Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

WHO Related Abstracts

6 Evaluation of Major and Minor Components in Dakahlia Water Resources for Drinking Purposes

Authors: R. A. Mandour


The physical, chemical, and microbiological analyses of fifty Quaternary water samples representing the different types of drinking water (surface and wells) in the governorate were carried-out. This paper aims to evaluate the drinking water in Dakahlia governorate in comparison with the national and international standards as a step to handle water pollutants affecting human health in this governorate. All investigated water samples were chemically considered suitable for drinking except two samples for iron, two samples for lead and one water sample for manganese having values higher than the permissible limit of EMH and WHO. Also microbiologically there were five water samples having a high total count of bacteria and three samples having high coli form than the permissible limit of EMH. Obviously, groundwater samples from Mit-Ghamr, El-Sinbillawin and Aga districts of Dakahlia governorate should have special attention for treatment.

Keywords: Microbiology, major ions, minor elements, EMH, WHO

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5 Evaluation of Pollution in Underground Water from ODO-NLA and OGIJO Metropolis Industrial Areas in Ikorodu

Authors: Zaccheaus Olasupo Apotiola


This study evaluates the level of pollution in underground water from Ogijo and Odo-nla areas in lkorodu, Lagos State. Water sample were collected around various industries and transported in ice packs to the laboratory. Temperature and pH was determined on site, physicochemical parameters and total plate were determined using standard methods, while heavy metal concentration was determined using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometry method. The temperature was observed at a range of 20-28 oC, the pH was observed at a range of 5.64 to 6.91 mol/l and were significantly different (P < 0.05) from one another. The chloride content was observed at a range 70.92 to 163.10 mg/l there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between sample 40 GAJ and ISUP, but there was significant difference (P < 0.05) between other samples. The acidity value varied from 11.0 – 34.5 (mg/l), the samples had no alkalinity. The Total plate count was found at 20-125 cfu/ml. Asernic, Lead, Cadmium, and Mercury concentration ranged between 0.03 - 0.09, 0.04 - 0.11, 0.00 -0.00, and 0.00 – 0.00(mg/l) respectively. However there was significant difference (p < 0.05) between all samples except for sample 4OGA, 5OGAJ, and 3SUTN that were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The results revealed all samples are not safe for human consumption as the levels of Asernic and Lead are above the maximum value of (0.01 mg/l) recommended by NIS 554 and WHO.

Keywords: Arsenic, cadmium, WHO, lead mercury

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4 Pollution by Iron of the Quaternary Drinking Water and its Effect on Human Health

Authors: Raafat A. Mandour


Background; Water may be regarded as polluted if it contains substances that render it unsafe for public use. The surface, subsoil waters and the shallow water-bearing geologic formation are more subjected to pollution due to its closeness to the human daily work. Aim of the work; determine the distribution of iron level in drinking water and its relation to iron level in blood patients suffering from liver diseases. Materials and Methods; For the present study, a total number of (71) drinking water samples (surface, wells and tap) have been collected and Blood samples were carried out on (71) selected inhabitants who attended in different hospitals, from different localities and suffering from liver diseases. Serum iron level in these patients was estimated by using IRON-B kit, Biocon company (Germany) and the 1, 10-phenanthroline method. Results; The water samples analyzed for iron are found suitable for drinking except two samples at Mit-Ghamr district showing values higher than the permissible limit of Egyptian Ministry of Health (EMH) and World Health Organization (WHO).The comparison between iron concentrations in drinking water and human blood samples shows a positive relationship. Conclusion; groundwater samples from the polluted areas should have special attention for treatment.

Keywords: EMH, WHO, water samples, blood samples

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3 Socio-Economic Determinants of Physical Activity of Non-Manual Workers, Including the Early Senior Group, from the City of Wroclaw in Poland

Authors: Piotr Olesniewicz, Julita Markiewicz-Patkowska, Krzysztof Widawski, Daniel Puciato, Michał Rozpara, Władysław Mynarski, Agnieszka Gawlik, Małgorzata Dębska, Soňa Jandová


Physical activity as a part of people’s everyday life reduces the risk of many diseases, including those induced by lifestyle, e.g. obesity, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, degenerative arthritis, and certain types of cancer. That refers particularly to professionally active people, including the early senior group working on non-manual positions. The aim of the study is to evaluate the relationship between physical activity and the socio-economic status of non-manual workers from Wroclaw—one of the biggest cities in Poland, a model setting for such investigations in this part of Europe. The crucial problem in the research is to find out the percentage of respondents who meet the health-related recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) concerning the volume, frequency, and intensity of physical activity, as well as to establish if the most important socio-economic factors, such as gender, age, education, marital status, per capita income, savings and debt, determine the compliance with the WHO physical activity recommendations. During the research, conducted in 2013, 1,170 people (611 women and 559 men) aged 21–60 years were examined. A diagnostic poll method was applied to collect the data. Physical activity was measured with the use of the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire with extended socio-demographic questions, i.e. concerning gender, age, education, marital status, income, savings or debts. To evaluate the relationship between physical activity and selected socio-economic factors, logistic regression was used (odds ratio statistics). Statistical inference was conducted on the adopted ex ante probability level of p<0.05. The majority of respondents met the volume of physical effort recommended for health benefits. It was particularly noticeable in the case of the examined men. The probability of compliance with the WHO physical activity recommendations was highest for workers aged 21–30 years with secondary or higher education who were single, received highest incomes and had savings. The results indicate the relations between physical activity and socio-economic status in the examined women and men. People with lower socio-economic status (e.g. manual workers) are physically active primarily at work, whereas those better educated and wealthier implement physical effort primarily in their leisure time. Among the investigated subjects, the youngest group of non-manual workers have the best chances to meet the WHO standards of physical activity. The study also confirms that secondary education has a positive effect on the public awareness on the role of physical activity in human life. In general, the analysis of the research indicates that there is a relationship between physical activity and some socio-economic factors of the respondents, such as gender, age, education, marital status, income per capita, and the possession of savings. Although the obtained results cannot be applied for the general population, they show some important trends that will be verified in subsequent studies conducted by the authors of the paper.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Socioeconomic Factors, WHO, IPAQ, nonmanual workers

