Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Wind turbines Related Abstracts

9 Wind Energy Resources Assessment and Micrositting on Different Areas of Libya: The Case Study in Darnah

Authors: F. Ahwide, Y. Bouker, K. Hatem

Abstract:

This paper presents long term wind data analysis in terms of annual and diurnal variations at different areas of Libya. The data of the wind speed and direction are taken each ten minutes for a period, at least two years, are used in the analysis. ‘WindPRO’ software and Excel workbook were used for the wind statistics and energy calculations. As for Derna, average speeds are 10 m, 20 m, and 40 m, and respectively 6.57 m/s, 7.18 m/s, and 8.09 m/s. Highest wind speeds are observed at SSW, followed by S, WNW and NW sectors. Lowest wind speeds are observed between N and E sectors. Most frequent wind directions are NW and NNW. Hence, wind turbines can be installed against these directions. The most powerful sector is NW (29.4 % of total expected wind energy), followed by 19.9 % SSW, 11.9% NNW, 8.6% WNW and 8.2% S. Furthermore in Al-Maqrun: the most powerful sector is W (26.8 % of total expected wind energy), followed by 12.3 % WSW and 9.5% WNW. While in Goterria: the most powerful sector is S (14.8 % of total expected wind energy), followed by SSE, SE, and WSW. And Misalatha: the most powerful sector is S, by far represents 28.5% of the expected power, followed by SSE and SE. As for Tarhuna, it is by far SSE and SE, representing each one two times the expected energy of the third powerful sector (NW). In Al-Asaaba: it is SSE by far represents 50% of the expected power, followed by S. It can to be noted that the high frequency of the south direction winds, that come from the desert could cause a high frequency of dust episodes. This fact then, should be taken into account in order to take appropriate measures to prevent wind turbine deterioration. In Excel workbook, an estimation of annual energy yield at position of Derna, Al-Maqrun, Tarhuna, and Al-Asaaba meteorological mast has been done, considering a generic wind turbine of 1.65 MW. (mtORRES, TWT 82-1.65MW) in position of meteorological mast. Three other turbines have been tested. At 80 m, the estimation of energy yield for Derna, Al-Maqrun, Tarhuna, and Asaaba is 6.78 GWh or 3390 equivalent hours, 5.80 GWh or 2900 equivalent hours, 4.91 GWh or 2454 equivalent hours and 5.08 GWh or 2541 equivalent hours respectively. It seems a fair value in the context of a possible development of a wind energy project in the areas, considering a value of 2400 equivalent hours as an approximate limit to consider a wind warm economically profitable. Furthermore, an estimation of annual energy yield at positions of Misalatha, Azizyah and Goterria meteorological mast has been done, considering a generic wind turbine of 2 MW. We found that, at 80 m, the estimation of energy yield is 3.12 GWh or 1557 equivalent hours, 4.47 GWh or 2235 equivalent hours and 4.07GWh or 2033 respectively . It seems a very poor value in the context of possible development of a wind energy project in the areas, considering a value of 2400 equivalent hours as an approximate limit to consider a wind warm economically profitable. Anyway, more data and a detailed wind farm study would be necessary to draw conclusions.

Keywords: Wind turbines, wind data, energy yield, micrositting

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8 Influence of Wind Induced Fatigue Damage in the Reliability of Wind Turbines

Authors: Sonia E. Ruiz, Emilio A. Berny-Brandt

Abstract:

Steel tubular towers serving as support structures for large wind turbines are subject to several hundred million stress cycles arising from the turbulent nature of the wind. This causes high-cycle fatigue which can govern tower design. The practice of maintaining the support structure after wind turbines reach its typical 20-year design life have become common, but without quantifying the changes in the reliability on the tower. There are several studies on this topic, but most of them are based on the S-N curve approach using the Miner’s rule damage summation method, the de-facto standard in the wind industry. However, the qualitative nature of Miner’s method makes desirable the use of fracture mechanics to measure the effects of fatigue in the capacity curve of the structure, which is important in order to evaluate the integrity and reliability of these towers. Temporal and spatially varying wind speed time histories are simulated based on power spectral density and coherence functions. Simulations are then applied to a SAP2000 finite element model and step-by-step analysis is used to obtain the stress time histories for a range of representative wind speeds expected during service conditions of the wind turbine. Rainflow method is then used to obtain cycle and stress range information of each of these time histories and a statistical analysis is performed to obtain the distribution parameters of each variable. Monte Carlo simulation is used here to evaluate crack growth over time in the tower base using the Paris-Erdogan equation. A nonlinear static pushover analysis to assess the capacity curve of the structure after a number of years is performed. The capacity curves are then used to evaluate the changes in reliability of a steel tower located in Oaxaca, Mexico, where wind energy facilities are expected to grow in the near future. Results show that fatigue on the tower base can have significant effects on the structural capacity of the wind turbine, especially after the 20-year design life when the crack growth curve starts behaving exponentially.

