Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Wind Direction Related Abstracts

4 Wind Direction and Its Linkage with Vibrio cholerae Dissemination

Authors: Shlomit Paz, Meir Broza

Abstract:

Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It has a short incubation period and produces an enterotoxin that causes copious, painless, watery diarrhoea that can quickly lead to severe dehydration and death if treatment is not promptly given. In an epidemic, the source of the contamination is usually the feces of an infected person. The disease can spread rapidly in areas with poor treatment of sewage and drinking water. Cholera remains a global threat and is one of the key indicators of social development. An estimated 3-5 million cases and over 100,000 deaths occur each year around the world. The relevance of climatic events as causative factors for cholera epidemics is well known. However, the examination of the involvement of winds in intra-continental disease distribution is new. The study explore the hypothesis that the spreading of cholera epidemics may be related to the dominant wind direction over land by presenting the influence of the wind direction on windborn dissemination by flying insects, which may serve as vectors. Chironomids ("non-biting midges“) exist in the majority of freshwater aquatic habitats, especially in estuarine and organic-rich water bodies typical to Vibrio cholerae. Chironomid adults emerge into the air for mating and dispersion. They are highly mobile, huge in number and found frequently in the air at various elevations. The huge number of chironomid egg masses attached to hard substrate on the water surface, serve as a reservoir for the free-living Vibrio bacteria. Both male and female, while emerging from the water, may carry the cholera bacteria. In experimental simulation, it was demonstrated that the cholera-bearing adult midges are carried by the wind, and transmit the bacteria from one body of water to another. In our previous study, the geographic diffusions of three cholera outbreaks were examined through their linkage with the wind direction: a) the progress of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor in Africa during 1970–1971 and b) again in 2005–2006; and c) the rapid spread of Vibrio cholerae O139 over India during 1992–1993. Using data and map of cholera dissemination (WHO database) and mean monthly SLP and geopotential data (NOAA NCEP-NCAR database), analysis of air pressure data at sea level and at several altitudes over Africa, India and Bangladesh show a correspondence between the dominant wind direction and the intra-continental spread of cholera. The results support the hypothesis that aeroplankton (the tiny life forms that float in the air and that may be caught and carried upward by the wind, landing far from their origin) carry the cholera bacteria from one body of water to an adjacent one. In addition to these findings, the current follow-up study will present new results regarding the possible involvement of winds in the spreading of cholera in recent outbreaks (2010-2013). The findings may improve the understanding of how climatic factors are involved in the rapid distribution of new strains throughout a vast continental area. Awareness of the aerial transfer of Vibrio cholerae may assist health authorities by improving the prediction of the disease’s geographic dissemination.

Keywords: Cholera, Wind Direction, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio cholerae dissemination

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3 Simulation of Forest Fire Using Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Mohd Noah A. Rahman, Afzaal H. Seyal, Mohammad F. Fauzi, Nurul H. Shahba M. Shahrun, Nurul W. Hamzah

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a simulation system using Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) that will be distributed around the forest for early forest fire detection and to locate the areas affected. In Brunei Darussalam, approximately 78% of the nation is covered by forest. Since the forest is Brunei’s most precious natural assets, it is very important to protect and conserve our forest. The hot climate in Brunei Darussalam can lead to forest fires which can be a fatal threat to the preservation of our forest. The process consists of getting data from the sensors, analyzing the data and producing an alert. The key factors that we are going to analyze are the surrounding temperature, wind speed and wind direction, humidity of the air and soil.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, Wind Direction, humidity, forest fire monitor

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2 Effect of Elevation and Wind Direction on Silicon Solar Panel Efficiency

Authors: Abdulrahman M. Homadi

Abstract:

As a great source of renewable energy, solar energy is considered to be one of the most important in the world, since it will be one of solutions cover the energy shortage in the future. Photovoltaic (PV) is the most popular and widely used among solar energy technologies. However, PV efficiency is fairly low and remains somewhat expensive. High temperature has a negative effect on PV efficiency and cooling system for these panels is vital, especially in warm weather conditions. This paper presents the results of a simulation study carried out on silicon solar cells to assess the effects of elevation on enhancing the efficiency of solar panels. The study included four different terrains. The study also took into account the direction of the wind hitting the solar panels. To ensure the simulation mimics reality, six silicon solar panels are designed in two columns and three rows, facing to the south at an angle of 30 o. The elevations are assumed to change from 10 meters to 200 meters. The results show that maximum increase in efficiency occurs when the wind comes from the north, hitting the back of the panels.

Keywords: Efficiency, solar panels, Wind Direction, elevation

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1 Flow Characteristics around Rectangular Obstacles with the Varying Direction of Obstacles

Authors: Hee-Chang Lim

Abstract:

The study aims to understand the surface pressure distribution around the bodies such as the suction pressure in the leading edge on the top and side-face when the aspect ratio of bodies and the wind direction are changed, respectively. We carried out the wind tunnel measurement and numerical simulation around a series of rectangular bodies (40d×80w×80h, 80d×80w×80h, 160d×80w×80h, 80d×40w×80h and 80d×160w×80h in mm3) placed in a deep turbulent boundary layer. Based on a modern numerical platform, the Navier-Stokes equation with the typical 2-equation (k-ε model) and the DES (Detached Eddy Simulation) turbulence model has been calculated, and they are both compared with the measurement data. Regarding the turbulence model, the DES model makes a better prediction comparing with the k-ε model, especially when calculating the separated turbulent flow around a bluff body with sharp edged corner. In order to observe the effect of wind direction on the pressure variation around the cube (e.g., 80d×80w×80h in mm), it rotates at 0º, 10º, 20º, 30º, and 45º, which stands for the salient wind directions in the tunnel. The result shows that the surface pressure variation is highly dependent upon the approaching wind direction, especially on the top and the side-face of the cube. In addition, the transverse width has a substantial effect on the variation of surface pressure around the bodies, while the longitudinal length has little or no influence.

Keywords: CFD, Wind Direction, aspect ratio, k-ε model, rectangular bodies, surface pressure distribution, wind-tunnel measurement, DES model

Procedia PDF Downloads 105