Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Wind Tunnel Related Abstracts

25 Designing a Low Speed Wind Tunnel for Investigating Effects of Blockage Ratio on Heat Transfer of a Non-Circular Tube

Authors: Arash Mirabdolah Lavasani, Taher Maarefdoost


Effect of blockage ratio on heat transfer from non-circular tube is studied experimentally. For doing this experiment a suction type low speed wind tunnel with test section dimension of 14×14×40 and velocity in rage of 7-20 m/s was designed. The blockage ratios varied between 1.5 to 7 and Reynolds number based on equivalent diameter varies in range of 7.5×103 to 17.5×103. The results show that by increasing blockage ratio from 1.5 to 7, drag coefficient of the cam shaped tube decreased about 55 percent. By increasing Reynolds number, Nusselt number of the cam shaped tube increases about 40 to 48 percent in all ranges of blockage ratios.

Keywords: Wind Tunnel, cross-flow, non-circular tube, blockage ratio, experimental heat transfer

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24 Aerodynamic Analysis of Vehicles in the Wind Tunnel and Water Tunnel

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale


The simulation in wind tunnel is used thoroughly to model real situations of drainages of air. Besides the automotive industry, a great number of applications can be numbered: dispersion of pollutant, studies of pedestrians comfort and dispersion of particles. This work had the objective of visualizing the characteristics aerodynamics of two automobiles in different ways. To accomplish that drainage of air a fan that generated a speed exists (measured with anemometer of hot thread) of 4,1m/s and 4,95m/s. To visualize the path of the air through the cars, in the wind tunnel, smoke was used, obtained with it burns of vegetable oil. For “to do smoke” vegetable oil was used, that was burned for a tension of 20 V generated by a thread of 2,5 mm. The cars were placed inside of the wind tunnel with the drainage of “air-smoke” and photographed, registering like this the path lines around them, in the 3 different speeds.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, Wind Tunnel, vehicle drag, vegetable oil

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23 Aerodynamic Analysis of Vehicles

Authors: V. A. C. Vale, E. T. L. Cöuras Ford, J. U. L. Mendes


Two of the objective principal in the study of the aerodynamics of vehicles are the safety and the acting. Those objectives can be reached through the development of devices modify the drainage of air about of the vehicle and also through alterations in the way of the external surfaces. The front lowest profile of the vehicle, for instance, has great influence on the coefficient of aerodynamic penetration (Cx) and later on great part of the pressure distribution along the surface of the vehicle. The objective of this work was of analyzing the aerodynamic behavior that it happens on some types the trucks of vehicles, based on experimentation in aerodynamic tunnel, seeking to determine the aerodynamic efficiency of each one of them.

Keywords: Safety, Vehicles, Aerodynamic, Wind Tunnel, Acting

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22 Construction of Wind Tunnel for Aerodynamic

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale, José Ubiragi de Lima Mendes


The study of the aerodynamics is related to the improvement in the acting of airplanes and automobiles with the objective of being reduced the effect of the attrition of the air on structures, providing larger speeds and smaller consumption of fuel. The application of the knowledge of the aerodynamics not more limits to the aeronautical and automobile industries. In that way, being tried the new demands with relationship to the aerodynamic study in the most several areas of the engineering, this work presents the stages of the project and construction of a wind tunnel for application in aerodynamic rehearsals. Among the several configurations of existent wind tunnels, opted to build open circuit, due to smaller construction complexity and installation; operational simplicity and cost reduced. Belonging to the type blower, to take advantage of a larger efficiency of the motor; and with diffusion so that flowed him of air it wins speed before reaching the section of rehearsals. The guidelines for project were: didactic practices: study of the layer it limits and analyze of the drainages on proof bodies with different geometries. For the pressure variation in the test section a connected manometer used a pitot tube. Quantitative and qualitative results showed to be satisfactory.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, Air, Wind Tunnel, Airplane

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21 Experimental Study of Flag Flutter in Uniform Flow

