Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Wind Related Abstracts

13 Wind Interference Effect on Tall Building

Authors: Atul K. Desai, Jigar K. Sevalia, Sandip A. Vasanwala

Abstract:

When a building is located in an urban area, it is exposed to a wind of different characteristics then wind over an open terrain. This is development of turbulent wake region behind an upstream building. The interaction with upstream building can produce significant changes in the response of the tall building. Here, in this paper, an attempt has been made to study wind induced interference effects on tall building. In order to study wind induced interference effect (IF) on Tall Building, initially a tall building (which is termed as Principal Building now on wards) with square plan shape has been considered with different Height to Width Ratio and total drag force is obtained considering different terrain conditions as well as different incident wind direction. Then total drag force on Principal Building is obtained by considering adjacent building which is termed as Interfering Building now on wards with different terrain conditions and incident wind angle. To execute study, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Code namely Fluent and Gambit have been used.

Keywords: Wind, Computational Fluid Dynamics, tall building, turbulent, wake region

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12 Biomass Energy: "The Boon for the Would"

Authors: Shubham Giri Goswami, Yogesh Tiwari

Abstract:

In today’s developing world, India and other countries are developing different instruments and accessories for the better standard and life to be happy and prosper. But rather than this we human-beings have been using different energy sources accordingly, many persons such as scientist, researchers etc have developed many Energy sources like renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Like fossil fuel, coal, gas, petroleum products as non-renewable sources, and solar, wind energy as renewable energy source. Thus all non-renewable energy sources, these all Created pollution as in form of air, water etc. due to ultimate use of these sources by human the future became uncertain. Thus to minimize all this environmental affects and destroy the healthy environment we discovered a solution as renewable energy source. Renewable energy source in form of biomass energy, solar, wind etc. We found different techniques in biomass energy, that good energy source for people. The domestic waste, and is a good source of energy as daily extract from cow in form of dung and many other domestic products naturally can be used eco-friendly fertilizers. Moreover, as from my point of view the cow is able to extract 08-12 kg of dung which can be used to make wormy compost fertilizers. Furthermore, the calf urine as insecticides and use of such a compounds will lead to destroy insects and thus decrease communicable diseases. Therefore, can be used by every person and biomass energy can be in those areas such as rural areas where non-renewable energy sources cannot reach easily. Biomass can be used to develop fertilizers, cow-dung plants and other power generation techniques, and this energy is clean and pollution free and is available everywhere thus saves our beautiful planet or blue or life giving planet called as “EARTH”. We can use the biomass energy, which may be boon for the world in future.

Keywords: Human, Wind, Energy, Solar energy, biomass, renewable, Environment, Pollution, Sources

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11 Structural Performance of Mechanically Connected Stone Panels under Cyclic Loading: Application to Aesthetic and Environmental Building Skin Design

Authors: Michel Soto Chalhoub

Abstract:

Building designers in the Mediterranean region and other parts of the world utilize natural stone panels on the exterior façades as skin cover. This type of finishing is not only intended for aesthetic reasons but also environmental. The stone, since the earliest ages of civilization, has been used in construction and to-date some of the most appealing buildings owe their beauty to stone finishing. The stone also provides warmth in winter and freshness in summer as it moderates heat transfer and absorbs radiation. However, as structural codes became increasingly stringent about the dynamic performance of buildings, it became essential to study the performance of stone panels under cyclic loading – a condition that arises under the building is subjected to wind or earthquakes. The present paper studies the performance of stone panels using mechanical connectors when subjected to load reversal. In this paper, we present a theoretical model that addresses modes of failure in the steel connectors, by yield, and modes of failure in the stone, by fracture. Then we provide an experimental set-up and test results for rectangular stone panels of varying thickness. When the building is subjected to an earthquake, its rectangular panels within the structural system are subjected to shear deformations, which in turn impart stress into the stone cover. Rectangular stone panels, which typically range from 40cmx80cm to 60cmx120cm, need to be designed to withstand transverse loading from the direct application of lateral loads, and to withstand simultaneously in-plane loading (membrane stress) caused by inter-story drift and overall building lateral deflection. Results show correlation between the theoretical model which we derive from solid mechanics fundamentals and the experimental results, and lead to practical design recommendations. We find that for panel thickness below a certain threshold, it is more advantageous to utilize structural adhesive materials to connect stone panels to the main structural system of the building. For larger panel thicknesses, it is recommended to utilize mechanical connectors with special detailing to ensure a minimum level of ductility and energy dissipation.

