Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

wheel Related Abstracts

7 On Chromaticity of Wheels

Authors: Abdul Jalil M. Khalaf, Zainab Yasir Abed Al-Rekaby

Abstract:

Let the vertices of a graph such that every two adjacent vertices have different color is a very common problem in the graph theory. This is known as proper coloring of graphs. The possible number of different proper colorings on a graph with a given number of colors can be represented by a function called the chromatic polynomial. Two graphs G and H are said to be chromatically equivalent, if they share the same chromatic polynomial. A Graph G is chromatically unique, if G is isomorphic to H for any graph H such that G is chromatically equivalent to H. The study of chromatically equivalent and chromatically unique problems is called chromaticity. This paper shows that a wheel W12 is chromatically unique.

Keywords: chromatic polynomial, chromatically equivalent, chromatically unique, wheel

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6 Failure of Agriculture Soil following the Passage of Tractors

Authors: Anis Eloud, Sayed Chehaibi

Abstract:

Compaction of agricultural soils as a result of the passage of heavy machinery on the fields is a problem that affects many agronomists and farmers since it results in a loss of yield of most crops. To remedy this, and raise the overall future of the food security challenge, we must study and understand the process of soil degradation. The present review is devoted to understanding the effect of repeated passages on agricultural land. The experiments were performed on a plot of the area of the ESIER, characterized by a clay texture in order to quantify the soil compaction caused by the wheels of the tractor during repeated passages on agricultural land. The test tractor CASE type puissance 110 hp and 5470 kg total mass of 3500 kg including the two rear axles and 1970 kg on the front axle. The state of soil compaction has been characterized by measuring its resistance to penetration by means of a penetrometer and direct manual reading, the density and permeability of the soil. Soil moisture was taken jointly. The measurements are made in the initial state before passing the tractor and after each pass varies from 1 to 7 on the track wheel inflated to 1.5 bar for the rear wheel and broke water to the level of valve and 4 bar for the front wheels. The passages are spaced to the average of one week. The results show that the passage of wheels on a farm tilled soil leads to compaction and the latter increases with the number of passages, especially for the upper 15 cm depth horizons. The first passage is characterized by the greatest effect. However, the effect of other passages do not follow a definite law for the complex behavior of granular media and the history of labor and the constraints it suffers from its formation.

Keywords: Soil Compaction, wheel, wheel traffic, tractor

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5 A Study of Chromatic Uniqueness of W14

Authors: Abdul Jalil M. Khalaf, Zainab Yasir Al-Rekaby

Abstract:

Coloring the vertices of a graph such that every two adjacent vertices have different color is a very common problem in the graph theory. This is known as proper coloring of graphs. The possible number of different proper colorings on a graph with a given number of colors can be represented by a function called the chromatic polynomial. Two graphs G and H are said to be chromatically equivalent, if they share the same chromatic polynomial. A Graph G is chromatically unique, if G is isomorphic to H for any graph H such that G is chromatically equivalent to H. The study of chromatically equivalent and chromatically unique problems is called chromaticity. This paper shows that a wheel W14 is chromatically unique.

Keywords: chromatic polynomial, chromatically equivalent, chromatically unique, wheel

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
4 Generator Subgraphs of the Wheel

Authors: Neil M. Mame

Abstract:

We consider only finite graphs without loops nor multiple edges. Let G be a graph with E(G) = {e1, e2, …., em}. The edge space of G, denoted by ε(G), is a vector space over the field Z2. The elements of ε(G) are all the subsets of E(G). Vector addition is defined as X+Y = X Δ Y, the symmetric difference of sets X and Y, for X, Y ∈ ε(G). Scalar multiplication is defined as 1.X =X and 0.X = Ø for X ∈ ε(G). The set S ⊆ ε(G) is called a generating set if every element ε(G) is a linear combination of the elements of S. For a non-empty set X ∈ ε(G), the smallest subgraph with edge set X is called edge-induced subgraph of G, denoted by G[X]. The set EH(G) = { A ∈ ε(G) : G[A] ≅ H } denotes the uniform set of H with respect to G and εH(G) denotes the subspace of ε(G) generated by EH(G). If εH(G) is generating set, then we call H a generator subgraph of G. This paper gives the characterization for the generator subgraphs of the wheel that contain cycles and gives the necessary conditions for the acyclic generator subgraphs of the wheel.

Keywords: wheel, edge space, edge-induced subgraph, generator subgraph

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3 Worm Gearing Design Improvement by Considering Varying Mesh Stiffness

Authors: A. H. Elkholy, A. H. Falah

Abstract:

A new approach has been developed to estimate the load share and stress distribution of worm gear sets. The approach is based upon considering the instantaneous tooth meshing stiffness where the worm gear drive was modelled as a series of spur gear slices, and each slice was analyzed separately using the well established formulae of spur gears. By combining the results obtained for all slices, the entire envolute worm gear set loading and stressing was obtained. The geometric modelling method presented, allows tooth elastic deformation and tooth root stresses of worm gear drives under different load conditions to be investigated. On the basis of the method introduced in this study, the instantaneous meshing stiffness and load share were obtained. In comparison with existing methods, this approach has both good analysis accuracy and less computing time.

Keywords: Gear, wheel, worm, load/stress distribution, tooth stiffness, contact line

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
2 Modeling of a Vehicle Wheel System having a Built-in Suspension Structure Consisted of Radially Deployed Colloidal Spokes between Hub and Rim

Authors: Barenten Suciu

Abstract:

In this work, by replacing the traditional solid spokes with colloidal spokes, a vehicle wheel with a built-in suspension structure is proposed. Following the background and description of the wheel system, firstly, a vibration model of the wheel equipped with colloidal spokes is proposed, and based on such model the equivalent damping coefficients and spring constants are identified. Then, a modified model of a quarter-vehicle moving on a rough pavement is proposed in order to estimate the transmissibility of vibration from the road roughness to vehicle body. In the end, the optimal design of the colloidal spokes and the optimum number of colloidal spokes are decided in order to minimize the transmissibility of vibration, i.e., to maximize the ride comfort of the vehicle.

Keywords: Vibration analysis, wheel, built-in suspension, colloidal spoke, intrinsic spring

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
1 Design Improvement of Worm Gearing for Better Energy Utilization

Authors: Ahmed Elkholy

Abstract:

Most power transmission cases use gearing in general, and worm gearing, in particular for energy utilization. Therefore, designing gears for minimum weight and maximum power transmission is the main target of this study. In this regard, a new approach has been developed to estimate the load share and stress distribution of worm gear sets. The approach is based upon considering the instantaneous tooth meshing stiffness where the worm gear drive was modelled as a series of spur gear slices, and each slice was analyzed separately using a well-established criteria. By combining the results obtained for all slices, the entire worm gear set loading and stressing was determined. The geometric modelling method presented, allows tooth elastic deformation and tooth root stresses of worm gear drives under different load conditions to be investigated. On the basis of the method introduced in this study, the instantaneous meshing stiffness and load share were obtained. In comparison with existing methods, this approach has both good analytical accuracy and less computing time.

Keywords: Gear, wheel, worm, load/stress distribution, tooth stiffness, contact line

Procedia PDF Downloads 303