Authors: M. Sedghi, A. Sadeghi, M. R. Emami Azadi, R. Gharraei Khosroshahi


Flags are objects with very low bending stiffness and under wind forces start to vibrate and finally to flutter. Even in lower velocities of wind their flutter can be seen. In this research physical property of fabric is determined by performing tensile tests. Then with performing laboratory experiments in wind tunnel, determination of initial flapping speed and also study of displacement amplitude at leech and calculation of their frequency would be targeted. Laboratory tests are performed in a wind tunnel and with different velocities of wind flow for specimens with different dimensions. The results show that extension of specimens' width increase flutter initiation velocity and increase of specimen length decreases it. Also by increasing wind velocity displacement amplitude at leech of specimens are decreased. This displacement has a straight relation with specimens' length and width.

Keywords: Wind Tunnel, flutter, Wind Velocity, flag, flutter amplitudes

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20 Measurement of Turbulence with PITOT Static Tube in Low Speed Subsonic Wind Tunnel

Authors: Gopikrishnan, Bharathiraja, Boopalan, Jensin Joshua


The Pitot static tube has proven their values and practicability in measuring velocity of fluids for many years. With the aim of extensive usage of such Pitot tube systems, one of the major enabling technologies is to use the design and fabricate a high sensitive pitot tube for the purpose of calibration of the subsonic wind tunnel. Calibration of wind tunnel is carried out by using different instruments to measure variety of parameters. Using too many instruments inside the tunnel may not only affect the fluid flow but also lead to drag or losses. So, it is essential to replace the different system with a single system that would give all the required information. This model of high sensitive Pitot tube has been designed to ease the calibration process. It minimizes the use of different instruments and this single system is capable of calibrating the wind tunnel test section. This Pitot static tube is completely digitalized and so that the velocity data`s can be collected directly from the instrument. Since the turbulence factors are dependent on velocity, the data’s that are collected from the pitot static tube are then processed and the level of turbulence in the fluid flow is calculated. It is also capable of measuring the pressure distribution inside the wind tunnel and the flow angularity of the fluid. Thus, the well-designed high sensitive Pitot static tube is utilized in calibrating the tunnel and also for the measurement of turbulence.

Keywords: Turbulence, Wind Tunnel, velocity, pitot static tube

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19 Prediction of Flow Around a NACA 0015 Profile

Authors: Boukhadia Karima


The fluid mechanics is the study of fluid motion laws and their interaction with solid bodies, this project leads to illustrate this interaction with depth studies and approved by experiments on the wind tunnel TE44, ensuring the efficiency, accuracy and reliability of these tests on a NACA0015 profile. A symmetric NACA0015 was placed in a subsonic wind tunnel, and measurements were made of the pressure on the upper and lower surface of the wing and of the velocity across the vortex trailing downstream from the tip of the wing. The aim of this work is to investigate experimentally the scattered pressure profile in a free airflow and the aerodynamic forces acting on this profile. The addition of around-lateral edge to the wing tip was found to eliminate the secondary vortex near the wing tip, but had little effect on the downstream characteristics of the trailing vortex. The increase in wing lift near the tip because of the presence of the trailing vortex was evident in the surface pressure, but was not captured by circulation-box measurements. The circumferential velocity within the vortex was found to reach free-stream values and produce core rotational speeds. Near the wing, the trailing vortex is asymmetric and contains definite zones where the stream wise velocity both exceeds and falls behind the free-stream value. When referenced to the free stream velocity, the maximum vertical velocity of the vortex is directly dependent on α and is independent of Re. A numerical study was conducted through a CFD code called FLUENT 6.0, and the results are compared with experimental.