Keywords: Wind, Solid Mechanics, Seismic, Building Skin, cyclic loading, mechanical connectors, natural stone

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10 Jet-Stream Airsail: Study of the Shape and the Behavior of the Connecting Cable

Authors: Christopher Frank, Yoshiki Miyairi

Abstract:

A jet-stream airsail concept takes advantage of aerology in order to fly without propulsion. Weather phenomena, especially jet streams, are relatively permanent high winds blowing from west to east, located at average altitudes and latitudes in both hemispheres. To continuously extract energy from the jet-stream, the system is composed of a propelled plane and a wind turbine interconnected by a cable. This work presents the aerodynamic characteristics and the behavior of the cable that links the two subsystems and transmits energy from the turbine to the aircraft. Two ways of solving this problem are explored: numerically and analytically. After obtaining the optimal shape of the cross-section of the cable, its behavior is analyzed as a 2D problem solved numerically and analytically. Finally, a 3D extension could be considered by adding lateral forces. The results of this work can be further used in the design process of the overall system: aircraft-turbine.

Keywords: Wind, Aerodynamics, Aircraft, jet-stream, cable, tether, airsail

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9 Windcatcher as Sustainable Solution for Natural Ventilation in Hot Arid Regions: A Case Study of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Payam Nejat, Fatemeh Jomehzadeh, Muhamad Zaimi Abd. Majid, Mohd.Badruddin Yusof, Hasrul Haidar Ismail

Abstract:

Currently, building energy consumption has become an international issue especially in developing countries such as Saudi Arabia. In Saudi Arabia 14% of total final energy consumption is utilized in the building sector. Due to hot arid climate, 60% of total building energy consumption in this country is associated with cooling systems. In addition in 2011, this country was one of top ten CO2 emitting countries which illustrate the significance of renewable resources to sustaining the energy consumption. Wind as an important renewable energy can play a prominent role to supply natural ventilation inside the building and windcatcher as a traditional technique can be implemented for this purpose. In this paper the different types of windcatchers, its performance and function was reviewed. It can be concluded due high temperature and low humidity in most area of Saudi Arabia this technique can be successfully be employed and help to reduce fossil energy consumption and related CO2 emissions.

Keywords: Wind, natural ventilation, windcatcher, badgir

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8 Potentiality of the Wind Energy in Algeria

Authors: C. Benachaiba, C. Benoudjafer, M. N. Tandjaoui

Abstract:

The use of kinetic energy of the wind is in full rise in the world and it starts to be known in our country but timidly. One or more aero generators can be installed to produce for example electricity on isolated places or not connected to the electrical supply network. To use the wind as energy source, it is necessary to know first the energy needs for the population and study the wind intensity, speed, frequency and direction.

Keywords: Wind, wind power, renewable energies, Algeria, aero-generators, wind energetic potential

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7 Aeration of Fish Pond Aquaculture Using Wind Power

Authors: Fatima Hassan Mohamed Ahmed

Abstract:

This study discusses the possibility techniques of using wind energy to operate the aeration devices which are used in the intensive fish farm for Nile Tilapia. The main objective is to show at what expense this renewable energy source can increase the production. The study was done for the oxygen consumption by 1 kg fishes of tilapia put in 1 m3. The theoretical study shows that the fishes consume around 0.5 gO2/hour when using paddle wheels with average oxygen transfer rate 2.6 kgO2/kW.h comparing this with dissolved oxygen consumed by fishes it was found that 1 kW will aerate 5200 m3 and the same power will aerate 1800 m3 when using air diffuser system with average oxygen transfer rate 0.9 kgO2/kW.h, this power can be supplied by the wind turbine with dimension with a tower 6 m high and diameter 2.7 m.