Keywords: Fatigue, Wind turbines, Monte Carlo Simulation, structural reliability, crack growth

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7 Fault Detection and Isolation in Sensors and Actuators of Wind Turbines

Authors: Shahrokh Barati, Reza Ramezani

Abstract:

Due to the countries growing attention to the renewable energy producing, the demand for energy from renewable energy has gone up among the renewable energy sources; wind energy is the fastest growth in recent years. In this regard, in order to increase the availability of wind turbines, using of Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) system is necessary. Wind turbines include of various faults such as sensors fault, actuator faults, network connection fault, mechanical faults and faults in the generator subsystem. Although, sensors and actuators have a large number of faults in wind turbine but have discussed fewer in the literature. Therefore, in this work, we focus our attention to design a sensor and actuator fault detection and isolation algorithm and Fault-tolerant control systems (FTCS) for Wind Turbine. The aim of this research is to propose a comprehensive fault detection and isolation system for sensors and actuators of wind turbine based on data-driven approaches. To achieve this goal, the features of measurable signals in real wind turbine extract in any condition. The next step is the feature selection among the extract in any condition. The next step is the feature selection among the extracted features. Features are selected that led to maximum separation networks that implemented in parallel and results of classifiers fused together. In order to maximize the reliability of decision on fault, the property of fault repeatability is used.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Wind turbines, FDI, sensors and actuators faults

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6 Considering Effect of Wind Turbines in the Distribution System

Authors: Majed Ahmadi

Abstract:

In recent years, the high penetration of different types of renewable energy sources (RESs) has affected most of the available strategies. The main motivations behind the high penetration of RESs are clean energy, modular system and easy installation. Among different types of RESs, wind turbine (WT) is an interesting choice referring to the availability of wind in almost any area. The new technologies of WT can provide energy from residential applications to wide grid connected applications. Regarding the WT, advantages such as reducing the dependence on fossil fuels and enhancing the independence and flexibility of large power grid are the most prominent. Nevertheless, the high volatile nature of wind speed injects much uncertainty in the grid that if not managed optimally can put the analyses far from the reality.the aim of this project is scrutiny and to offer proper ways for renewing distribution networks with envisage the effects of wind power plants and uncertainties related to distribution systems including wind power generating plants output rate and consumers consuming rate and also decrease the incidents of the whole network losses, amount of pollution, voltage refraction and cost extent.to solve this problem we use dual point estimate method.And algorithm used in this paper is reformed bat algorithm, which will be under exact research furthermore the results.

Keywords: Uncertainty, Wind turbines, bat algorithm, order renewal, outspread production

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5 A Spatial Repetitive Controller Applied to an Aeroelastic Model for Wind Turbines

Authors: Riccardo Fratini, Riccardo Santini, Jacopo Serafini, Massimo Gennaretti, Stefano Panzieri

