Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Wavelet Transform Related Abstracts

18 Video Compression Using Contourlet Transform

Authors: Delara Kazempour, Mashallah Abasi Dezfuli, Reza Javidan


Video compression used for channels with limited bandwidth and storage devices has limited storage capabilities. One of the most popular approaches in video compression is the usage of different transforms. Discrete cosine transform is one of the video compression methods that have some problems such as blocking, noising and high distortion inappropriate effect in compression ratio. wavelet transform is another approach is better than cosine transforms in balancing of compression and quality but the recognizing of curve curvature is so limit. Because of the importance of the compression and problems of the cosine and wavelet transforms, the contourlet transform is most popular in video compression. In the new proposed method, we used contourlet transform in video image compression. Contourlet transform can save details of the image better than the previous transforms because this transform is multi-scale and oriented. This transform can recognize discontinuity such as edges. In this approach we lost data less than previous approaches. Contourlet transform finds discrete space structure. This transform is useful for represented of two dimension smooth images. This transform, produces compressed images with high compression ratio along with texture and edge preservation. Finally, the results show that the majority of the images, the parameters of the mean square error and maximum signal-to-noise ratio of the new method based contourlet transform compared to wavelet transform are improved but in most of the images, the parameters of the mean square error and maximum signal-to-noise ratio in the cosine transform is better than the method based on contourlet transform.

Keywords: Wavelet Transform, Video Compression, contourlet transform, discrete cosine transform

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17 ANFIS Approach for Locating Faults in Underground Cables

Authors: Magdy B. Eteiba, Wael Ismael Wahba, Shimaa Barakat


This paper presents a fault identification, classification and fault location estimation method based on Discrete Wavelet Transform and Adaptive Network Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for medium voltage cable in the distribution system. Different faults and locations are simulated by ATP/EMTP, and then certain selected features of the wavelet transformed signals are used as an input for a training process on the ANFIS. Then an accurate fault classifier and locator algorithm was designed, trained and tested using current samples only. The results obtained from ANFIS output were compared with the real output. From the results, it was found that the percentage error between ANFIS output and real output is less than three percent. Hence, it can be concluded that the proposed technique is able to offer high accuracy in both of the fault classification and fault location.

Keywords: Wavelet Transform, ANFIS, underground cable, fault location

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16 Applying Wavelet Transform to Ferroresonance Detection and Protection

Authors: Chun-Wei Huang, Jyh-Cherng Gu, Ming-Ta Yang


Non-synchronous breakage or line failure in power systems with light or no loads can lead to core saturation in transformers or potential transformers. This can cause component and capacitance matching resulting in the formation of resonant circuits, which trigger ferroresonance. This study employed a wavelet transform for the detection of ferroresonance. Simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.

Keywords: Wavelet Transform, transformer, ferroresonance, intelligent electronic device

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15 An Efficient Encryption Scheme Using DWT and Arnold Transforms

Authors: Ali Abdrhman M. Ukasha


Data security needed in data transmission, storage, and communication to ensure the security. The color image is decomposed into red, green, and blue channels. The blue and green channels are compressed using 3-levels discrete wavelet transform. The Arnold transform uses to changes the locations of red image channel pixels as image scrambling process. Then all these channels are encrypted separately using a key image that has same original size and is generating using private keys and modulo operations. Performing the X-OR and modulo operations between the encrypted channels images for image pixel values change purpose. The extracted contours of color image recovery can be obtained with accepted level of distortion using Canny edge detector. Experiments have demonstrated that proposed algorithm can fully encrypt 2D color image and completely reconstructed without any distortion. It has shown that the color image can be protected with a higher security level. The presented method has easy hardware implementation and suitable for multimedia protection in real time applications such as wireless networks and mobile phone services.