Keywords: Wind, Power, aeration, fish pond

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6 Numerical Modelling of the Influence of Meteorological Forcing on Water-Level in the Head Bay of Bengal

Authors: Prasad K. Bhaskaran, Linta Rose

Abstract:

Water-level information along the coast is very important for disaster management, navigation, planning shoreline management, coastal engineering and protection works, port and harbour activities, and for a better understanding of near-shore ocean dynamics. The water-level variation along a coast attributes from various factors like astronomical tides, meteorological and hydrological forcing. The study area is the Head Bay of Bengal which is highly vulnerable to flooding events caused by monsoons, cyclones and sea-level rise. The study aims to explore the extent to which wind and surface pressure can influence water-level elevation, in view of the low-lying topography of the coastal zones in the region. The ADCIRC hydrodynamic model has been customized for the Head Bay of Bengal, discretized using flexible finite elements and validated against tide gauge observations. Monthly mean climatological wind and mean sea level pressure fields of ERA Interim reanalysis data was used as input forcing to simulate water-level variation in the Head Bay of Bengal, in addition to tidal forcing. The output water-level was compared against that produced using tidal forcing alone, so as to quantify the contribution of meteorological forcing to water-level. The average contribution of meteorological fields to water-level in January is 5.5% at a deep-water location and 13.3% at a coastal location. During the month of July, when the monsoon winds are strongest in this region, this increases to 10.7% and 43.1% respectively at the deep-water and coastal locations. The model output was tested by varying the input conditions of the meteorological fields in an attempt to quantify the relative significance of wind speed and wind direction on water-level. Under uniform wind conditions, the results showed a higher contribution of meteorological fields for south-west winds than north-east winds, when the wind speed was higher. A comparison of the spectral characteristics of output water-level with that generated due to tidal forcing alone showed additional modes with seasonal and annual signatures. Moreover, non-linear monthly mode was found to be weaker than during tidal simulation, all of which point out that meteorological fields do not cause much effect on the water-level at periods less than a day and that it induces non-linear interactions between existing modes of oscillations. The study signifies the role of meteorological forcing under fair weather conditions and points out that a combination of multiple forcing fields including tides, wind, atmospheric pressure, waves, precipitation and river discharge is essential for efficient and effective forecast modelling, especially during extreme weather events.

Keywords: Wind, head Bay of Bengal, ADCIRC, mean sea level pressure, meteorological forcing, water-level

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5 An Overview of the Wind and Wave Climate in the Romanian Nearshore

Authors: Liliana Rusu

Abstract:

The goal of the proposed work is to provide a more comprehensive picture of the wind and wave climate in the Romanian nearshore, using the results provided by numerical models. The Romanian coastal environment is located in the western side of the Black Sea, the more energetic part of the sea, an area with heavy maritime traffic and various offshore operations. Information about the wind and wave climate in the Romanian waters is mainly based on observations at Gloria drilling platform (70 km from the coast). As regards the waves, the measurements of the wave characteristics are not so accurate due to the method used, being also available for a limited period. For this reason, the wave simulations that cover large temporal and spatial scales represent an option to describe better the wave climate. To assess the wind climate in the target area spanning 1992–2016, data provided by the NCEP-CFSR (U.S. National Centers for Environmental Prediction - Climate Forecast System Reanalysis) and consisting in wind fields at 10m above the sea level are used. The high spatial and temporal resolution of the wind fields is good enough to represent the wind variability over the area. For the same 25-year period, as considered for the wind climate, this study characterizes the wave climate from a wave hindcast data set that uses NCEP-CFSR winds as input for a model system SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) based. The wave simulation results with a two-level modelling scale have been validated against both in situ measurements and remotely sensed data. The second level of the system, with a higher resolution in the geographical space (0.02°×0.02°), is focused on the Romanian coastal environment. The main wave parameters simulated at this level are used to analyse the wave climate. The spatial distributions of the wind speed, wind direction and the mean significant wave height have been computed as the average of the total data. As resulted from the amount of data, the target area presents a generally moderate wave climate that is affected by the storm events developed in the Black Sea basin. Both wind and wave climate presents high seasonal variability. All the results are computed as maps that help to find the more dangerous areas. A local analysis has been also employed in some key locations corresponding to highly sensitive areas, as for example the main Romanian harbors.