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2 A Delphi Study to Build Consensus for Tuberculosis Control Guideline to Achieve Who End Tb 2035 Strategy

Authors: Jun Li, Pui Hong Chung, Cyrus Leung, Kin On Kwok, Ek Yeoh


Introduction: Studies for TB control in intermediate tuberculosis burden countries (IBCs) comprise a relatively small proportion in TB control literature, as compared to the effort put in high and low burden counterparts. It currently lacks of consensus in the optimal weapons and strategies we can use to combat TB in IBCs; guidelines of TB control are inadequate and thus posing a great obstacle in eliminating TB in these countries. To fill-in the research and services gap, we need to summarize the findings of the effort in this regard and to seek consensus in terms of policy making for TB control, we have devised a series of scoping and Delphi studies for these purposes. Method: The scoping and Delphi studies are conducted in parallel to feed information for each other. Before the Delphi iterations, we have invited three local experts in TB control in Hong Kong to participate in the pre-assessment round of the Delphi study to comments on the validity, relevance, and clarity of the Delphi questionnaire. Result: Two scoping studies, regarding LTBI control in health care workers in IBCs and TB control in elderly of IBCs respectively, have been conducted. The result of these two studies is used as the foundation for developing the Delphi questionnaire, which tapped on seven areas of question, namely: characteristics of IBCs, adequacy of research and services in LTBI control in IBCs, importance and feasibility of interventions for TB control and prevention in hospital, screening and treatment of LTBI in community, reasons of refusal to/ default from LTBI treatment, medical adherence of LTBI treatment, and importance and feasibility of interventions for TB control and prevention in elderly in IBCs. The local experts also commented on the two scoping studies conducted, thus act as the sixth phase of expert consultation in Arksey and O’Malley framework of scoping studies, to either nourish the scope and strategies used in these studies or to supplement ideas for further scoping or systematic review studies. In the subsequent stage, an international expert panel, comprised of 15 to 20 experts from IBCs in Western Pacific Region, will be recruited to join the two-round anonymous Delphi iterations. Four categories of TB control experts, namely clinicians, policy makers, microbiologists/ laboratory personnel, and public health clinicians will be our target groups. A consensus level of 80% is used to determine the achievement of consensus on particular issues. Key messages: 1. Scoping review and Delphi method are useful to identify gaps and then achieve consensus in research. 2. Lots of resources are put in the high burden countries now. However, the usually neglected intermediate-burden countries with TB is an indispensable part for achieving the ambitious WHO End TB 2035 target.

Keywords: Tuberculosis, WHO, dephi questionnaire, latent TB infection

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1 Application of WHO's Guideline to Evaluating Apps for Smoking Cessation

Authors: Suin Seo, Sung-Il Cho


Background: The use of mobile apps for smoking cessation has grown exponentially in recent years. Yet, there were limited researches which evaluated the quality of smoking cessation apps to our knowledge. In most cases, a clinical practice guideline which is focused on clinical physician was used as an evaluation tool. Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a user-centered measure for quality of mobile smoking cessation apps. Methods: A literature search was conducted to identify articles containing explicit smoking cessation guideline for smoker published until January 2018. WHO’s guide for tobacco users to quit was adopted for evaluation tool which assesses smoker-oriented contents of smoking cessation apps. Compared to the clinical practice guideline, WHO guideline was designed for smokers (non-specialist). On the basis of existing criteria which was developed based on 2008 clinical practice guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence, evaluation tool was modified and developed by an expert panel. Results: There were five broad categories of criteria that were identified including five objective quality scales: enhancing motivation, assistance with a planning and making quit attempts, preparation for relapse, self-efficacy, connection to smoking. Enhancing motivation and assistance with planning and making quit attempts were similar to contents of clinical practice guideline, but preparation for relapse, self-efficacy and connection to smoking (environment or habit which reminds of smoking) only existed on WHO guideline. WHO guideline had more user-centered elements than clinical guideline. Especially, self-efficacy is the most important determinant of behavior change in accordance with many health behavior change models. With the WHO guideline, it is now possible to analyze the content of the app in the light of a health participant, not a provider. Conclusion: The WHO guideline evaluation tool is a simple, reliable and smoker-centered tool for assessing the quality of mobile smoking cessation apps. It can also be used to provide a checklist for the development of new high-quality smoking cessation apps.

Keywords: Mobile Application, Evaluation, Smoking cessation, WHO, guideline

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