Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

welding Related Abstracts

14 The Strength and Metallography of a Bimetallic Friction Stir Bonded Joint between AA6061 and High Hardness Steel

Authors: Richard E. Miller

Abstract:

12.7-mm thick plates of 6061-T6511 aluminum alloy and high hardness steel (528 HV) were successfully joined by a friction stir bonding process using a tungsten-rhenium stir tool. Process parameter variation experiments, which included tool design geometry, plunge and traverse rates, tool offset, spindle tilt, and rotation speed, were conducted to develop a parameter set which yielded a defect free joint. Laboratory tensile tests exhibited yield stresses which exceed the strengths of comparable AA6061-to-AA6061 fusion and friction stir weld joints. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis also show atomic diffusion at the material interface region.

Keywords: Materials Science, welding, Dissimilar Materials, friction stir

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13 Cold Metal Transfer Welding of Dissimilar Thickness 6061-T6 to 5182-O Aluminum Alloys

Authors: A. Elrefaei

Abstract:

The possibility of having sheets with different thicknesses and materials in one assembly facilitates the optimal material distribution within the final product and reduces the weight of the structure. Ability of joining process to assembly these different material combinations is always a challenge to the designer. In this study, 0.6 mm thick 6061-T6 and 2 mm thick 5182-O were robot CMT welded using ER5356 and ER4043 filler metals. The thermal effect of welding resulted in a loss of hardness in the 6061 HAZ. Joints welded by ER5356 filler metal were much higher in fracture load than joints welded by ER4043 and the elongation of joints welded by ER5356 was almost double its corresponding joints welded by ER4043 filler. Owing to the big difference in formability and thickness of base metals, the fracture in forming test occurred in the softened 6061 HAZ out from the weld centerline.

Keywords: Mechanical, welding, Aluminum, CMT

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12 Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructural Evolution in Weld Region of X70 Pipeline Steel

Authors: K. Digheche, K. Saadi, Z. Boumerzoug

Abstract:

Welding is one of the most important technological processes used in many branches of industry such as industrial engineering, shipbuilding, pipeline fabrication among others. Generally, welding is the preferred joining method and most common steels are weldable. This investigation is a contribution to scientific work of welding of low carbon steel. This work presents the results of the isothermal heat treatment effect at 200, 400 and 600 °C on microstructural evolution in weld region of X70 pipeline steel. The welding process has been realized in three passes by industrial arc welding. We have found that the heat treatments cause grain growth reaction.

Keywords: welding, Microstructures, low carbon steel, heat treatments

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11 The Effects of Gas Metal Arc Welding Parameters on the Corrosion Behaviour of Austenitic Stainless Steel Immersed in Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide

Authors: F. G. Okibe, I. M. B. Omiogbemi, D. S. Yawas, I. M. Dagwa

Abstract:

This work present the effects of some gas metal arc welding parameters on the corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steel, exposed to 0.5M sodium hydroxide at ambient temperatures (298K) using conventional weight loss determination, together with surface morphology evaluation by scanning electron microscopy and the application of factorial design of experiment to determine welding conditions which enhance the integrity of the welded stainless steel. The welding variables evaluated include speed, voltage and current. Different samples of the welded stainless steels were immersed in the corrosion environment for 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 days and weight loss determined. From the results, it was found that increase in welding current and speed at constant voltage gave the optimum performance of the austenitic stainless steel in the environment. At a of speed 40cm/min, 110Amp current and voltage of 230 volt the welded stainless steel showed only a 0.0015mg loss in weight after 40 days. Pit-like openings were observed on the surface of the metals indicating corrosion but were minimal at the optimum conditions. It was concluded from the research that relatively high welding speed and current at a constant voltage gives a good welded austenitic stainless steel with better integrity.