Keywords: Wind Tunnel, CFD code, NACA Profile, detachment, angle of incidence

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18 Risk of Plastic Shrinkage Cracking in Recycled Aggregate Concrete

Authors: M. Oliveira, M. Eckert


The intensive use of natural aggregates, near cities and towns, associated to the increase of the global population, leads to its depletion and increases the transport distances. The uncontrolled deposition of construction and demolition waste in landfills and city outskirts, causes pollution and takes up space. The use of recycled aggregates in concrete preparation would contribute to mitigate the problem. However, it arises the problem that the high water absorption of recycled aggregate decreases the bleeding rate of concrete, and when this gets lower than the evaporation rate, plastic shrinkage cracking occurs. This phenomenon can be particularly problematic in hot and windy curing environments. Cracking facilitates the flow of liquid and gas into concrete which attacks the reinforcement and degrades the concrete. These factors reduce the durability of concrete structures and consequently the lifetime of buildings. A ring test was used, cured in a wind tunnel, to evaluate the plastic shrinkage cracking sensitivity of recycled aggregate concrete, in order to implement preventive means to control this phenomenon. The role of several aggregate properties on the concrete segregation and cracking mechanisms were also discussed.

Keywords: Durability, Wind Tunnel, recycled aggregate, plastic shrinkage cracking

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17 Experimental Investigation of Boundary Layer Transition on Rotating Cones in Axial Flow in 0 and 35 Degrees Angle of Attack

Authors: Ali Kargar, Kamyar Mansour


In this paper, experimental results of using hot wire anemometer and smoke visualization are presented. The results obtained on the hot wire anemometer for critical Reynolds number and transitional Reynolds number are compared by previous results. Excellent agreement is found for the transitional Reynolds number. The results for the transitional Reynolds number are also compared by previous linear stability results. The results of the smoke visualization clearly show the cross flow vortices which arise in the transition process from a laminar to a turbulent flow. A non-zero angle of attack is also considered. We compare our results by linear stability theory which was done by Garret et. Al (2007). We just emphasis, Also the visualization and hot wire anemometer results have been compared graphically. The goal in this paper is to check reliability of using hot wire anemometer and smoke visualization in transition problems and check reliability of linear stability theory for this case and compare our results with some trusty experimental works.

Keywords: Wind Tunnel, transitional reynolds number, rotating cone, smoke visualization

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
16 Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Cantilever Rectangular Plate Structure on Subsonic Flutter

Authors: Mevlüt Burak Dalmış, Kemal Yaman


In this study, flutter characteristics of cantilever rectangular plate structure under incompressible flow regime are investigated by comparing the results of commercial flutter analysis program ZAERO© with wind tunnel tests conducted in Ankara Wind Tunnel (ART). A rectangular polycarbonate (PC) plate, 5x125x1000 mm in dimensions, is used for both numerical and experimental investigations. Analysis and test results are very compatible with each other. A comparison between two different solution methods (g and k-method) of ZAERO© is also done. It is seen that, k-method gives closer result than the other one. However, g-method results are on conservative side and it is better to use conservative results namely g-method results. Even if the modal analysis results are used for the flutter analysis for this simple structure, a modal test should be conducted in order to validate the modal analysis results to have accurate flutter analysis results for more complicated structures.

Keywords: Wind Tunnel, flutter, Subsonic Flow, Plate

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15 Experimental Investigation of Boundary Layer Instability and Transition on a Rotating Parabola in Axial Flow

Authors: Ali Kargar, Kamyar Mansour


In this paper the boundary layer instability and transition on a rotating parabola which is sheathed shape on a rotating 30 degrees total apex angle cone have been study by smoke visualization. The rotating cone especially 30 degrees total apex angle is a well-established subject in some previous novel works and also in our previous works. But in this paper a stabilizing effect is detected by the bluntness of nose and also surface curvature. A parabola model which is satisfying those conditions (sheathed parabola of the 30 degrees cone) has been built and studied in the wind tunnel. The results are shown that the boundary layer transition occurs at higher rotational Reynolds number in comparison by the cone. The results are shown in the visualization pictures and also are compared graphically.

