Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

wheat straw Related Abstracts

4 Optimal Wheat Straw to Bioethanol Supply Chain Models

Authors: Ali Elkamel, Abdul Halim Abdul Razik, Leonardo Simon


Wheat straw is one of the alternative feedstocks that may be utilized for bioethanol production especially when sustainability criteria are the major concerns. To increase market competitiveness, optimal supply chain plays an important role since wheat straw is a seasonal agricultural residue. In designing the supply chain optimization model, economic profitability of the thermochemical and biochemical conversion routes options were considered. It was found that torrefied pelletization with gasification route to be the most profitable option to produce bioethanol from the lignocellulosic source of wheat straw.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Optimization, bio-ethanol, wheat straw

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3 Effect of Lignocellulose-Degrading Bacteria Isolated from Termite Gut on the Nutritive Value of Wheat Straw as Ruminant Feed

Authors: Tahereh Mohammadabadi, morteza chaji, Ayoub Azizi-Shotorkhoft, Hosein Motamedi, Hasan Fazaeli


This study was conducted to investigate nutritive value of wheat straw processed with termite gut symbiotic bacteria with lignocellulosic-degrading potential including Bacillus licheniformis, Ochrobactrum intermedium and Microbacterium paludicola in vitro. These bacteria were isolated by culturing termite guts contents in different culture media containing different lignin and lignocellulosic materials that had been prepared from water-extracted sawdust and wheat straw. Results showed that incubating wheat straw with all of three isolated bacteria increased (P<0.05) acid-precipitable polymeric lignin (APPL) compared to control, and highest amount of APPL observed following treatment with B. licheniformis. Highest and lowest (P<0.05) in vitro gas production and ruminal organic matter digestibility were obtained when treating wheat straw with B. licheniformis and control, respectively. However, other fermentation parameters such as b (i.e., gas production from the insoluble fermentable fractions at 144h), c (i.e., rate of gas production during incubation), ruminal dry matter digestibility, metabolizable energy, partitioning factor, pH and ammonia nitrogen concentration were similar between experimental treatments (P>0.05). It is concluded that processing wheat straw with isolated bacteria improved its nutritive value as ruminants feed.

Keywords: nutritive value, wheat straw, ruminant, termite gut bacteria

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2 Effect of Baking Temperature on the Mechanical Properties of Reinforced Clayey Soil

Authors: Gul Muhammad, Amanullah Marri, Asif Abbas


Thermal treatment changes the physical and mechanical properties of clayey soils. Thermally treated soils have been used since ancient times for making trails for access and bricks for residence. In this study, it has been focused to observe and analyze the effect of baking (burning) temperature on the mechanical properties of clayey soils usually used for the construction of adobe houses in the rural areas of many of the developing countries. In the first stage of experimental work, a series of tests on clayey soil moulds (100 mm height and 50 mm diameter in size) added different percentages of lime and wheat straw (typically 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10%) were conducted. In the second stage; samples were made of clayey soils and were subjected to six level of temperatures i.e., 25, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500⁰C. In the third stage, the moulds of clayey soil were submerged in water prior to testing in order to investigate the flood resilience of the moulds prepared with and without the addition of lime and wheat straw. The experimental results suggest that samples with 6% of lime content and on 2% of wheat straw contents have shown the maximum value of compressive strength. The effect of baking temperature on the clayey soils has shown that maximum UCS is obtained at 200⁰C. The results also suggest reinforcement with 2% wheat straw, give 70.8% increase in the compressive strength compared to soil only, whereas the flooding resilience can be better resist by adding 6% lime and 2% wheat straw.

Keywords: lime, uniaxial, wheat straw, baked temperature, submersion

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1 Anecic and Epigeic Earthworms as Potential Biocontrol Agents of Fusarium graminearum, Causal Agent of Fusarium Head Blight on Wheat

Authors: Gabriella Jorge, Carlos A. Pérez, Hanna Friberg, Sara Söderlund, Jan Lagerlöf


Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) is one of the most important Fusarium-caused diseases, which affects cereals with serious detrimental effects on yield and grain quality worldwide. Earthworms have been suggested as an alternative to control this disease, which requires a combination of preventive methods to reduce level of damage, although it has been proven that their effect is species dependent. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of the earthworms Aporrectodea longa and Lumbricus rubellus, on the inoculum of Fusarium graminearum on wheat straw. To test this we kept earthworms in vessels with soil, and F. graminearum-inoculated straw covering the surface, under controlled conditions for 6 weeks. Two factors were evaluated with a complete factorial design: earthworms (three levels: without earthworms, A. longa, and L. rubellus), and straw (two levels: inoculated with the pathogen, and sterile). The presence of L. rubellus significantly (P<0.05) reduced the amount of inoculated straw at the soil surface 31% after 6 weeks, while the presence of A. longa, most found in quiescence, did not have any significant effect on the amount of straw when compared to the control. After incubation, F. graminearum was detected by qPCR, only in the surface straw in those treatments inoculated with the pathogen but without earthworms. None of the treatments showed presence of Fusarium in the buried straw, soil or earthworm casts. Both earthworm species decreased in body weight during incubation, most likely due to the decrease in soil water content during the experiment, from 25% to 20%, and/or inadequate food supply, since no other source of food was added. However, this reduction in weight occurred indistinctly of the presence or not of Fusarium (P<0.05). This indicates that both species, of different ecological groups, anecic and epigeic, can reduce F. graminearum inoculum present in wheat straw, while their growth is not negatively affected by this pathogen. These promising results place A. longa, and L. rubellus as potential biocontrol agents of this fungal plant pathogen responsible for Fusarium Head Blight disease in wheat, although further ongoing experiments are needed to confirm the repeatability of these results.

Keywords: Biological Control, wheat straw, qPCR, Aporrectodea longa, fungal plant pathogen, Lumbricus rubellus

Procedia PDF Downloads 133