Keywords: welding, Speed, current, austenitic stainless steel, sodium hydroxide

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10 A Study on the Pulse Transformer Design Considering Inrush Current in the Welding Machine

Authors: Ju Lee, Hyun-Seok Hong, Dong-Woo Kang, In-Gun Kim

Abstract:

An Inverter type arc-welding machine is inclined to be designed for higher frequency in order to reduce the size and cost. The need of the core material reconsideration for high frequency pulse transformer is more important since core loss grows as the frequency rises. An arc welding machine’s pulse transformer is designed using an Area Product (Ap) method and is considered margin air gap core design in order to prevent the burning of the IGBT by the inrush current. Finally, the reduction of the core weight and the core size are compared according to different materials for 30kW inverter type arc welding machine.

Keywords: welding, Pulse Transformers, inrush current, air gaps

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9 BLDC Motor Design Considering Core Loss Caused by Welding

Authors: Ju Lee, Hyun-Seok Hong, In-Gun Kim, Ye-Jun Oh

Abstract:

This paper deals with the effects of welding performed for the manufacture of laminations in a stator in the case of prototype motors that are manufactured in small quantity. As a result of performing the no-load test for an IPM (interior permanent magnet)-type BLDC (blushless direct current) motor manufactured by welding both inside and outside of the stator, it was found that more DC input than expected was provided. To verify the effects of welding, a stator was re-manufactured by bonding, and DC inputs provided during the no-load test were compared.

Keywords: welding, BLDC, eddy current, stator

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8 High-Temperature Corrosion of Weldment of Fe-2%Mn-0.5%Si Steel in N2/H2O/H2S-Mixed Gas

Authors: Sang Hwan Bak, Min Jung Kim, Dong Bok Lee

Abstract:

Fe-2%Mn-0.5%Si-0.2C steel was welded and corroded at 600, 700 and 800oC for 20 h in 1 atm of N2/H2S/H2O-mixed gas in order to characterize the high-temperature corrosion behavior of the welded joint. Corrosion proceeded fast and almost linearly. It increased with an increase in the corrosion temperature. H2S formed FeS owing to sulfur released from H2S. The scales were fragile and nonadherent.

Keywords: Corrosion, welding, H2S gas, sulfidation, Fe-Mn-Si steel

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7 Experimental Investigation on Effects of Carrier Solvent and Oxide Fluxes in Activated TIG Welding of Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic Steel

Authors: Jay J. Vora, Vishvesh J. Badheka

Abstract:

This work attempts to investigate the effect of oxide fluxes on 6mm thick Reduced Activation ferritic/martensitic steels (RAFM) during Activated TIG (A-TIG) welding. Six different fluxes Al₂O₃, Co₃O₄, CuO, HgO, MoO₃, and NiO were mixed with methanol for conversion into paste and bead-on-plate experiments were then carried out. This study, systematically investigates the influence of oxide-based flux powder and carrier solvent composition on the weld bead shape, geometric shape of weld bead and dominant depth enhancing mechanism in tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel. It was inferred from the study that flux Co₃O₄ and MoO₃ imparted full and secure (more than 6mm) penetration with methanol owing to dual mechanism of reversed Marangoni and arc construction. The use of methanol imparted good spreadabilty and coverability and ultimately higher peak temperatures were observed with its use owing to stronger depth enhancing mechanisms than use of acetone with same oxide fluxes and welding conditions.

Keywords: welding, temperature, Oxides, penetration, flux, A-TIG, RAFM

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6 Experimental and Numerical Studies of Droplet Formation

Authors: Khaled Al-Badani, James Ren, Lisa Li, David Allanson

Abstract:

Droplet formation is an important process in many engineering systems and manufacturing procedures, which includes welding, biotechnologies, 3D printing, biochemical, biomedical fields and many more. The volume and the characteristics of droplet formation are generally depended on various material properties, microfluidics and fluid mechanics considerations. Hence, a detailed investigation of this process, with the aid of numerical computational tools, are essential for future design optimization and process controls of many engineering systems. This will also improve the understanding of changes in the properties and the structures of materials, during the formation of the droplet, which is important for new material developments to achieve different functions, pending the requirements of the application. For example, the shape of the formed droplet is critical for the function of some final products, such as the welding nugget during Capacitor Discharge Welding process, or PLA 3D printing, etc. Although, most academic journals on droplet formation, focused on issued with material transfer rate, surface tension and residual stresses, the general emphasis on the characteristics of droplet shape has been overlooked. The proposed work for this project will examine theoretical methodologies, experimental techniques, and numerical modelling, using ANSYS FLUENT, to critically analyse and highlight optimization methods regarding the formation of pendant droplet. The project will also compare results from published data with experimental and numerical work, concerning the effects of key material parameters on the droplet shape. These effects include changes in heating/cooling rates, solidification/melting progression and separation/break-up times. From these tests, a set of objectives is prepared, with an intention of improving quality, stability and productivity in modelling metal welding and 3D printing.