Keywords: Wind Tunnel, transitional reynolds number, smoke visualization, rotating parabola

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14 An Analytical Study of Small Unmanned Arial Vehicle Dynamic Stability Characteristics

Authors: Abdelhakam A. Noreldien, Sakhr B. Abudarag, Muslim S. Eltoum, Salih O. Osman


This paper presents an analytical study of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV) dynamic stability derivatives. Simulating SUAV dynamics and analyzing its behavior at the earliest design stages is too important and more efficient design aspect. The approach suggested in this paper is using the wind tunnel experiment to collect the aerodynamic data and get the dynamic stability derivatives. AutoCAD Software was used to draw the case study (wildlife surveillance SUAV). The SUAV is scaled down to be 0.25% of the real SUAV dimensions and converted to a wind tunnel model. The model was tested in three different speeds for three different attitudes which are; pitch, roll and yaw. The wind tunnel results were then used to determine the case study stability derivative values, and hence it used to calculate the roots of the characteristic equation for both longitudinal and lateral motions. Finally, the characteristic equation roots were found and discussed in all possible cases.

Keywords: Wind Tunnel, model, simulating, SUAV

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13 Development of a Self-Retractable Front Spoilers Suitable for Indian Road Conditions to Reduce Aerodynamic Drag

Authors: G. Sivaraj, K. M. Parammasivam, R. Veeramanikandan, S. Nithish


Reduction of ground clearance or (ride height) is a vital factor in minimizing aerodynamic drag force and improving vehicle performance. But in India, minimization of ground clearance is limited because of the road conditions. Due to this problem, reduction of aerodynamic drag and performance are not fully improved. In this view, this paper deals with the development of self-retractable front spoilers which are most suitable for Indian road conditions. These retractable spoilers are fitted in the front portion of the car and in speed below 60 km/hr these spoilers are in retracted positions. But, when the car crosses a speed above 60 km/hr, using electronic circuit the spoilers are activated. Thus, using this technique aerodynamic performance can be improved at a speed above 60 km/hr. Also, when the car speed is reduced below the 60 km/hr mark, the front spoiler are retracted which makes it as a normal car. This is because, in Indian roads, speed breakers are installed to cut off speed at particular places. Thus, in these circumstances there are chances of damaging front spoilers. Since, when the driver sees the speed breaker, he will automatically apply break to prevent damage, at this time using electronic circuit the front spoiler is retracted. However, accidentally when the driver fails to apply brakes there are chances for the front spoilers to get a hit. But as the front spoilers are made of Kevlar composite, it can withstand high impact loads and using a spring mechanism the spoilers are retracted immediately. By using CFD analysis and low-speed wind tunnel testing drag coefficient of the 1:10 scaled car model with and without self-retractable spoilers are calculated and validated. Also, using wind tunnel, proper working of self-retractable at car speed below and above 60 km/hr are validated.

Keywords: Wind Tunnel, CFD analysis, aerodynamic drag, kevlar composite, self-retractable spoilers

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12 The Characteristics of the Operating Parameters of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine for the Selected Wind Speed

Authors: Zdzislaw Kaminski, Zbigniew Czyz


The paper discusses the results of the research into a wind turbine with a vertical axis of rotation which was performed with the open return wind tunnel, Gunt HM 170, at the laboratory of the Department of Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics and Propulsion Aviation Systems of Lublin University of Technology. Wind tunnel experiments are a necessary step to construct any new type of wind turbine, to validate design assumptions and numerical results. This research focused on the rotor with the blades capable of modifying their working surfaces, i.e. absorbing wind kinetic energy. The operation of this rotor is based on adjusting angular aperture α of the top and bottom parts of the blades mounted on an axis. If this angle α increases, the working surface which absorbs wind kinetic energy also increases. The study was performed on scaled and geometrically similar models with the criteria of similarity relevant for the type of research preserved. The rotors with varied angular apertures of their blades were printed for the research with a powder 3D printer, ZPrinter® 450. This paper presents the research results for the selected flow speed of 6.5 m/s for the three angular apertures of the rotor blades, i.e. 30°, 60°, 90° at varied speeds. The test stand enables the turbine rotor to be braked to achieve the required speed and airflow speed and torque to be recorded. Accordingly, the torque and power as a function of airflow were plotted. The rotor with its adjustable blades enables turbine power to be adjusted within a wide range of wind speeds. A variable angular aperture of blade working surfaces α in a wind turbine enables us to control the speed of the turbine and consequently its output power. Reducing the angular aperture of working surfaces results in reduced speed, and if a special current generator applied, electrical output power is reduced, too. Speed adjusted by changing angle α enables the maximum load acting on rotor blades to be controlled. The solution under study is a kind of safety against a damage of a turbine due to possible high wind speed.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Power, Wind Tunnel, Wind turbine, drive torque