Keywords: Wind, waves, Numerical Simulations, Romanian nearshore

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4 Numerical Modelling of Wind Dispersal Seeds of Bromeliad Tillandsia recurvata L. (L.) Attached to Electric Power Lines

Authors: Bruna P. De Souza, Ricardo C. De Almeida

Abstract:

In some cities in the State of Parana – Brazil and in other countries atmospheric bromeliads (Tillandsia spp - Bromeliaceae) are considered weeds in trees, electric power lines, satellite dishes and other artificial supports. In this study, a numerical model was developed to simulate the seed dispersal of the Tillandsia recurvata species by wind with the objective of evaluating seeds displacement in the city of Ponta Grossa – PR, Brazil, since it is considered that the region is already infested. The model simulates the dispersal of each individual seed integrating parameters from the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and the local wind, simulated by the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale atmospheric model for the 2012 to 2015 period. The dispersal model also incorporates the approximate number of bromeliads and source height data collected from most infested electric power lines. The seeds terminal velocity, which is an important input data but was not available in the literature, was measured by an experiment with fifty-one seeds of Tillandsia recurvata. Wind is the main dispersal agent acting on plumed seeds whereas atmospheric turbulence is a determinant factor to transport the seeds to distances beyond 200 meters as well as to introduce random variability in the seed dispersal process. Such variability was added to the model through the application of an Inverse Fast Fourier Transform to wind velocity components energy spectra based on boundary-layer meteorology theory and estimated from micrometeorological parameters produced by the WRF model. Seasonal and annual wind means were obtained from the surface wind data simulated by WRF for Ponta Grossa. The mean wind direction is assumed to be the most probable direction of bromeliad seed trajectory. Moreover, the atmospheric turbulence effect and dispersal distances were analyzed in order to identify likely regions of infestation around Ponta Grossa urban area. It is important to mention that this model could be applied to any species and local as long as seed’s biological data and meteorological data for the region of interest are available.

Keywords: Wind, Seed dispersal, Atmospheric Turbulence, terminal velocity, numerical model, bromeliad

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3 Frequency Control of Self-Excited Induction Generator Based Microgrid during Transition from Grid Connected to Island Mode

Authors: Azhar Ulhaq, Zubair Yameen, Almas Anjum

Abstract:

Frequency behaviour of self-excited induction generator (SEIG) wind turbines during control mode transition from grid connected to islanded mode is studied in detail. A robust control scheme for frequency regulation based on combined action of STATCOM, energy storage system (ESS) and pitch angle control for wind powered microgrid (MG) is proposed. Suggested STATCOM controller comprises a 3-phase voltage source converter (VSC) that contains insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) based pulse width modulation (PWM) inverters along with a capacitor bank. Energy storage system control consists of current controlled voltage source converter and battery bank. Both of them acting simultaneously after detection of island compensates for reactive and active power demands, thus regulating frequency at point of common coupling (PCC) and also improves load stability. STATCOM integrates at point of common coupling and ESS is connected to microgrids main bus. Results reveal that proposed control not only stabilizes frequency during transition duration but also minimizes sudden frequency imbalance caused by load variation or wind intermittencies in islanded operation. System is investigated with and without suggested control scheme. The efficacy of proposed strategy has been verified by simulation in MATLAB/Simulink.

