Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Wildlife Related Abstracts

7 Best Practices for Healthy Estuaries

Authors: Pradip Peter Dey, Mohammad Amin, Hassan Badkoobehi, Milan Jose Carlos, Basmal Hana, Fadi Zaco

Abstract:

The economy of coastline areas depends on the natural splendor of estuaries. When estuaries are improperly managed or polluted, long or short term damage to local economy or harm to local life forms can be caused. Estuaries are shelters for thousands of species such as birds, mammals, fish, crustaceans, insects, reptiles, and amphibians. The delicate balance of these life forms in estuaries requires careful planning for the benefit of all. The commercial value of estuaries is very important; recreational activities that people enjoy like boating, kayaking, windsurfing, swimming, bird-watching and fishing are marketable. Estuaries are national treasures with vital community and ecological resources. Years of estuarine environmental studies have produced extensive results that merit consideration. This study reviews research results from various sources and suggests best strategies for maintaining healthy estuaries in the current socioeconomic conditions. The main hypothesis is that many estuaries can be restored to their original healthy status in a cost effective manner with restoration or prevention plans suggested in published studies.

Keywords: Wildlife, Sustainable, Environment, Pollution

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6 The Role of Institutions in Community Wildlife Conservation in Zimbabwe

Authors: Herbert Ntuli, Edwin Muchapondwa

Abstract:

This study used a sample of 336 households and community level data from 30 communities around the Gonarezhou National Park in Zimbabwe to analyse the association between ability to self-organize or cooperation and institutions on one hand and the relationship between success of biodiversity outcomes and cooperation on the other hand. Using both the ordinary least squares and instrumental variables estimation with heteroskedasticity-based instruments, our results confirmed that sound institutions are indeed an important ingredient for cooperation in the respective communities and cooperation positively and significantly affects biodiversity outcomes. Group size, community level trust, the number of stakeholders and punishment were found to be important variables explaining cooperation. From a policy perspective, our results show that external enforcement of rules and regulations does not necessarily translate into sound ecological outcomes but better outcomes are attainable when punishment is rather endogenized by local communities. This seems to suggest that communities should rather be supported in such a way that robust institutions that are tailor made to suit the needs of local condition will emerge that will in turn facilitate good environmental husbandry. Cooperation, training, benefits, distance from the nearest urban canter, distance from the fence, social capital average age of household head, fence and information sharing were found to be very important variables explaining the success of biodiversity outcomes ceteris paribus. Government programmes should target capacity building in terms of institutional capacity and skills development in order to have a positive impact on biodiversity. Hence, the role of stakeholders (e.g., NGOs) in capacity building and government effort should complement each other to ensure that the necessary resources are mobilized and all communities receive the necessary training and resources.

Keywords: Wildlife, Conservation, Institutions, self-organize, common pool resources, Zimbabwe

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5 Time, Uncertainty, and Technological Innovation

Authors: Xavier Everaert

Abstract:

Ever since the publication of “The Problem of Social” cost, Coasean insights on externalities, transaction costs, and the reciprocal nature of harms, have been widely debated. What has been largely neglected however, is the role of technological innovation in the mitigation of negative externalities or transaction costs. Incorporating future uncertainty about negligence standards or expected restitution costs and the profit opportunities these uncertainties reveal to entrepreneurs, allow us to frame problems regarding social costs within the reality of rapid technological evolution.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Wildlife, Pollution, environmental law and economics, commons

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4 Strategies for a Sustainable Future of Forest and Tribal Peoples on This Planet

Authors: Dharmpal Singh

Abstract:

The objective of this proposed project is to relocation and resettlement of carnivores tribal communities who are currently residing in the protected forest land in all over the world just like resettlement project of the carnivores tribal families of Mongia who at past were residing in Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve (RTR) and had caused excess damage of endangered species of wildlife including Tigers. At present several tribal communities are residing in the another national parks and they not only consuming the wild animals but also involved in illegal trading of vital organs, skin and bones with National and international traders. Tribal are ideally suited for the job because they are highly skilled game trackers and due to having had a definite source of income over the years, they easily drawn in to the illegal wildlife trade and slaughter of wild animals. Their income is increasing but wild animals are on the brink of extinction. For the conservation of flora and fauna the rehabilitation process should be thought out according to the RTR project (which not only totally change the quality of life of mongia tribal community but also increased the conopy cover of forest and grass due to reduced the biotic pressure on protected land of forest in Rajasthan state) with appropriate understanding of the sociology of the people involved, their culture, education standard and the need of different skills to be acquired by them for sustenance such as agriculture, dairy, poultry, social forestry, job as forest guard and others eco-development programmes. Perhaps, the dimensions presented by me may generate discussion among the international wild life lovers and conservationists and remedies may be result oriented in the field of management of forest and conservation of wildlife on this planet.

Keywords: Wildlife, Strategies, Conservation of Forest, rehablety of tribals, eco-development Programmes

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3 Epididymis in the Agouti (Dasyprocta azarae): Light Microscope Study

Authors: Bruno C. Schimming, Leandro L. Martins, PatríCia F. F. Pinheiro, Raquel F. Domeniconi, FabríCio S. Oliveira

Abstract:

The agouti is a wildlife rodent that can be used as an alternative source of animal protein and this species has been raised in captivity in Brazil with the aim of providing meat. Thus, the knowledge of their reproductive biology and morphology of the reproductive organs is important. The objective of this study was to describe the morphology of epididymis in the Azara’s agouti, by light microscopy. Samples of epididymis were obtained from five adult Azara’s agouti (Dasyprocta azarae) during castration surgery performed at the Municipal Zoo of Catanduva, Brazil. Fragments of the epididymal regions (initial segment, caput, corpus and cauda) were collected. The biological samples were immediately fixed in paraformaldehyde for 24 hours, followed by histologic procedures comprising embedding in ParaplastTM (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA), sections of 5 µm, and staining with HE and Masson’s trichrome. The epididymis was a highly convoluted tubule that links the testis to the vas deferens. The epithelium lining was pseudostratified columnar surrounded by a periductal stroma. The epithelium contains several cell types: principal, basal, apical, clear, and hallo cells. Principal cells were the most abundant cell type. There were observed also migratory cells named halo cells. The caput epididymis was divided into two different regions: initial segment and caput. The initial segment has a very wide lumen, a high epithelium with conspicuous microvilli and the lumen was wide with exfoliated material. The other region of the caput epididymis, showed a lower epithelium when compared with the initial segment, large amounts of spermatozoa in the lumen, and a cytoplasmic vacuolization. This region presented many narrows cells. Many spermatozoa appeared in the lumen of corpus epididymis. The cauda region had a lower epithelium than the other epididymal regions in the agouti. The cauda epithelium presented plicae protruding into the lumen. Large amounts of spermatozoa are also present in the lumen. Small microvilli uniformly arranged so as to form a kind of “brush border” are observed on the apical surface of the cauda epithelium. The pattern of the epithelium lining the duct of the agouti epididymis does not differ greatly from that reported to other mammals, such as domestic and wildlife animals. These findings can cooperate with future investigations especially those related to rational exploration of these animals. All experimental procedures were approved by the institutional ethics committee (CEUA 796/2015). This study was supported by FAPESP (Grants 2015/23822-1).