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11 Aerodynamics and Aeroelastics Studies of Hanger Bridge with H-Beam Profile Using Wind Tunnel

Authors: Matza Gusto Andika, Malinda Sabrina, Syarie Fatunnisa


Aerodynamic and aeroelastics studies on the hanger bridge profile are important to analyze the aerodynamic phenomenon and Aeroelastics stability of hanger. Wind tunnel tests were conducted on a model of H-beam profile from hanger bridge. The purpose of this study is to investigate steady aerodynamic characteristics such as lift coefficient (Cl), drag coefficient (Cd), and moment coefficient (Cm) under the different angle of attack for preliminary prediction of aeroelastics stability problems. After investigation the steady aerodynamics characteristics from the model, dynamic testing is also conducted in wind tunnel to know the aeroelastics phenomenon which occurs at the H-beam hanger bridge profile. The studies show that the torsional vortex induced vibration occur when the wind speed is 7.32 m/s until 9.19 m/s with maximum amplitude occur when the wind speed is 8.41 m/s. The result of wind tunnel testing is matching to hanger vibration where occur in the field, so wind tunnel studies has successful to model the problem. In order that the H-beam profile is not good enough for the hanger bridge and need to be modified to minimize the Aeroelastics problem. The modification can be done with structure dynamics modification or aerodynamics modification.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, Wind Tunnel, vortex induced vibration, aeroelastic, hanger bridge, h-beam profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
10 Affordable Aerodynamic Balance for Instrumentation in a Wind Tunnel Using Arduino

Authors: Pedro Ferreira, Alexandre Frugoli, Pedro Frugoli, Lucio Leonardo, Thais Cavalheri


The teaching of fluid mechanics in engineering courses is, in general, a source of great difficulties for learning. The possibility of the use of experiments with didactic wind tunnels can facilitate the education of future professionals. The objective of this proposal is the development of a low-cost aerodynamic balance to be used in a didactic wind tunnel. The set is comprised of an Arduino microcontroller, programmed by an open source software, linked to load cells built by students from another project. The didactic wind tunnel is 5,0m long and the test area is 90,0 cm x 90,0 cm x 150,0 cm. The Weq® electric motor, model W-22 of 9,2 HP, moves a fan with nine blades, each blade 32,0 cm long. The Weq® frequency inverter, model WEGCFW 08 (Vector Inverter) is responsible for wind speed control and also for the motor inversion of the rotational direction. A flat-convex profile prototype of airfoil was tested by measuring the drag and lift forces for certain attack angles; the air flux conditions remained constant, monitored by a Pitot tube connected to a EXTECH® Instruments digital pressure differential manometer Model HD755. The results indicate a good agreement with the theory. The choice of all of the components of this proposal resulted in a low-cost product providing a high level of specific knowledge of mechanics of fluids, which may be a good alternative to teaching in countries with scarce educational resources. The system also allows the expansion to measure other parameters like fluid velocity, temperature, pressure as well as the possibility of automation of other functions.

