Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Weathering Related Abstracts

7 Weathering of a Calcarenite Stone in the Archaeological Site of Volubilis – Morocco

Authors: Issam Aalil, Kevin Beck, Khalid Cherkaoui, Xavier Brunetaud, Ali Chaaba, Muzahim Al-Mukhtar

Abstract:

Volubilis is the most important archaeological site in Morocco. It was founded in the 3rd century B.C about thirty kilometres north of Meknes and has been registered on the UNESCO World Heritage list since 1997. The site is located in a region where reigns the semi-arid continental climate, characterized by strong thermal amplitudes. A beige-yellowish calcarenite limestone is the most largely used on Volubilis site, representing about 60% of the total volume of building stones. This limestone is mainly affected by scaling and sanding according to field observations. In order to preserve monuments of this site, characterization of calcarenite weathering is essential. This work aims at investigating the nature of the dominant weathering. For this goal, mineralogical compositions of deteriorated and fresh samples are compared. Besides, the risk of damage by thermal stresses is estimated. The results of this study show that there is no major difference observed between the mineralogy of the fresh and weathered calcarenite samples. Otherwise, thermal stresses may have an important role in the weathering of calcarenite limestone by fatigue.

Keywords: Characterisation, Stone, Weathering, thermal stresses, Volubilis

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
6 Provenance and Paleoweathering Conditions of Doganhisar Clay Beds

Authors: Mehmet Yavuz Hüseyinca

Abstract:

The clay beds are located at the south-southeast of Doğanhisar and northwest of Konya in the Central Anatolia. In the scope of preliminary study, three types of samples were investigated including basement phyllite (Bp) overlain by the clay beds, weathered phyllite (Wp) and Doğanhisar clay (Dc). The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) values of Dc range from 81 to 88 with an average of 85. This value is higher than that of Post Archean Australian Shale (PAAS) and defines very intense chemical weathering in the source-area. On the other hand, the A-CN-K diagram indicates that Bp underwent high degree post-depositional K-metasomatism. The average reconstructed CIA value of the Bp prior to the K-metasomatism is mainly 81 which overlaps the CIA values of the Wp (83) and Dc (85). Similar CIA values indicate parallel weathering trends. Also, extrapolation of the samples back to the plagioclase-alkali feldspar line in the A-CN-K diagram suggests an identical provenance close to granite in composition. Hereby the weathering background of Dc includes two steps. First one is intense weathering process of a granitic source to Bp with post-depositional K-metasomatism and the latter is progressively weathering of Bp to premetasomatised conditions (formation of Wp) ending with Dc deposition.

Keywords: Provenance, Weathering, clay beds, Doganhisar

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
5 Description of Geotechnical Properties of Jabal Omar

Authors: Ibrahim Abdel Gadir Malik, Dafalla Siddig Dafalla, Osama Abdelgadir El-Bushra

Abstract:

Geological and engineering characteristics of intact rock and the discontinuity surfaces was used to describe and classify rock mass into zones based on mechanical and physical properties. Many conditions terms that affect the rock mas; such as Rock strength, Rock Quality Designation (RQD) value, joint spacing, and condition of joint, water condition with block size, joint roughness, separation, joint hardness, friction angle and weathering were used to classify the rock mass into: Good quality (class II) (RMR values range between 75% and 56%), Good to fair quality (class II to III) (RMR values range between 70% and 55%), Fair quality (class III) (RMR values range between 60% and 50%) and Fair to poor quality (Class III to IV) (RMR values, range between (50% and 35%).

Keywords: Weathering, Rock Strength, joints, RQD

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
4 Geochemical Investigation of Weathering and Sorting for Tepeköy Sandstones

Authors: Şuayip Küpeli, M. Yavuz Hüseyinca

Abstract:

The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) values of Late Eocene-Oligocene aged sandstones that exposed on the eastern edge of Tuz Lake (Central Anatolia, Turkey) range from 49 to 59 with an average of 51. The A-CN-K diagram indicates that sandstones underwent post-depositional K-metasomatism. The original average CIA value before the K-metasomatism is calculated as 55. This value is lower than that of Post Archean Australian Shale (PAAS) and defines a low intense chemical weathering in the source-area. Extrapolation of sandstones back to the plagioclase-alkali feldspar line in the A-CN-K diagram suggests a high average plagioclase to alkali feldspar ratio in the provenance and a composition close to granodiorite. The Zr/Sc and Th/Sc ratios with the Al₂O₃-Zr-TiO₂ space do not show zircon addition that refuse both recycling of sediments and sorting effect. All these data suggest direct and rapid transportation from the source due to topographic uplift and probably arid to semi-arid climate conditions for the sandstones.

