Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Wetlands Related Abstracts

14 An Analysis of Urban Institutional Arrangements and Their Implications on Wetlands Allocation for Development Purposes: A Case of Harare, Zimbabwe

Authors: Effort M. Magoso

Abstract:

This study analyses urban institutional arrangements and their implications on allocation of wetlands for development purposes in Zimbabwe using a case study of Harare. It was driven by the need to get to the root of the current urban assault on wetlands. The study sought to analyse institutions that influence wetlands governance in Harare, to ascertain level of wetlands loss and to determine the adequacy of the legal and regulatory framework for governing wetlands. Theories of common property resources and of institutions are the paradigms that undergird this study. A qualitative research methodology was employed, while in-depth interviews, observations and document review were used to gather data. The study found out that unchecked infrastructure developments are taking place in the city’s wetlands. Urban institutional arrangements in Harare were exposed as having negative implications on the protection of wetlands. It is the key argument of this study that good institutional arrangements are priceless in the protection of commons such as wetlands. This study also recommends a new framework that has environmentalists and technocrats as the final decision maker in land allocation as the solution to protect wetlands from undue anthropogenic activities.

Keywords: Wetlands, Institutions, Institutional arrangements, common property resources

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13 The Use of Remotely Sensed Data to Extract Wetlands Area in the Cultural Park of Ahaggar, South of Algeria

Authors: Y. Fekir, K. Mederbal, M. A. Hammadouche, D. Anteur

Abstract:

The cultural park of the Ahaggar, occupying a large area of Algeria, is characterized by a rich wetlands area to be preserved and managed both in time and space. The management of a large area, by its complexity, needs large amounts of data, which for the most part, are spatially localized (DEM, satellite images and socio-economic information...), where the use of conventional and traditional methods is quite difficult. The remote sensing, by its efficiency in environmental applications, became an indispensable solution for this kind of studies. Remote sensing imaging data have been very useful in the last decade in very interesting applications. They can aid in several domains such as the detection and identification of diverse wetland surface targets, topographical details, and geological features... In this work, we try to extract automatically wetlands area using multispectral remotely sensed data on-board the Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) and Landsat satellite. Both are high-resolution multispectral imager with a 30 m resolution. The instrument images an interesting surface area. We have used images acquired over the several area of interesting in the National Park of Ahaggar in the south of Algeria. An Extraction Algorithm is applied on the several spectral index obtained from combination of different spectral bands to extract wetlands fraction occupation of land use. The obtained results show an accuracy to distinguish wetlands area from the other lad use themes using a fine exploitation on spectral index.

Keywords: Wetlands, Algeria, landsat, EO1, multispectral data, Ahaggar

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12 Fish Diversity and Conservation of Two Lacustrine Wetlands of the Upper Benue Basin, Nigeria

Authors: D. L. David, J. A. Wahedi, Q. T. Zaku

Abstract:

A study was conducted at River Mayo Ranewo and River Lau, Taraba State Nigeria. The two rivers empty into the Upper Benue Basin. A visual encounter survey was conducted within the two wetlands from June to August, 2014. The fish record was based entirely on landings of fishermen, number of canoes that land fish was counted, types of nets and baits used on each sampling day. Fish were sorted into taxonomic groups, identified to family/species level, counted and weighed in groups. The relative species abundance was determined by dividing the number of species from a site by the total number of species from all tributaries/sites. Fish was preserved in 2% formaldehyde solution and taken to the laboratory, where they were identified. Shannon-Weiner index of species diversity indicated that the diversity was highest at River Mayo Ranewo than River Lau. In the result showed at River Mayo Ranewo, the family Mochokidae recorded the highest (23.15%), followed by Mormyridae (2.64%) and the least was the family Lepidosirenidae (0.04%). While at River Lau the family Mochokidae recorded the highest occurrence of (24.1%), followed by Bagridae (20.20%), and then Mormyridae, which also was the second highest in River Lau, with 18.46% occurrence. There was no occurrence of Malapteruridae and Osteoglossidae (0%) in River Lau, but the least occurrence was the family Gymnarchidae (0.04%). These results indicated that the fish composition were not significantly (p ≤ 0.05) different based on t-test.