Keywords: Wind Tunnel, Arduino, strain gauge, aerodynamic balance, load cell, low-cost education

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9 Estimation of Pressure Profile and Boundary Layer Characteristics over NACA 4412 Airfoil

Authors: Erwin Sulaeman, Waqar Asrar, Anwar Ul Haque, Jaffar S. M. Ali


Pressure distribution data of the standard airfoils is usually used for the calibration purposes in subsonic wind tunnels. Results of such experiments are quite old and obtained by using the model in the spanwise direction. In this manuscript, pressure distribution over NACA 4412 airfoil model was presented by placing the 3D model in the lateral direction. The model is made of metal with pressure ports distributed longitudinally as well as in the lateral direction. The pressure model was attached to the floor of the tunnel with the help of the base plate to give the specified angle of attack to the model. Before the start of the experiments, the pressure tubes of the respective ports of the 128 ports pressure scanner are checked for leakage, and the losses due to the length of the pipes were also incorporated in the results for the specified pressure range. Growth rate maps of the boundary layer thickness were also plotted. It was found that with the increase in the velocity, the dynamic pressure distribution was also increased for the alpha seep. Plots of pressure distribution so obtained were overlapped with those obtained by using XFLR software, a low fidelity tool. It was found that at moderate and high angles of attack, the distribution of the pressure coefficients obtained from the experiments is high when compared with the XFLR ® results obtained along with the span of the wing. This under-prediction by XFLR ® is more obvious on the windward than on the leeward side.

Keywords: Wind Tunnel, Subsonic Flow, boundary layer, pressure testing

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8 An Experimental (Wind Tunnel) and Numerical (CFD) Study on the Flow over Hills

Authors: Tanit Daniel Jodar Vecina, Adriane Prisco Petry


The shape of the wind velocity profile changes according to local features of terrain shape and roughness, which are parameters responsible for defining the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) profile. Air flow characteristics over and around landforms, such as hills, are of considerable importance for applications related to Wind Farm and Turbine Engineering. The air flow is accelerated on top of hills, which can represent a decisive factor for Wind Turbine placement choices. The present work focuses on the study of ABL behavior as a function of slope and surface roughness of hill-shaped landforms, using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to build wind velocity and turbulent intensity profiles. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are closed using the SST k-ω turbulence model; numerical results are compared to experimental data measured in wind tunnel over scale models of the hills under consideration. Eight hill models with slopes varying from 25° to 68° were tested for two types of terrain categories in 2D and 3D, and two analytical codes are used to represent the inlet velocity profiles. Numerical results for the velocity profiles show differences under 4% when compared to their respective experimental data. Turbulent intensity profiles show maximum differences around 7% when compared to experimental data; this can be explained by not being possible to insert inlet turbulent intensity profiles in the simulations. Alternatively, constant values based on the averages of the turbulent intensity at the wind tunnel inlet were used.

Keywords: numerical modeling, Wind Tunnel, Atmospheric Boundary Layer, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD)

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7 Optimization of the Aerodynamic Performances of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Fares Senouci, Bachir Imine


This document provides numerical and experimental optimization of the aerodynamic performance of a drone equipped with three types of horizontal stabilizer. To build this optimal configuration, an experimental and numerical study was conducted on three parameters: the geometry of the stabilizer (horizontal form or reverse V form), the position of the horizontal stabilizer (up or down), and the landing gear position (closed or open). The results show that up-stabilizer position with respect to the horizontal plane of the fuselage provides better aerodynamic performance, and that the landing gear increases the lift in the zone of stability, that is to say where the flow is not separated.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, Wind Tunnel, turbulence model, lift, drag

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6 Investigation of Vortex Induced Vibration and Galloping Characteristic for Various Shape Slender Bridge Hanger