Keywords: Sorting, Weathering, sandstone, central anatolia

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
3 Effect of Weathering on the Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Sediments of the Hyper Saline Urmia Salt Lake, Iran

Authors: Samad Alipour, Khadije Mosavi Onlaghi

Abstract:

Urmia Salt Lake (USL) is a hypersaline lake in the northwest of Iran. It contains halite as main dissolved and precipitated mineral and the major mineral mixed with lake bed sediments. Other detrital minerals such as calcite, aragonite, dolomite, quartz, feldspars, augite are forming lake sediments. This study examined the impact of weathering of this sediments collected from 1.5 meters depth and augite placers. The study indicated that weathering of tephritic and adakite rocks of the Islamic Island at the immediate boundary of the lake play a main control of lake bed sediments and has produced a large volume of augite placer along the lake bank. Weathering increases from south to toward north with increasing distance from Islamic Island. Geochemistry of lake sediments demonstrated the enrichment of MgO, CaO, Sr with an elevated anomaly of Eu, possibly due to surface absorbance of Mn and Fe associated Sr elevation originating from adakite volcanic rocks in the vicinity of the lake basin. The study shows the local geology is the major factor in origin of lake sediments than chemical and biochemical produced mineral during diagenetic processes.

Keywords: Mineralogy, Weathering, Iran, Urmia Lake, augite

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
2 Determination of Weathering at Kilistra Ancient City by Using Non-Destructive Techniques, Central Anatolia, Turkey

Authors: İsmail İnce, Osman Günaydin, Fatma Özer

Abstract:

Stones used in the construction of historical structures are exposed to various direct or indirect atmospheric effects depending on climatic conditions. Building stones deteriorate partially or fully as a result of this exposure. The historic structures are important symbols of any cultural heritage. Therefore, it is important to protect and restore these historical structures. The aim of this study is to determine the weathering conditions at the Kilistra ancient city. It is located in the southwest of the Konya city, Central Anatolia, and was built by carving into pyroclastic rocks during the Byzantine Era. For this purpose, the petrographic and mechanical properties of the pyroclastic rocks were determined. In the assessment of weathering of structures in the ancient city, in-situ non-destructive testing (i.e., Schmidt hardness rebound value, relative humidity measurement) methods were applied.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Weathering, Kilistra ancient city, non-destructive techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
1 Effects of Temperature and Mechanical Abrasion on Microplastics

Authors: N. Singh, G. K. Darbha

Abstract:

Since the last decade, a wave of research has begun to study the prevalence and impact of ever-increasing plastic pollution in the environment. The wide application and ubiquitous distribution of plastic have become a global concern due to its persistent nature. The disposal of plastics has emerged as one of the major challenges for waste management landfills. Microplastics (MPs) have found its existence in almost every environment, from the high altitude mountain lake to the deep sea sediments, polar icebergs, coral reefs, estuaries, beaches, and river, etc. Microplastics are fragments of plastics with size less than 5 mm. Microplastics can be classified as primary microplastics and secondary microplastics. Primary microplastics includes purposefully introduced microplastics into the end products for consumers (microbeads used in facial cleansers, personal care product, etc.), pellets (used in manufacturing industries) or fibres (from textile industries) which finally enters into the environment. Secondary microplastics are formed by disintegration of larger fragments under the exposure of sunlight, mechanical abrasive forces by rain, waves, wind and/or water. A number of factors affect the quantity of microplastic present in freshwater environments. In addition to physical forces, human population density proximal to the water body, proximity to urban centres, water residence time, and size of the water body also affects plastic properties. With time, other complex processes in nature such as physical, chemical and biological break down plastics by interfering with its structural integrity. Several studies demonstrate that microplastics found in wastewater sludge being used as manure for agricultural fields, thus having the tendency to alter the soil environment condition influencing the microbial population as well. Inadequate data are available on the fate and transport of microplastics under varying environmental conditions that are required to supplement important information for further research. In addition, microplastics have the tendency to absorb heavy metals and hydrophobic organic contaminants such as PAHs and PCBs from its surroundings and thus acting as carriers for these contaminants in the environment system. In this study, three kinds of microplastics (polyethylene, polypropylene and expanded polystyrene) of different densities were chosen. Plastic samples were placed in sand with different aqueous media (distilled water, surface water, groundwater and marine water). It was incubated at varying temperatures (25, 35 and 40 °C) and agitation levels (rpm). The results show that the number of plastic fragments enhanced with increase in temperature and agitation speed. Moreover, the rate of disintegration of expanded polystyrene is high compared to other plastics. These results demonstrate that temperature, salinity, and mechanical abrasion plays a major role in degradation of plastics. Since weathered microplastics are more harmful as compared to the virgin microplastics, long-term studies involving other environmental factors are needed to have a better understanding of degradation of plastics.

Keywords: temperature, Fragmentation, Environmental Contamination, Weathering, Microplastics

Procedia PDF Downloads 36