Keywords: Conservation, Wetlands, diversity index, Lau, Mayo Ranewo

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11 Fish Diversity of Two Lacustrine Wetlands of the Upper Benue Basin, Nigeria

Authors: D. L. David, J. A. Wahedi, Q. T. Zaku

Abstract:

A study was conducted at River Mayo Ranewo and River Lau, Taraba State Nigeria. The two rivers empty into the Upper Benue Basin. A survey of visual encounter was conducted within the two wetlands from June to August, 2014. The fish record was based entirely on landings of fishermen, number of canoes that land fish was counted, types of nets and baits used on each sampling day. Fishes were sorted into taxonomic groups, identified to family/ species level, counted and weighed in groups by species. Other aquatic organisms captured by the fishermen were scallops, turtles and frogs. The relative species abundance was determined by dividing the number of species from a site by the total number of species from all tributaries/sites. The fish were preserved in 2% formaldehyde solution and taken to the laboratory, were identified through keys of identification to African fishes and field guides. Shannon-Wieiner index of species diversity indicated that the diversity was highest at River Mayo Ranewo than River Lau. Results showed that at River Mayo Ranewo, the family Mochokidae recorded the highest (23.15%), followed by Mormyridae (22.64%) and the least was the family Lepidosirenidae (0.04%). While at River Lau, the family Mochokidae recorded the highest occurrence of (24.1%), followed by Bagridae (20.20%), and then Mormyridae, which also was the second highest in River Lau, with 18.46% occurrence. There was no occurrence of Malapteruridae and Osteoglossidae (0%) in River Lau, but the least occurrence was the family Gymnarchidae (0.04%). According to the result from the t-test, the fish composition was not significantly different (p≤0.05).

Keywords: Wetlands, diversity index, Lau, Mayo Ranewo

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10 Diversity of Bird Species and Conservation of Two Lacustrine Wetlands of the Upper Benue Basin, Adamawa, Nigeria

Authors: D. l. David, J. A. Wahedi, U. Buba, R. Zakariya

Abstract:

Between January, 2004 to December, 2005, studies were carried out on the bird species diversity and relative abundance of two lakes, Kiri and Gyawana near Numan using the “Timed Species Count (TSC)” method. 163 species in 53 bird families and 160 species in 55 bird families were recorded at Kiri and Gyawana lakes respectively. There was no significant difference in species diversity within bird families between the two lakes (p > 0.05), whereas in Gyawana Lake, one of the sites qualified as Ramsar site, none strongly qualified as an Important Bird Area (IBA). The significance of these findingsare also discussed.

Keywords: Diversity, Conservation, Wetlands, lacustrine

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9 Nutrients Removal from Industrial Wastewater Using Constructed Wetland System

Authors: Christine Odinga, Fred Otieno, Josiah Adeyemo

Abstract:

A study was done to establish the effectiveness of wetland plants: Echinocloa pyramidalis (L) and Cyperus papyrus (L) in purifying wastewater from sugar factory stabilization pond effluent. A pilot-scale Free Water Surface Wetland (FWSCW) system was constructed in Chemelil sugar factory, Kenya for the study. The wetland was divided into 8 sections (cells) and planted with C. papyrus and E. pyramidalis in alternating sequence. Water samples and plant specimen were taken fortnightly at inlets and outlets of the cells and analysed for total phosphates and total nitrates. The data was analysed by use of Microsoft excel and SPSS computer packages. Water analysis recorded a reduction in the nutrient levels between the inlet pond nine and the final outlet channel to River Nyando. The plants grown in the wetland experienced varied increases and reductions in the level of total foliar nitrogen and phosphorous, indicating that though the nutrients were being removed from the wetland, the same were not those assimilated by the plants either. The control plants had higher folia phosphorous and nitrogen, an indication that the system of the constructed wetland was able to eliminate the nutrients effectively from the plants.