Authors: Matza Gusto Andika, Syariefatunnisa


Hanger at the arch bridges is an important part to transfer load on the bridge deck onto the arch. Bridges are subjected to several types of loadings, such as dead load, temperature load, wind load, moving loads etc. Usually the hanger bridge has a typical bluff body shape such as circle, square, H beam, etc. When flow past bluff body, the flow separates from the body surface generating an unsteady broad wake. These vortices are shed to the wake periodically with some frequency that is related to the undisturbed wind speed and the size of the cross-section body by the well-known Strouhal relationship. The dynamic characteristic and hanger shape are crucial for the evaluation of vortex induced vibrations and structural vibrations. The effect of vortex induced vibration is not catastrophic as a flutter phenomenon, but it can make fatigue failure to the structure. Wind tunnel tests are conducted to investigate the VIV and galloping effect at circle, hexagonal, and H beam bluff body for hanger bridge. From this research, the hanger bridge with hexagonal shape has a minimum vibration amplitude due to VIV phenomenon compared to circle and H beam. However, when the wind bruises the acute angle of hexagon shape, the vibration amplitude of bridge hanger with hexagonal shape is higher than the other bluff body.

Keywords: Wind Tunnel, vortex induced vibration, hanger bridge, galloping

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5 Aerodynamic Study of an Open Window Moving Bus with Passengers

Authors: Bhanu Gupta, Pawan Kumar Pant, S. R. Kale, S. V. Veeravalli


In many countries, buses are the principal means of transport, of which a majority are naturally ventilated with open windows. The design of this ventilation has little scientific basis and to address this problem a study has been undertaken involving both experiments and numerical simulations. The flow pattern inside and around of an open window bus with passengers has been investigated in detail. A full scale three-dimensional numerical simulation has been used for a) a bus with closed windows and b) with open windows. In either simulation, the bus had 58 seated passengers. The bus dimensions used were 2500 mm wide × 2500 mm high (exterior) × 10500 mm long and its speed was set at 40 km/h. In both cases, the flow separates at the top front edge forming a vortex and reattaches close to the mid-length. This attached flow separates once more as it leaves the bus. However, the strength and shape of the vortices at the top front and wake region is different for both cases. The streamline pattern around the bus is also different for the two cases. For the bus with open windows, the dominant airflow inside the bus is from the rear to the front of the bus and air velocity at the face level of the passengers was found to be 1/10th of the free stream velocity. These findings are in good agreement with flow visualization experiments performed in a water channel at 10 m/s, and with smoke/tuft visualizations in a wind tunnel with a free-stream velocity of approximately 40 km/h on a 1:25 scaled Perspex model.

Keywords: Wind Tunnel, vortex, Air Flow, moving bus, open windows

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4 Plasma Actuator Application to Control Surfaces of a Model Aircraft

Authors: Etsuo Morishita, Yuta Moriyama


Plasma actuator is very effective to recover stall flows over an upper airfoil surface. We first manufacture the actuator, test the stability of the device by trial and error basis and find the conditions for steady operations. We visualize the flow around an airfoil in the smoke tunnel and observe the stall recovery. The plasma actuator is stationary device and has no moving parts, and it might be an ideal device to control a model aircraft. We can use the actuator not only as a stall recovery device but also as a spoiler. We put the actuator near the leading edge of an elevator of a model aircraft as a spoiler, and measure the aerodynamic forces by a three-component balance. We observe the effect of the plasma actuator on the aerodynamic forces and the device effectiveness changes depending on the angle of attack whether it is positive or negative. We also visualize the flow caused by the plasma actuator by a desk-top Schlieren photography which is otherwise very difficult in a low-speed wind tunnel experiment.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, Wind Tunnel, model aircraft, plasma actuator

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3 Implementation of a Low-Cost Instrumentation for an Open Cycle Wind Tunnel to Evaluate Pressure Coefficient

Authors: Cristian P. Topa, Esteban A. Valencia, Victor H. Hidalgo, Marco A. Martinez


Wind tunnel experiments for aerodynamic profiles display numerous advantages, such as: clean steady laminar flow, controlled environmental conditions, streamlines visualization, and real data acquisition. However, the experiment instrumentation usually is expensive, and hence, each test implies a incremented in design cost. The aim of this work is to select and implement a low-cost static pressure data acquisition system for a NACA 2412 airfoil in an open cycle wind tunnel. This work compares wind tunnel experiment with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation and parametric analysis. The experiment was evaluated at Reynolds of 1.65 e5, with increasing angles from -5° to 15°. The comparison between the approaches show good enough accuracy, between the experiment and CFD, additional parametric analysis results differ widely from the other methods, which complies with the lack of accuracy of the lateral approach due its simplicity.