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This paper presents a nonlinear differential model, for a three-bladed horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) suited for control applications. It is based on a 8-dofs, lumped parameters structural dynamics coupled with a quasi-steady sectional aerodynamics. In particular, using the Euler-Lagrange Equation (Energetic Variation approach), the authors derive, and successively validate, such model. For the derivation of the aerodynamic model, the Greenbergs theory, an extension of the theory proposed by Theodorsen to the case of thin airfoils undergoing pulsating flows, is used. Specifically, in this work, the authors restricted that theory under the hypothesis of low perturbation reduced frequency k, which causes the lift deficiency function C(k) to be real and equal to 1. Furthermore, the expressions of the aerodynamic loads are obtained using the quasi-steady strip theory (Hodges and Ormiston), as a function of the chordwise and normal components of relative velocity between flow and airfoil Ut, Up, their derivatives, and section angular velocity ε˙. For the validation of the proposed model, the authors carried out open and closed-loop simulations of a 5 MW HAWT, characterized by radius R =61.5 m and by mean chord c = 3 m, with a nominal angular velocity Ωn = 1.266rad/sec. The first analysis performed is the steady state solution, where a uniform wind Vw = 11.4 m/s is considered and a collective pitch angle θ = 0.88◦ is imposed. During this step, the authors noticed that the proposed model is intrinsically periodic due to the effect of the wind and of the gravitational force. In order to reject this periodic trend in the model dynamics, the authors propose a collective repetitive control algorithm coupled with a PD controller. In particular, when the reference command to be tracked and/or the disturbance to be rejected are periodic signals with a fixed period, the repetitive control strategies can be applied due to their high precision, simple implementation and little performance dependency on system parameters. The functional scheme of a repetitive controller is quite simple and, given a periodic reference command, is composed of a control block Crc(s) usually added to an existing feedback control system. The control block contains and a free time-delay system eτs in a positive feedback loop, and a low-pass filter q(s). It should be noticed that, while the time delay term reduces the stability margin, on the other hand the low pass filter is added to ensure stability. It is worth noting that, in this work, the authors propose a phase shifting for the controller and the delay system has been modified as e^(−(T−γk)), where T is the period of the signal and γk is a phase shifting of k samples of the same periodic signal. It should be noticed that, the phase shifting technique is particularly useful in non-minimum phase systems, such as flexible structures. In fact, using the phase shifting, the iterative algorithm could reach the convergence also at high frequencies. Notice that, in our case study, the shifting of k samples depends both on the rotor angular velocity Ω and on the rotor azimuth angle Ψ: we refer to this controller as a spatial repetitive controller. The collective repetitive controller has also been coupled with a C(s) = PD(s), in order to dampen oscillations of the blades. The performance of the spatial repetitive controller is compared with an industrial PI controller. In particular, starting from wind speed velocity Vw = 11.4 m/s the controller is asked to maintain the nominal angular velocity Ωn = 1.266rad/s after an instantaneous increase of wind speed (Vw = 15 m/s). Then, a purely periodic external disturbance is introduced in order to stress the capabilities of the repetitive controller. The results of the simulations show that, contrary to a simple PI controller, the spatial repetitive-PD controller has the capability to reject both external disturbances and periodic trend in the model dynamics. Finally, the nominal value of the angular velocity is reached, in accordance with results obtained with commercial software for a turbine of the same type.

Keywords: Aeroelasticity, Wind turbines, repetitive control, periodic systems

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4 Estimation of Wind Characteristics and Energy Yield at Different Towns in Libya

Authors: Farag Ahwide, Souhel Bousheha

Abstract:

A technical assessment has been made of electricity generation, considering wind turbines ranging between Vestas (V80-2.0 MW and V112-3.0 MW) and the air density is equal to 1.225 Kg/m3, at different towns in Libya. Wind speed might have been measured each 3 hours during 10 m stature at a time for 10 quite sometime between 2000 Furthermore 2009, these towns which are spotted on the bank from claiming Mediterranean ocean also how in the desert, which need aid Derna 1, Derna 2, Shahat, Benghazi, Ajdabya, Sirte, Misurata, Tripoli-Airport, Al-Zawya, Al-Kofra, Sabha, Nalut. The work presented long term "wind data analysis in terms of annual, seasonal, monthly and diurnal variations at these sites. Wind power density with different heights has been studied. Excel sheet program was used to calculate the values of wind power density and the values of wind speed frequency for the stations; their seasonally values have been estimated. Limit variable with rated wind pace to 10 different wind turbines need to be been estimated, which is used to focus those required yearly vitality yield of a wind vitality change framework (WECS), acknowledging wind turbines extending between 600 kW and 3000 kW).

Keywords: Wind turbines, Wind Speed, energy yield, wind power density

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3 Designing and Prototyping Permanent Magnet Generators for Wind Energy

Authors: M. A. Khan, T. Asefi, J. Faiz

Abstract:

This paper introduces dual rotor axial flux machines with surface mounted and spoke type ferrite permanent magnets with concentrated windings; they are introduced as alternatives to a generator with surface mounted Nd-Fe-B magnets. The output power, voltage, speed and air gap clearance for all the generators are identical. The machine designs are optimized for minimum mass using a population-based algorithm, assuming the same efficiency as the Nd-Fe-B machine. A finite element analysis (FEA) is applied to predict the performance, emf, developed torque, cogging torque, no load losses, leakage flux and efficiency of both ferrite generators and that of the Nd-Fe-B generator. To minimize cogging torque, different rotor pole topologies and different pole arc to pole pitch ratios are investigated by means of 3D FEA. It was found that the surface mounted ferrite generator topology is unable to develop the nominal electromagnetic torque, and has higher torque ripple and is heavier than the spoke type machine. Furthermore, it was shown that the spoke type ferrite permanent magnet generator has favorable performance and could be an alternative to rare-earth permanent magnet generators, particularly in wind energy applications. Finally, the analytical and numerical results are verified using experimental results.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Wind turbines, permanent magnet generator, cogging torque, axial flux, dual rotor, ferrite permanent magnet generator, population-based algorithms