Keywords: Wildlife, Morphology, epididymis, testis excurrent ducts

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2 The Study of Mirror Self-Recognition in Wildlife

Authors: Azwan Hamdan, Mohd Qayyum Ab Latip, Hasliza Abu Hassim, Tengku Rinalfi Putra Tengku Azizan, Hafandi Ahmad

Abstract:

Animal cognition provides some evidence for self-recognition, which is described as the ability to recognize oneself as an individual separate from the environment and other individuals. The mirror self-recognition (MSR) or mark test is a behavioral technique to determine whether an animal have the ability of self-recognition or self-awareness in front of the mirror. It also describes the capability for an animal to be aware of and make judgments about its new environment. Thus, the objectives of this study are to measure and to compare the ability of wild and captive wildlife in mirror self-recognition. Wild animals from the Royal Belum Rainforest Malaysia were identified based on the animal trails and salt lick grounds. Acrylic mirrors with wood frame (200 x 250cm) were located near to animal trails. Camera traps (Bushnell, UK) with motion-detection infrared sensor are placed near the animal trails or hiding spot. For captive wildlife, animals such as Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) were selected from Zoo Negara Malaysia. The captive animals were also marked using odorless and non-toxic white paint on its forehead. An acrylic mirror with wood frame (200 x 250cm) and a video camera were placed near the cage. The behavioral data were analyzed using ethogram and classified through four stages of MSR; social responses, physical inspection, repetitive mirror-testing behavior and realization of seeing themselves. Results showed that wild animals such as barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak) and long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) increased their physical inspection (e.g inspecting the reflected image) and repetitive mirror-testing behavior (e.g rhythmic head and leg movement). This would suggest that the ability to use a mirror is most likely related to learning process and cognitive evolution in wild animals. However, the sun bear’s behaviors were inconsistent and did not clearly undergo four stages of MSR. This result suggests that when keeping Malayan sun bear in captivity, it may promote communication and familiarity between conspecific. Interestingly, chimp has positive social response (e.g manipulating lips) and physical inspection (e.g using hand to inspect part of the face) when they facing a mirror. However, both animals did not show any sign towards the mark due to lost of interest in the mark and realization that the mark is inconsequential. Overall, the results suggest that the capacity for MSR is the beginning of a developmental process of self-awareness and mental state attribution. In addition, our findings show that self-recognition may be based on different complex neurological and level of encephalization in animals. Thus, research on self-recognition in animals will have profound implications in understanding the cognitive ability of an animal as an effort to help animals, such as enhanced management, design of captive individuals’ enclosures and exhibits, and in programs to re-establish populations of endangered or threatened species.

Keywords: Wildlife, Self-Awareness, mirror self-recognition (MSR), self-recognition

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1 Indigenous Dayak People’s Perceptions of Wildlife Loss and Gain Related to Oil Palm Development

Authors: A. Sunkar, Y. Santosa, A. Saraswati

Abstract:

Controversies surrounding the impacts of oil palm plantations have resulted in some heated debates, especially concerning biodiversity loss and indigenous people well-being. The indigenous people of Dayak generally used wildlife to fulfill their daily needs thus were assumed to have experienced negative impacts due to oil palm developments within and surrounding their settlement areas. This study was conducted to identify the characteristics of the Dayak community settled around an oil palm plantation, to determine their perceptions of wildlife loss or gain as the results of the development of oil palm plantations, and to identify the determinant characteristic of the perceptions. The research was conducted on March 2018 in Nanga Tayap and Tajok Kayong Villages, which were located around the oil palm plantation of NTYE of Ketapang, West Kalimantan-Indonesia. Data were collected through in depth-structured interview, using closed and semi-open questionnaires and three-scale Likert statements. Interviews were conducted with 74 respondents using accidental sampling, and categorized into respondents who were dependent on oil palm for their livelihoods and those who were not. Data were analyzed using quantitative statistics method, Likert Scale, Chi-Square Test, Spearman Test, and Mann-Whitney Test. The research found that the indigenous Dayak people were aware of wildlife species loss and gain since the establishment of the plantation. Nevertheless, wildlife loss did not affect their social, economic, and cultural needs since they could find substitutions. It was found that prior to the plantation’s development, the local Dayak communities were already slowly experiencing some livelihood transitions through local village development. The only determinant characteristic of the community that influenced their perceptions of wildlife loss/gain was level of education.

Keywords: Wildlife, oil palm plantations, indigenous Dayak, biodiversity loss and gain

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