Keywords: Wind Tunnel, CFD simulation, experimental testing, low cost instrumentation

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2 An Experimental Study of Downstream Structures on the Flow-Induced Vibrations Energy Harvester Performances

Authors: Pakorn Uttayopas, Chawalit Kittichaikarn


This paper presents an experimental investigation for the characteristics of an energy harvesting device exploiting flow-induced vibration in a wind tunnel. A stationary bluff body is connected with a downstream tip body via an aluminium cantilever beam. Various lengths of aluminium cantilever beam and different shapes of downstream tip body are considered. The results show that the characteristics of the energy harvester’s vibration depend on both the length of the aluminium cantilever beam and the shape of the downstream tip body. The highest ratio between vibration amplitude and bluff body diameter was found to be 1.39 for an energy harvester with a symmetrical triangular tip body and L/D1 = 5 at 9.8 m/s of flow speed (Re = 20077). Using this configuration, the electrical energy was extracted with a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric beam with different load resistances, of which the optimal value could be found on each Reynolds number. The highest power output was found to be 3.19 µW, at 9.8 m/s of flow speed (Re = 20077) and 27 MΩ of load resistance.

Keywords: Energy harvesting, Wind Tunnel, Flow-induced Vibration, piezoelectric material, downstream structures

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1 Numerical and Experimental Comparison of Surface Pressures around a Scaled Ship Wind-Assisted Propulsion System

Authors: James Cairns, Marco Vezza, Richard Green, Donald MacVicar


Significant legislative changes are set to revolutionise the commercial shipping industry. Upcoming emissions restrictions will force operators to look at technologies that can improve the efficiency of their vessels -reducing fuel consumption and emissions. A device which may help in this challenge is the Ship Wind-Assisted Propulsion system (SWAP), an actively controlled aerofoil mounted vertically on the deck of a ship. The device functions in a similar manner to a sail on a yacht, whereby the aerodynamic forces generated by the sail reach an equilibrium with the hydrodynamic forces on the hull and a forward velocity results. Numerical and experimental testing of the SWAP device is presented in this study. Circulation control takes the form of a co-flow jet aerofoil, utilising both blowing from the leading edge and suction from the trailing edge. A jet at the leading edge uses the Coanda effect to energise the boundary layer in order to delay flow separation and create high lift with low drag. The SWAP concept has been originated by the research and development team at SMAR Azure Ltd. The device will be retrofitted to existing ships so that a component of the aerodynamic forces acts forward and partially reduces the reliance on existing propulsion systems. Wind tunnel tests have been carried out at the de Havilland wind tunnel at the University of Glasgow on a 1:20 scale model of this system. The tests aim to understand the airflow characteristics around the aerofoil and investigate the approximate lift and drag coefficients that an early iteration of the SWAP device may produce. The data exhibits clear trends of increasing lift as injection momentum increases, with critical flow attachment points being identified at specific combinations of jet momentum coefficient, Cµ, and angle of attack, AOA. Various combinations of flow conditions were tested, with the jet momentum coefficient ranging from 0 to 0.7 and the AOA ranging from 0° to 35°. The Reynolds number across the tested conditions ranged from 80,000 to 240,000. Comparisons between 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and the experimental data are presented for multiple Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models in the form of normalised surface pressure comparisons. These show good agreement for most of the tested cases. However, certain simulation conditions exhibited a well-documented shortcoming of RANS-based turbulence models for circulation control flows and over-predicted surface pressures and lift coefficient for fully attached flow cases. Work must be continued in finding an all-encompassing modelling approach which predicts surface pressures well for all combinations of jet injection momentum and AOA.

Keywords: CFD, Wind Tunnel, circulation control, Coanda, turbo wing sail

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