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2 Optimal-Based Structural Vibration Attenuation Using Nonlinear Tuned Vibration Absorbers

Authors: Pawel Martynowicz

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Vibrations are a crucial problem for slender structures such as towers, masts, chimneys, wind turbines, bridges, high buildings, etc., that is why most of them are equipped with vibration attenuation or fatigue reduction solutions. In this work, a slender structure (i.e., wind turbine tower-nacelle model) equipped with nonlinear, semiactive tuned vibration absorber(s) is analyzed. For this study purposes, magnetorheological (MR) dampers are used as semiactive actuators. Several optimal-based approaches to structural vibration attenuation are investigated against the standard ‘ground-hook’ law and passive tuned vibration absorber(s) implementations. The common approach to optimal control of nonlinear systems is offline computation of the optimal solution, however, so determined open loop control suffers from lack of robustness to uncertainties (e.g., unmodelled dynamics, perturbations of external forces or initial conditions), and thus perturbation control techniques are often used. However, proper linearization may be an issue for highly nonlinear systems with implicit relations between state, co-state, and control. The main contribution of the author is the development as well as numerical and experimental verification of the Pontriagin maximum-principle-based vibration control concepts that produce directly actuator control input (not the demanded force), thus force tracking algorithm that results in control inaccuracy is entirely omitted. These concepts, including one-step optimal control, quasi-optimal control, and optimal-based modified ‘ground-hook’ law, can be directly implemented in online and real-time feedback control for periodic (or semi-periodic) disturbances with invariant or time-varying parameters, as well as for non-periodic, transient or random disturbances, what is a limitation for some other known solutions. No offline calculation, excitations/disturbances assumption or vibration frequency determination is necessary, moreover, all of the nonlinear actuator (MR damper) force constraints, i.e., no active forces, lower and upper saturation limits, hysteresis-type dynamics, etc., are embedded in the control technique, thus the solution is optimal or suboptimal for the assumed actuator, respecting its limitations. Depending on the selected method variant, a moderate or decisive reduction in the computational load is possible compared to other methods of nonlinear optimal control, while assuring the quality and robustness of the vibration reduction system, as well as considering multi-pronged operational aspects, such as possible minimization of the amplitude of the deflection and acceleration of the vibrating structure, its potential and/or kinetic energy, required actuator force, control input (e.g. electric current in the MR damper coil) and/or stroke amplitude. The developed solutions are characterized by high vibration reduction efficiency – the obtained maximum values of the dynamic amplification factor are close to 2.0, while for the best of the passive systems, these values exceed 3.5.

Keywords: Optimal Control, Wind turbines, magnetorheological damper, nonlinear tuned vibration absorber, real-time structural vibration attenuation

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1 Physical and Numerical Modelling of Load Transfer Mechanisms in a Wind Turbine Foundation

Authors: Janet Modu, Jean-Francois Georgin, Laurent Briancon, Eric Antoinet

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The current practice during the repowering phase of wind turbines is deconstruction of existing foundations and construction of new foundations to accept larger wind loads or once the foundations have reached the end of their service lives. The ongoing research project FUI25 FEDRE (Fondations d’Eoliennes Durables et REpowering) therefore serves to propose scalable wind turbine foundation designs to allow reuse of the existing foundations. To undertake this research, numerical models and laboratory-scale models are currently being utilized and implemented in the GEOMAS laboratory at INSA Lyon following instrumentation of a reference wind turbine situated in the Northern part of France. Sensors placed within both the foundation and the underlying soil monitor the evolution of stresses from the foundation’s early age to stresses during service. The results from the instrumentation form the basis of validation for both the laboratory and numerical works conducted throughout the project duration. The study currently focuses on the effect of coupled mechanisms (Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical) that induce stress during the early age of the reinforced concrete foundation, and scale factor considerations in the replication of the reference wind turbine foundation at laboratory-scale. Using THMC 3D models on COMSOL Multi-physics software, the numerical analysis performed on both the laboratory-scale and the full-scale foundations simulate the thermal deformation, hydration, shrinkage (desiccation and autogenous) and creep so as to predict the initial damage caused by internal processes during concrete setting and hardening. Results show a prominent effect of early age properties on the damage potential in full-scale wind turbine foundations. However, a prediction of the damage potential at laboratory scale shows significant differences in early age stresses in comparison to the full-scale model depending on the spatial position in the foundation. In addition to the well-known size effect phenomenon, these differences may contribute to inaccuracies encountered when predicting ultimate deformations of the on-site foundation using laboratory scale models.

Keywords: Wind turbines, Reinforced Concrete, Cement Hydration, shrinkage, early age behavior, THMC 3D models

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