Keywords: Industrial, Plants, wastewater, Wetlands, Nutrients, constructed

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8 Calculation of Methane Emissions from Wetlands in Slovakia via IPCC Methodology

Authors: Jozef Mindas, Jana Skvareninova

Abstract:

Wetlands are a main natural source of methane emissions, but they also represent the important biodiversity reservoirs in the landscape. There are about 26 thousands hectares of wetlands in Slovakia identified via the wetlands monitoring program. Created database of wetlands in Slovakia allows to analyze several ecological processes including also the methane emissions estimate. Based on the information from the database, the first estimate of the methane emissions from wetlands in Slovakia has been done. The IPCC methodology (Tier 1 approach) has been used with proposed emission factors for the ice-free period derived from the climatic data. The highest methane emissions of nearly 550 Gg are associated with the category of fens. Almost 11 Gg of methane is emitted from bogs, and emissions from flooded lands represent less than 8 Gg.

Keywords: Wetlands, Slovakia, bogs, methane emissions

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7 Impacts of Human Settlement Development on Highland View Wetland in Bizana, South Africa

Authors: Fikile Xaki, Zendy Magayiyana

Abstract:

The increasing population and urbanization, with the demand for land and development, has had adverse impacts on wetland areas which has resulted in changing the hydrology and water chemistry of wetlands, affecting the water supply and water quality in urban areas like the Highland View, a residential area in Mbizana, South Africa. The settlement development in Highland View has led to wetland degradation due to land uses like agriculture and conversion of wetland for settlement development. Interviews with the local community were conducted to show how settlement development on wetland affects them. The results indicated that the environmental rights of people as according to Section 24 of the South African Constitution are compromised, and sustainable development was not put into consideration during development. With the results from the survey - through questionnaires for the Mbizana Local Municipality and the community, it was clear that the community needs education and capacity building on wetland management and conservation. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to map physical properties of the Highland View wetland and houses built on the wetland. With all the information gathered from the research, it was clear that local municipality, together with hydrologists, needs to develop an environmental management framework to protect the wetlands.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Water, Wetlands, Human Settlement

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6 Use of Remote Sensing for Seasonal and Temporal Monitoring in Wetlands: A Case Study of Akyatan Lagoon

Authors: A. Cilek, S. Berberoglu, A. Akin Tanriover, C. Donmez

Abstract:

Wetlands are the areas which have important effects and functions on protecting human life, adjust to nature, and biological variety, besides being potential exploitation sources. Observing the changes in these sensitive areas is important to study for data collecting and correct planning for the future. Remote sensing and Geographic Information System are being increasingly used for environmental studies such as biotope mapping and habitat monitoring. Akyatan Lagoon, one of the most important wetlands in Turkey, has been facing serious threats from agricultural applications in recent years. In this study, seasonal and temporal monitoring in wetlands system are determined by using remotely sensed data and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) between 1985 and 2015. The research method is based on classifying and mapping biotopes in the study area. The natural biotope types were determined as coastal sand dunes, salt marshes, river beds, coastal woods, lakes, lagoons.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Wetlands, GIS, biotope mapping

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5 Biophysical Assessment of the Ecological Condition of Wetlands in the Parkland and Grassland Natural Regions of Alberta, Canada

Authors: Marie-Claude Roy, David Locky, Ermias Azeria, Jim Schieck

Abstract:

It is estimated that up to 70% of the wetlands in the Parkland and Grassland natural regions of Alberta have been lost due to various land-use activities. These losses include ecosystem function and services they once provided. Those wetlands remaining are often embedded in a matrix of human-modified habitats and despite efforts taken to protect them the effects of land-uses on wetland condition and function remain largely unknown. We used biophysical field data and remotely-sensed human footprint data collected at 322 open-water wetlands by the Alberta Biodiversity Monitoring Institute (ABMI) to evaluate the impact of surrounding land use on the physico-chemistry characteristics and plant functional traits of wetlands. Eight physio-chemistry parameters were assessed: wetland water depth, water temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and dissolved organic carbon. Three plant functional traits were evaluated: 1) origin (native and non-native), 2) life history (annual, biennial, and perennial), and 3) habitat requirements (obligate-wetland and obligate-upland). Intensity land-use was quantified within a 250-meter buffer around each wetland. Ninety-nine percent of wetlands in the Grassland and Parkland regions of Alberta have land-use activities in their surroundings, with most being agriculture-related. Total phosphorus in wetlands increased with the cover of surrounding agriculture, while salinity, total nitrogen, and dissolved organic carbon were positively associated with the degree of soft-linear (e.g. pipelines, trails) land-uses. The abundance of non-native and annual/biennial plants increased with the amount of agriculture, while urban-industrial land-use lowered abundance of natives, perennials, and obligate wetland plants. Our study suggests that land-use types surrounding wetlands affect the physicochemical and biological conditions of wetlands. This research suggests that reducing human disturbances through reclamation of wetland buffers may enhance the condition and function of wetlands in agricultural landscapes.

Keywords: Wetlands, Land Use, biophysical assessment, grassland and parkland natural regions

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4 Aquatic and Marshy Flora from Fresh Water Wetlands on Quartz Sands in Pinar Del Río, Cuba

Authors: Vidal Pérez Hernández, Enrique González Pendás

Abstract:

The most of the aquatic and marshy flora in Cuba, is located on quartzitic sands ecosystems and they are represented by a wide variety of freshwater wetlands, which are spread in the whole south and south-western plain of Pinar del Río. The survey carried out in these ecosystems offers an updated inventory of these species, showing up their biological type, habit, distribution, and the threat grade to which are subjected, taking into account categories granted by UICN. A remarkable decrease is evidenced, in the total of these species respect to this area; due to deposit processes and deforestation, which are taken place by the human activity and the climatic change. It is linked to others threats like, limitless use of their water reserves for irrigating groves, the cattle raising and intensive fishing. Added to it, its sand with 99% pure crystal quartz, are used for the mining. The combination of all factors has a negative influence on a flora that stores more than 250 species, most of them herbaceous and hydrophytes. In these particular ecosystems were found a 40% endemism from total flora, and more than 80%, are evaluated inside the most sensitive threat categories, and already some of them have been declared as extinct.

Keywords: Wetlands, aquatic flora, marshy flora, quartzitic sands

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3 Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Cities: Using Wastewater and Urban Wetlands as Resource

Authors: Hussnain Mukhtar, Yu-Pin Lin

Abstract:

This paper deals with the concept of ecologically engineered system for sustainable agriculture production with the view of sustainable cities development. Sustainable cities offer numerous eco-services to its inhabitants, and where, among other issues, wastewater nutrients can be considered to be a valuable resource to be used for a sustainable enhancement of urban agriculture in wetlands. Existing cities can be transferred from being only consumer of food and other agriculture product into important resource conserving and sustainable generators of these products. The review provides the food production capacity through introduction of wastewater into urban wetlands, potential for nutrient recovery and ecological engineering intervention to reduce the risk of food contamination by pathogens. Finally, we discuss the potential nutrients accumulating in our cities, as an important aspect of sustainable urban development.

Keywords: Ecological Engineering, Wetlands, Pathogens, Urban Agriculture, nutrient recovery

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2 A Critical Examination of the Iranian National Legal Regulation of the Ecosystem of Lake Urmia

Authors: Siavash Ostovar

Abstract:

The Iranian national Law on the Ramsar Convention (officially known as the Convention of International Wetlands and Aquatic Birds' Habitat Wetlands) was approved by the Senate and became a law in 1974 after the ratification of the National Council. There are other national laws with the aim of preservation of environment in the country. However, Lake Urmia which is declared a wetland of international importance by the Ramsar Convention in 1971 and designated a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in 1976 is now at the brink of total disappearance due mainly to the climate change, water mismanagement, dam construction, and agricultural deficiencies. Lake Urmia is located in the north western corner of Iran. It is the third largest salt water lake in the world and the largest lake in the Middle East. Locally, it is designated as a National Park. It is, indeed, a unique lake both nationally and internationally. This study investigated how effective the national legal regulation of the ecosystem of Lake Urmia is in Iran. To do so, the Iranian national laws as Enforcement of Ramsar Convention in the country including three nationally established laws of (i) Five sets of laws for the programme of economic, social and cultural development of Islamic Republic of Iran, (ii) The Iranian Penal Code, (iii) law of conservation, restoration and management of the country were investigated. Using black letter law methods, it was revealed that (i) regarding the national five sets of laws; the benchmark to force the implementation of the legislations and policies is not set clearly. In other words, there is no clear guarantee to enforce these legislations and policies at the time of deviation and violation; (ii) regarding the Penal Code, there is lack of determining the environmental crimes, determining appropriate penalties for the environmental crimes, implementing those penalties appropriately, monitoring and training programmes precisely; (iii) regarding the law of conservation, restoration and management, implementation of this regulation is adjourned to preparation, announcement and approval of several categories of enactments and guidelines. In fact, this study used a national environmental catastrophe caused by drying up of Lake Urmia as an excuse to direct the attention to the weaknesses of the existing national rules and regulations. Finally, as we all depend on the natural world for our survival, this study recommended further research on every environmental issue including the Lake Urmia.

Keywords: Water management, Conservation, Environmental Law, Wetlands, Ramsar Convention, national laws, Lake Urmia

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1 Assessment of Groundwater Aquifer Impact from Artificial Lagoons and the Reuse of Wastewater in Qatar

Authors: H. Aljabiry, L. Bailey, S. Young

Abstract:

Qatar is a desert with an average temperature 37⁰C, reaching over 40⁰C during summer. Precipitation is uncommon and mostly in winter. Qatar depends on desalination for drinking water and on groundwater and recycled water for irrigation. Water consumption and network leakage per capita in Qatar are amongst the highest in the world; re-use of treated wastewater is extremely limited with only 14% of treated wastewater being used for irrigation. This has led to the country disposing of unwanted water from various sources in lagoons situated around the country, causing concern over the possibility of environmental pollution. Accordingly, our hypothesis underpinning this research is that the quality and quantity of water in lagoons is having an impact on the groundwater reservoirs in Qatar. Lagoons (n = 14) and wells (n = 55) were sampled for both summer and winter in 2018 (summer and winter). Water, adjoining soil and plant samples were analysed for multiple elements by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Organic and inorganic carbon were measured (CN analyser) and the major anions were determined by ion chromatography. Salinization in both the lagoon and the wells was seen with good correlations between Cl⁻, Na⁺, Li, SO₄, S, Sr, Ca, Ti (p-value < 0.05). Association of heavy metals was observed of Ni, Cu, Ag, and V, Cr, Mo, Cd which is due to contamination from anthropological activities such as wastewater disposal or spread of contaminated dust. However, looking at each elements none of them exceeds the Qatari regulation. Moreover, gypsum saturation in the system was observed in both the lagoon and wells water samples. Lagoons and the water of the well are found to be of a saline type as well as Ca²⁺, Cl⁻, SO₄²⁻ type evidencing both gypsum dissolution and salinization in the system. Moreover, Maps produced by Inverse distance weighting showed an increasing level of Nitrate in the groundwater in winter, and decrease chloride and sulphate level, indicating recharge effect after winter rain events. While E. coli and faecal bacteria were found in most of the lagoons, biological analysis for wells needs to be conducted to understand the biological contamination from lagoon water infiltration. As a conclusion, while both the lagoon and the well showed the same results, more sampling is needed to understand the impact of the lagoons on the groundwater.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, Water management, Wetlands, Treated Wastewater, Groundwater Quality, lagoon

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