Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

whitefly Related Abstracts

3 Effect of Silicon on Tritrophic Interaction of Cotton, Whitefly and Chrysoperla carnea

Authors: Muhammad Sufyan, Asim Abbasi

Abstract:

The present experiment was carried out to examine the effects of silicon dioxide on tritrophic interaction of cotton, whitefly, and the predator Chrysoperla carnea. Population of whitefly was maintained on silicon treated and non-treated cotton for two generations in greenhouse net cages exposed to outside temperature and luminosity. The cotton was treated with silicon dioxide twice after 15 days intervals with 200 ppm concentration. A stock rearing of the natural predator was developed in the laboratory conditions. In the bioassay eggs of the predator all at the same age were individualized in glass petri plates that will be pierced with a pin to allow aeration and maintained in an incubator at 28 ± 2°C, 70 ± 10% relative humidity and 12h photo phase. Population of whitefly stayed on silicon treated, and non-treated cotton were offered to newly hatched chrysopid larvae until the end of the larval stage, assuring a permanent supply. Feeding preference of C. carnea along with longevity, survival of each instar larvae, pupation, adult emergence, and fecundity was checked. The results revealed that there was no significant difference in the feeding preference of C. carnea among both treatments. Durations of 1st and 2nd larval instar were also at par in both treatments. However overall longevity and adult emergence were a bit lower in silicon treated whitefly treatment. This may be due to the fact that silicon reduces the nutritional quality of host because of reduced whitefly feeding on silicon treated cotton. No significant difference in 1st and 2nd larval instars and then increased larval duration in later instars suggested that the effect of silicon treated host should be checked on more than 1 generation of C. carnea to get better findings.

Keywords: Silicon, Chrysoperla carnea, tritrophic, whitefly

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2 Effect of Climate Change on the Genomics of Invasiveness of the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Species Complex by Estimating the Effective Population Size via a Coalescent Method

Authors: Samia Elfekih, Wee Tek Tay, Karl Gordon, Paul De Barro

Abstract:

Invasive species represent an increasing threat to food biosecurity, causing significant economic losses in agricultural systems. An example is the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, which is a complex of morphologically indistinguishable species causing average annual global damage estimated at US$2.4 billion. The Bemisia complex represents an interesting model for evolutionary studies because of their extensive distribution and potential for invasiveness and population expansion. Within this complex, two species, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED) have invaded well beyond their home ranges whereas others, such as Indian Ocean (IO) and Australia (AUS), have not. In order to understand why some Bemisia species have become invasive, genome-wide sequence scans were used to estimate population dynamics over time and relate these to climate. The Bayesian Skyline Plot (BSP) method as implemented in BEAST was used to infer the historical effective population size. In order to overcome sampling bias, the populations were combined based on geographical origin. The datasets used for this particular analysis are genome-wide SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) called separately in each of the following groups: Sub-Saharan Africa (Burkina Faso), Europe (Spain, France, Greece and Croatia), USA (Arizona), Mediterranean-Middle East (Israel, Italy), Middle East-Central Asia (Turkmenistan, Iran) and Reunion Island. The non-invasive ‘AUS’ species endemic to Australia was used as an outgroup. The main findings of this study show that the BSP for the Sub-Saharan African MED population is different from that observed in MED populations from the Mediterranean Basin, suggesting evolution under a different set of environmental conditions. For MED, the effective size of the African (Burkina Faso) population showed a rapid expansion ≈250,000-310,000 years ago (YA), preceded by a period of slower growth. The European MED populations (i.e., Spain, France, Croatia, and Greece) showed a single burst of expansion at ≈160,000-200,000 YA. The MEAM1 populations from Israel and Italy and the ones from Iran and Turkmenistan are similar as they both show the earlier expansion at ≈250,000-300,000 YA. The single IO population lacked the latter expansion but had the earlier one. This pattern is shared with the Sub-Saharan African (Burkina Faso) MED, suggesting IO also faced a similar history of environmental change, which seems plausible given their relatively close geographical distributions. In conclusion, populations within the invasive species MED and MEAM1 exhibited signatures of population expansion lacking in non-invasive species (IO and AUS) during the Pleistocene, a geological epoch marked by repeated climatic oscillations with cycles of glacial and interglacial periods. These expansions strongly suggested the potential of some Bemisia species’ genomes to affect their adaptability and invasiveness.

Keywords: Climate Change, Invasive Species, snp, whitefly, RADseq

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
1 The Four-Way Interactions among Host Plant-Whitefly-Virus-Endosymbionts in Insect and Disease Development

Authors: N. R. Prasannakumar, M. N. Maruthi

Abstract:

The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera; Aleyrodidae) is a highly polyphagous pest reported to infest over 600 plant hosts globally. About 42 genetic groups/cryptic species of B. tabaci exist in the world on different hosts. The species have variable behaviour with respect to feeding, development and transmission of viral diseases. Feeding on diverse host plants affect both whitefly development and the population of the endosymbionts harboured by the insects. Due to changes in the level of endosymbionts, the virus transmission efficiency by the vector also gets affected. We investigated these interactions on five host plants – egg plant, tomato, beans, okra and cotton - using a single whitefly species Asia 1 infected with three different bacteria Portiera, Wolbachia and Arsenophonus. The Asia 1 transmits the Tomato leaf curl Bangalore virus (ToLCBV) effectively and thus was used in the interaction studies. We found a significant impact of hosts on whitefly growth and development; eggplant was most favourable host, while okra and tomato were least favourable. Among the endosymbiotic bacteria, the titre of Wolbachia was significantly affected by feeding of B. tabaci on different host plants whereas Arsenophonus and Portiera were unaffected. When whitefly fed on ToLCBV-infected tomato plants, the Arsenophonus population was significantly increased, indicating its previously confirmed role in ToLCBV transmission. Further, screening of total proteins of B. tabaci Asia 1 genetic group interacting with ToLCBV coat protein was carried out using Y2H system. Some of the proteins found to be interacting with ToLCBV CP were HSPs 70kDa, GroEL, nucleoproteins, vitellogenins, apolipophorins, lachesins, enolase. The reported protein thus would be the potential targets for novel whitefly control strategies such as RNAi or novel insecticide target sites for sustainable whitefly management after confirmation of genuine proteins.

Keywords: whitefly, cDNA, endosymbionts, ToLCBV, Y2H

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