Keywords: Wind, Energy Storage System, STATCOM, transient, island, self-excited induction generator, SEIG

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2 Control of Grid Connected PMSG-Based Wind Turbine System with Back-To-Back Converter Topology Using Resonant Controller

Authors: Fekkak Bouazza, Loukriz Abdelhamid, Krim Mohamed L., Menaa Mohamed

Abstract:

This paper presents modeling and control strategy for the grid connected wind turbine system based on Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG). The considered system is based on back-to-back converter topology. The Grid Side Converter (GSC) achieves the DC bus voltage control and unity power factor. The Machine Side Converter (MSC) assures the PMSG speed control. The PMSG is used as a variable speed generator and connected directly to the turbine without gearbox. The pitch angle control is not either considered in this study. Further, Optimal Tip Speed Ratio (OTSR) based MPPT control strategy is used to ensure the most energy efficiency whatever the wind speed variations. A filter (L) is put between the GSC and the grid to reduce current ripple and to improve the injected power quality. The proposed grid connected wind system is built under MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed topology and performance of its control strategies.

Keywords: Wind, Grid, MPPT, PMSG, OTSR

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1 Analytical and Numerical Study of Formation of Sporadic E Layer with Taking into Account Horizontal and Vertical In-Homogeneity of the Horizontal Wind

Authors: Giorgi Dalakishvili, Goderdzi G. Didebulidze, Maya Todua

Abstract:

The possibility of sporadic E (Es) layer formation in the mid-latitude nighttime lower thermosphere by horizontal homogeneous and inhomogeneous (vertically and horizontally changing) winds is investigated in 3D by analytical and numerical solutions of continuity equation for dominant heavy metallic ions Fe+. The theory of influence of wind velocity direction, value, and its shear on formation of sporadic E is developed in case of presence the effect of horizontally changing wind (the effect of horizontal convergence). In this case, the horizontal wind with horizontal shear, characterized by compressibility and/or vortices, can provide an additional influence on heavy metallic ions Fe+ horizontal convergence and Es layers density, which can be formed by their vertical convergence caused as by wind direction and values and by its horizontal shear as well. The horizontal wind value and direction have significant influence on ion vertical drift velocity and its minimal negative values of divergence necessary for development of ion vertical convergence into sporadic E type layer. The horizontal wind horizontal shear, in addition to its vertical shear, also influences the ion drift velocity value and its vertical changes and correspondingly on formation of sporadic E layer and its density. The atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs), with relatively smaller horizontal wave length than planetary waves and tidal motion, can significantly influence location of ion vertical drift velocity nodes (where Es layers formation expectable) and its vertical and horizontal shear providing ion vertical convergence into thin layer. Horizontal shear can cause additional influence in the Es layers density than in the case of only wind value and vertical shear only. In this case, depending on wind direction and value in the height region of the lower thermosphere about 90-150 km occurs heavy metallic ions (Fe+) vertical convergence into thin sporadic E type layer. The horizontal wind horizontal shear also can influence on ions horizontal convergence and density and location Es layers. The AGWs modulate the horizontal wind direction and values and causes ion additional horizontal convergence, while the vertical changes (shear) causes additional vertical convergence than in the case without vertical shear. Influence of horizontal shear on sporadic E density and the importance of vertical compressibility of the lower thermosphere, which also can be influenced by AGWs, is demonstrated numerically. For the given wavelength and background wind, the predictability of formation Es layers and its possible location regions are shown. Acknowledgements: This study was funded by Georgian Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation Grant no. FR17-357.

Keywords: Wind, thermosphere, in-homogeneous, sporadic E

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