Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

western desert Related Abstracts

3 Groundwater Numerical Modeling, an Application of Remote Sensing, and GIS Techniques in South Darb El Arbaieen, Western Desert, Egypt

Authors: Abdallah M. Fayed


The study area is located in south Darb El Arbaieen, western desert of Egypt. It occupies the area between latitudes 22° 00/ and 22° 30/ North and Longitudes 29° 30/ and 30° 00/ East, from southern border of Egypt to the area north Bir Kuraiym and from the area East of East Owienat to the area west Tushka district, its area about 2750 Km2. The famous features; southern part of Darb El Arbaieen road, G Baraqat El Scab El Qarra, Bir Dibis, Bir El Shab and Bir Kuraiym, Interpretation of soil stratification shows layers that are related to Quaternary and Upper-Lower Cretaceous eras. It is dissected by a series of NE-SW striking faults. The regional groundwater flow direction is in SW-NE direction with a hydraulic gradient is 1m / 2km. Mathematical model program has been applied for evaluation of groundwater potentials in the main Aquifer –Nubian Sandstone- in the area of study and Remote sensing technique is considered powerful, accurate and saving time in this respect. These techniques are widely used for illustrating and analysis different phenomenon such as the new development in the desert (land reclamation), residential development (new communities), urbanization, etc. The major issues concerning water development objective of this work is to determine the new development areas in western desert of Egypt during the period from 2003 to 2015 using remote sensing technique, the impacts of the present and future development have been evaluated by using the two-dimensional numerical groundwater flow Simulation Package (visual modflow 4.2). The package was used to construct and calibrate a numerical model that can be used to simulate the response of the aquifer in the study area under implementing different management alternatives in the form of changes in piezometric levels and salinity. Total period of simulation is 100 years. After steady state calibration, two different scenarios are simulated for groundwater development. 21 production wells are installed at the study area and used in the model, with the total discharge for the two scenarios were 105000 m3/d, 210000 m3/d. The drawdown was 11.8 m and 23.7 m for the two scenarios in the end of 100 year. Contour maps for water heads and drawdown and hydrographs for piezometric head are represented. The drawdown was less than the half of the saturated thickness (the safe yield case).

Keywords: Remote Sensing, management of aquifer systems, simulation modeling, western desert, South Darb El Arbaieen

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2 Lithological Mapping and Iron Deposits Identification in El-Bahariya Depression, Western Desert, Egypt, Using Remote Sensing Data Analysis

Authors: Safaa M. Hassan; Safwat S. Gabr, Mohamed F. Sadek


This study is proposed for the lithological and iron oxides detection in the old mine areas of El-Bahariya Depression, Western Desert, using ASTER and Landsat-8 remote sensing data. Four old iron ore occurrences, namely; El-Gedida, El-Haraa, Ghurabi, and Nasir mine areas found in the El-Bahariya area. This study aims to find new high potential areas for iron mineralization around El-Baharyia depression. Image processing methods such as principle component analysis (PCA) and band ratios (b4/b5, b5/b6, b6/b7, and 4/2, 6/7, band 6) images were used for lithological identification/mapping that includes the iron content in the investigated area. ASTER and Landsat-8 visible and short-wave infrared data found to help mapping the ferruginous sandstones, iron oxides as well as the clay minerals in and around the old mines area of El-Bahariya depression. Landsat-8 band ratio and the principle component of this study showed well distribution of the lithological units, especially ferruginous sandstones and iron zones (hematite and limonite) along with detection of probable high potential areas for iron mineralization which can be used in the future and proved the ability of Landsat-8 and ASTER data in mapping these features. Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF), Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF), pixel purity index methods as well as Spectral Ange Mapper classifier algorithm have been successfully discriminated the hematite and limonite content within the iron zones in the study area. Various ASTER image spectra and ASD field spectra of hematite and limonite and the surrounding rocks are compared and found to be consistent in terms of the presence of absorption features at range from 1.95 to 2.3 μm for hematite and limonite. Pixel purity index algorithm and two sub-pixel spectral methods, namely Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF) and matched filtering (MF) methods, are applied to ASTER bands to delineate iron oxides (hematite and limonite) rich zones within the rock units. The results are validated in the field by comparing image spectra of spectrally anomalous zone with the USGS resampled laboratory spectra of hematite and limonite samples using ASD measurements. A number of iron oxides rich zones in addition to the main surface exposures of the El-Gadidah Mine, are confirmed in the field. The proposed method is a successful application of spectral mapping of iron oxides deposits in the exposed rock units (i.e., ferruginous sandstone) and present approach of both ASTER and ASD hyperspectral data processing can be used to delineate iron-rich zones occurring within similar geological provinces in any parts of the world.

Keywords: Lithological Mapping, ASTER, western desert, Landsat-8, iron exploration

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1 Cenomanian-Turonian Oceanic Anoxic Event, Palynofacies and Optical Kerogen Analysis in Abu Gharadig Basin, Egypt

Authors: Mohamed Ibrahim, Suzan Kholeif


The Cenomanian-Turonian boundary was a ‘greenhouse’ period. The atmosphere at that time was characterized by high CO₂; in addition, there was the widespread deposition of organic-rich sediments anomalously rich in organic carbon. The sediments, palynological, total organic carbon (TOC), stable carbon and oxygen isotopes (δ¹³C, δ¹⁸O, organic) of the Cenomanian-Turonian Bahariya and basal Abu Roash formations at the southern Tethys margin were studied in two deep wells (AG5 and AG-13), Abu Gharadig Oil Field, North Western Desert, Egypt. Some of the marine (dinoflagellate cysts), as well as the terrestrial palynoflora (spores and pollen grains), reveal extinction and origination patterns that are known elsewhere, although other species may be survived across the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary. This implies control of global changes on the palynoflora, i.e., impact of Oceanic Anoxic Event OAE2 (Bonarelli Event), rather than changes in the local environmental conditions. The basal part of the Abu Roach Formation ('G' and 'F' members, late Cenomanian) shows a positive δ ¹³C excursion of the organic fraction. The TOC is generally high between 2.20 and 3.04 % in the basal Abu Roash Formation: shale of 'G' and carbonate of 'F' members, which indicates that these two members are the main Cretaceous source rocks in the Abu Gharadig Basin and have a type I-II kerogen composition. They are distinguished by an abundance of amorphous organic matter AOM and Chlorococcalean algae, mainly Pediastrum and Scenedesmus, along with subordinate dinoflagellate cysts.

Keywords: Egypt, western desert, oceanic anoxic event, cenomanian-turonian, palynofacies

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