Keywords: welding, Computer Modelling, Materials Forming, droplet formation, material distortion

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5 The Effect of Metal Transfer Modes on Mechanical Properties of 3CR12 Stainless Steel

Authors: Abdullah Kaymakci, Daniel M. Madyira, Ntokozo Nkwanyana

Abstract:

The effect of metal transfer modes on mechanical properties of welded 3CR12 stainless steel were investigated. This was achieved by butt welding 10 mm thick plates of 3CR12 in different positions while varying the welding positions for different metal transfer modes. The ASME IX: 2010 (Welding and Brazing Qualifications) code was used as a basis for welding variables. The material and the thickness of the base metal were kept constant together with the filler metal, shielding gas and joint types. The effect of the metal transfer modes on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the 3CR12 steel was then investigated as it was hypothesized that the change in welding positions will affect the transfer modes partly due to the effect of gravity. The microscopic examination revealed that the substrate was characterized by dual phase microstructure, that is, alpha phase and beta phase grain structures. Using the spectroscopic examination results and the ferritic factor calculation had shown that the microstructure was expected to be ferritic-martensitic during air cooling process. The tested tensile strength and Charpy impact energy were measured to be 498 MPa and 102 J which were in line with mechanical properties given in the material certificate. The heat input in the material was observed to be greater than 1 kJ/mm which is the limiting factor for grain growth during the welding process. Grain growths were observed in the heat affected zone of the welded materials. Ferritic-martensitic microstructure was observed in the microstructure during the microscopic examination. The grain growth altered the mechanical properties of the test material. Globular down hand had higher mechanical properties than spray down hand. Globular vertical up had better mechanical properties than globular vertical down.

Keywords: Microstructure, welding, Hardness, Tensile Strength, stainless steel, metal transfer modes

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4 Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Micro-Welding Process and Applications in Digital Manufacturing

Authors: Khaled Al-Badani, James Ren, Andrew Norbury, Essam Elmshawet, Glynn Rotwell, Ian Jenkinson

Abstract:

Micro welding procedures are widely used for joining materials, developing duplex components or functional surfaces, through various methods such as Micro Discharge Welding or Spot Welding process, which can be found in the engineering, aerospace, automotive, biochemical, biomedical and numerous other industries. The relationship between the material properties, structure and processing is very important to improve the structural integrity and the final performance of the welded joints. This includes controlling the shape and the size of the welding nugget, state of the heat affected zone, residual stress, etc. Nowadays, modern high volume productions require the welding of much versatile shapes/sizes and material systems that are suitable for various applications. Hence, an improved understanding of the micro welding process and the digital tools, which are based on computational numerical modelling linking key welding parameters, dimensional attributes and functional performance of the weldment, would directly benefit the industry in developing products that meet current and future market demands. This paper will introduce recent work on developing an integrated experimental and numerical modelling code for micro welding techniques. This includes similar and dissimilar materials for both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, at different scales. The paper will also produce a comparative study, concerning the differences between the micro discharge welding process and the spot welding technique, in regards to the size effect of the welding zone and the changes in the material structure. Numerical modelling method for the micro welding processes and its effects on the material properties, during melting and cooling progression at different scales, will also be presented. Finally, the applications of the integrated numerical modelling and the material development for the digital manufacturing of welding, is discussed with references to typical application cases such as sensors (thermocouples), energy (heat exchanger) and automotive structures (duplex steel structures).

