Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

willingness to communicate Related Abstracts

4 The Relationship between EFL Learners' Self-Regulation and Willingness to Communicate

Authors: Mania Nosratinia, Zahra Deris


The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between EFL learners' self-regulation (SR) and willingness to communicate (WTC). To this end, 520 male and female EFL learners, ranging between 19 and 34 years old (Mage = 26), majoring in English Translation, English Language Teaching and English Literature at Islamic Azad University, Fars Province, were randomly selected. They were given two questionnaires: Self-Regulation Questionnaire devised by Brown, Miller, and Lawendowski (1999) and Willingness to Communicate Scale devised by McCroskey and Baer (1985). Preliminarily, pertinent analyses were performed on the data to check the assumptions of normality, linearity, and homoscedasticity. Since the assumption of normality was violated, Spearman's rank-order correlation was employed to probe the relationships between SR and WTC. The results indicated a significant and positive correlation between the two variables, ρ = .56, n = 520, p < .05, which signified a large effect size supplemented by a very small confidence interval (0.503 – 0.619). The results of the Kruskal-Wallis tests indicated that there is a statistically significant difference in WTC score between the different levels of SR, χ2(2) = 157.843, p = 0.000 with a mean rank SR score of 128.13 for low-SR level, 286.64 for mid-SR level, and 341.12 for high-SR level. Also, a post-hoc comparison through running a Dwass-Steel-Critchlow-Fligner indicated significant differences among the SR level groups on WTC scores. Given the findings of the study, the obtained results may help EFL teachers, teacher trainers, and material developers to possess a broader perspective towards the TEFL practice and to take practical steps towards the attainments of the desired objectives and effective instruction.

Keywords: Relationship, Self-regulation, EFL learner, willingness to communicate

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3 Comparing the Willingness to Communicate in a Foreign Language of Bilinguals and Monolinguals

Authors: S. Tarighat, F. Shateri


This study explored the relationship between L2 Willingness to Communicate (WTC) of bilinguals and monolinguals in a foreign language using a snowball sampling method to collect questionnaire data from 200 bilinguals and monolinguals studying a foreign language (FL). The results indicated a higher willingness to communicate in a foreign language (WTC-FL) performed by bilinguals compared to that of the monolinguals with a weak significance. Yet a stronger significance was found in the relationship between the age of onset of bilingualism and WTC-FL. The researcher proposed that L2 WTC is indirectly influenced by knowledge of other languages, which can boost L2 confidence and reduce L2 anxiety and consequently lead to higher L2 WTC when learning a different L2. The study also found the age of onset of bilingualism to be a predictor of L2 WTC when learning a FL. The results emphasize the importance of bilingualism and early bilingualism in particular.

Keywords: bilingualism, foreign language learning, willingness to communicate, L2 acquisition

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2 Digital Portfolio as Mediation to Enhance Willingness to Communicate in English

Authors: Saeko Toyoshima


This research will discuss if performance tasks with technology would enhance students' willingness to communicate. The present study investigated how Japanese learners of English would change their attitude to communication in their target language by experiencing a performance task, called 'digital portfolio', in the classroom, applying the concepts of action research. The study adapted questionnaires including four-Likert and open-end questions as mixed-methods research. There were 28 students in the class. Many of Japanese university students with low proficiency (A1 in Common European Framework of References in Language Learning and Teaching) have difficulty in communicating in English due to the low proficiency and the lack of practice in and outside of the classroom at secondary education. They should need to mediate between themselves in the world of L1 and L2 with completing a performance task for communication. This paper will introduce the practice of CALL class where A1 level students have made their 'digital portfolio' related to the topics of TED® (Technology, Entertainment, Design) Talk materials. The students had 'Portfolio Session' twice in one term, once in the middle, and once at the end of the course, where they introduced their portfolio to their classmates and international students in English. The present study asked the students to answer a questionnaire about willingness to communicate twice, once at the end of the first term and once at the end of the second term. The four-Likert questions were statistically analyzed with a t-test, and the answers to open-end questions were analyzed to clarify the difference between them. They showed that the students had a more positive attitude to communication in English and enhanced their willingness to communicate through the experiences of the task. It will be the implication of this paper that making and presenting portfolio as a performance task would lead them to construct themselves in English and enable them to communicate with the others enjoyably and autonomously.

Keywords: Computer-assisted language learning, action research, willingness to communicate, mixed methods research, digital portfoliio, ELT with CALL system, Japanese English learners

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1 Uncovering the Relationship between EFL Students' Self-Concept and Their Willingness to Communicate in Language Classes

Authors: Seyedeh Khadijeh Amirian, Seyed Mohammad Reza Amirian, Narges Hekmati


The current study aims at examining the relationship between English as a foreign language (EFL) students' self-concept and their willingness to communicate (WTC) in EFL classes. To this effect, two questionnaires, namely 'Willingness to Communicate' (MacIntyre et al., 2001) and 'Self-Concept Scale' (Liu and Wang, 2005), were distributed among 174 (45 males and 129 females) Iranian EFL university students. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between the two variables. The results indicated that there was a significantly positive correlation between EFL students' self-concept and their WTC in EFL classes (p < .0.05). Moreover, regression analyses indicated that self-concept has a significantly positive influence on students’ WTC in language classes (B= .302, p < .0.05) and explains .302 percent of the variance in the dependent variable (WTC). The results are discussed with regards to the individual differences in educational contexts, and implications are offered.

Keywords: self-concept, EFL students, willingness to communicate, language classes

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