is used for the production of wine also plays a huge role in the composition of the final product. Optimal techniques of maceration and ageing were worked out. While squeezing Chkhaveri, there are no anthocyanins in the juice. However, the amount of Anthocyanins rises during maceration. After the fermentation of dregs, the amount of anthocyanins is 55%, 521.3 gm/l, total Phenols 80% 1057.7 mg/l and Flavanoids 23.5 mg/l. Antioxidant activity of samples was also determined using the effect of 50% inhibition of the samples. All samples have high antioxidant activity. For instance, in samples at 780 meters above the sea-level antioxidant activity was 53.5%. It is relatively high compared to the sample at 5 m above sea-level with the antioxidant activity of 30.5%. Thus, there is a correlation between the amount Anthocyanins and antioxidant activity. The designated project has been fulfilled by financial support of the Georgia National Science Foundation (Grant AP/96/13, Grant 216816), Any idea in this publication is possessed by the author and may not represent the opinion of the Georgia National Science Foundation.

Keywords: Wine, Antioxidants, bioactive content, chkhaveri

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1 Preharvest and Postharvest Factors Influencing Resveratrol, Myricetin and Quercetin Content of Wine

Authors: Mariam Khomasuridze, Nino Chkhartishvili, Irma Chanturia

Abstract:

The influence of preharvest and postharvest factors on resveratrol, myricetin and quercetin content of wine was studied during the experiment. The content of cis and trans resveratrol, myricetin and quercetin were analyzed by HPLC. In frame of experiment, the various factors affecting on wine composition were researched: variety, climate, viticulture practices, grape maturity, harvesting methods and wine making techniques. The results have shown that varietal potential and amount of yield play the most important role in formation of antioxidant compounds. Based on achieved results, the usage of medium roast oak chips protects resveratrol, myricetin, and quercetin from coagulation and precipitation. Compared to the control samples, the wines, produced by addition of oak chips were approximately four times richer with these antioxidant compounds. The retention of resveratrol was lowered with 45 % in wines, producing in Qvevri by Georgian traditional technology without controlling temperature during fermentation. The opposite effects in case of myricetin, quercetin and total phenolics content were determined. Their concentrations were higher with 56-78%, then in the fermented tank at 22 -25 °C. As the result of the experiment, the optimal technology scheme of wine was worked out, reached by biologically active compounds: resveratrol, myricetin, and quercetin.

Keywords: Wine, Resveratrol, quercetin, miricetin

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