Keywords: welding, Computer Modelling, Materials Forming, droplet formation, material distortion

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3 The Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Joining Processes for Air Conditioning Systems

Authors: M.St. Węglowski, D. Miara, S. Błacha, J. Dworak, J. Rykała, K. Kwieciński, J. Pikuła, G. Ziobro, A. Szafron, P. Zimierska-Nowak, M. Richert, P. Noga

Abstract:

In the paper the results of welding of car’s air-conditioning elements are presented. These systems based on, mainly, the environmental unfriendly refrigerants. Thus, the producers of cars will have to stop using traditional refrigerant and to change it to carbon dioxide (R744). This refrigerant is environmental friendly. However, it should be noted that the air condition system working with R744 refrigerant operates at high temperature (up to 150 °C) and high pressure (up to 130 bar). These two parameters are much higher than for other refrigerants. Thus new materials, design as well as joining technologies are strongly needed for these systems. AISI 304 and 316L steels as well as aluminium alloys 5xxx are ranked among the prospective materials. As a joining process laser welding, plasma welding, electron beam welding as well as high rotary friction welding can be applied. In the study, the metallographic examination based on light microscopy as well as SEM was applied to estimate the quality of welded joints. The analysis of welding was supported by numerical modelling based on Sysweld software. The results indicated that using laser, plasma and electron beam welding, it is possible to obtain proper quality of welds in stainless steel. Moreover, high rotary friction welding allows to guarantee the metallic continuity in the aluminium welded area. The metallographic examination revealed that the grain growth in the heat affected zone (HAZ) in laser and electron beam welded joints were not observed. It is due to low heat input and short welding time. The grain growth and subgrains can be observed at room temperature when the solidification mode is austenitic. This caused low microstructural changes during solidification. The columnar grain structure was found in the weld metal. Meanwhile, the equiaxed grains were detected in the interface. The numerical modelling of laser welding process allowed to estimate the temperature profile in the welded joint as well as predicts the dimensions of welds. The agreement between FEM analysis and experimental data was achieved.  

Keywords: Microstructure, welding, Numerical Modelling, car’s air–conditioning

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2 Comparison of Mechanical Property of UNS C12200Joints Brazed by (Cu&Ag) Based Filler Metals

Authors: Ali Elhatmi, Mustafa Elshbo, Hussin Alosta

Abstract:

In this study the coper tube witch used in medical applications was brazed by Copper, Zink and Silver alloys, using BCuP2, RBCuZnAl and BAg2 filler metals. The sample of the medical tubes was chemically analyzed and the result matches the British standard. Tensile and hardness tests were carried out for brazed joints, and the tensile test results show that the BCuP2 has the hardest and the filler metal RBCuZnAl has the highest tensile strength.

Keywords: welding, joints, brazing, Copper tubes

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1 Corrosion Analysis and Interfacial Characterization of Al – Steel Metal Inert Gas Weld - Braze Dissimilar Joints by Micro Area X-Ray Diffraction Technique

Authors: S. S. Sravanthi, Swati Ghosh Acharyya

Abstract:

Automotive light weighting is of major prominence in the current times due to its contribution in improved fuel economy and reduced environmental pollution. Various arc welding technologies are being employed in the production of automobile components with reduced weight. The present study is of practical importance since it involves preferential substitution of Zinc coated mild steel with a light weight alloy such as 6061 Aluminium by means of Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) – Brazing technique at different processing parameters. However, the fabricated joints have shown the generation of Al – Fe layer at the interfacial regions which was confirmed by the Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy. These Al-Fe compounds not only affect the mechanical strength, but also predominantly deteriorate the corrosion resistance of the joints. Hence, it is essential to understand the phases formed in this layer and their crystal structure. Micro area X - ray diffraction technique has been exclusively used for this study. Moreover, the crevice corrosion analysis at the joint interfaces was done by exposing the joints to 5 wt.% FeCl3 solution at regular time intervals as per ASTM G 48-03. The joints have shown a decreased crevice corrosion resistance with increased heat intensity. Inner surfaces of welds have shown severe oxide cracking and a remarkable weight loss when exposed to concentrated FeCl3. The weight loss was enhanced with decreased filler wire feed rate and increased heat intensity. 

Keywords: Corrosion, welding, Automobiles, lap joints, Micro XRD

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