Keywords: Wavelet Transform, color image, Arnold transform, edge detector, lossy image encryption

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14 Secure Message Transmission Using Meaningful Shares

Authors: Ajish Sreedharan


Visual cryptography encodes a secret image into shares of random binary patterns. If the shares are exerted onto transparencies, the secret image can be visually decoded by superimposing a qualified subset of transparencies, but no secret information can be obtained from the superposition of a forbidden subset. The binary patterns of the shares, however, have no visual meaning and hinder the objectives of visual cryptography. In the Secret Message Transmission through Meaningful Shares a secret message to be transmitted is converted to grey scale image. Then (2,2) visual cryptographic shares are generated from this converted gray scale image. The shares are encrypted using A Chaos-Based Image Encryption Algorithm Using Wavelet Transform. Two separate color images which are of the same size of the shares, taken as cover image of the respective shares to hide the shares into them. The encrypted shares which are covered by meaningful images so that a potential eavesdropper wont know there is a message to be read. The meaningful shares are transmitted through two different transmission medium. During decoding shares are fetched from received meaningful images and decrypted using A Chaos-Based Image Encryption Algorithm Using Wavelet Transform. The shares are combined to regenerate the grey scale image from where the secret message is obtained.

Keywords: Wavelet Transform, visual cryptography, meaningful shares, grey scale image

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13 Color Image Compression/Encryption/Contour Extraction using 3L-DWT and SSPCE Method

Authors: Ali A. Ukasha, Majdi F. Elbireki, Mohammad F. Abdullah


Data security needed in data transmission, storage, and communication to ensure the security. This paper is divided into two parts. This work interests with the color image which is decomposed into red, green and blue channels. The blue and green channels are compressed using 3-levels discrete wavelet transform. The Arnold transform uses to changes the locations of red image channel pixels as image scrambling process. Then all these channels are encrypted separately using the key image that has same original size and are generating using private keys and modulo operations. Performing the X-OR and modulo operations between the encrypted channels images for image pixel values change purpose. The extracted contours from color images recovery can be obtained with accepted level of distortion using single step parallel contour extraction (SSPCE) method. Experiments have demonstrated that proposed algorithm can fully encrypt 2D Color images and completely reconstructed without any distortion. Also shown that the analyzed algorithm has extremely large security against some attacks like salt and pepper and Jpeg compression. Its proof that the color images can be protected with a higher security level. The presented method has easy hardware implementation and suitable for multimedia protection in real time applications such as wireless networks and mobile phone services.

Keywords: Wavelet Transform, color image, SSPCE method, bitplanes decomposition, Arnold transform, lossless image encryption, image compression and salt and peppers attacks

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12 Robust Medical Image Watermarking based on Contourlet and Extraction Using ICA

Authors: S. Saju, G. Thirugnanam


In this paper, a medical image watermarking algorithm based on contourlet is proposed. Medical image watermarking is a special subcategory of image watermarking in the sense that images have special requirements. Watermarked medical images should not differ perceptually from their original counterparts because clinical reading of images must not be affected. Watermarking techniques based on wavelet transform are reported in many literatures but robustness and security using contourlet are better when compared to wavelet transform. The main challenge in exploring geometry in images comes from the discrete nature of the data. In this paper, original image is decomposed to two level using contourlet and the watermark is embedded in the resultant sub-bands. Sub-band selection is based on the value of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) that is calculated between watermarked and original image. To extract the watermark, Kernel ICA is used and it has a novel characteristic is that it does not require the transformation process to extract the watermark. Simulation results show that proposed scheme is robust against attacks such as Salt and Pepper noise, Median filtering and rotation. The performance measures like PSNR and Similarity measure are evaluated and compared with Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) to prove the robustness of the scheme. Simulations are carried out using Matlab Software.

Keywords: Digital Watermarking, Wavelet Transform, independent component analysis, contourlet

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11 The Effect of General Corrosion on the Guided Wave Inspection of the Pipeline

Authors: Shiuh-Kuang Yang, Sheam-Chyun Lin, Jyin-Wen Cheng, Deng-Guei Hsu


The torsional mode of guided wave, T(0,1), has been applied to detect characteristics and defects in pipelines, especially in the cases of coated, elevated and buried pipes. The signals of minor corrosions would be covered by the noise, unfortunately, because the coated material and buried medium always induce a strong attenuation of the guided wave. Furthermore, the guided wave would be attenuated more seriously and make the signals hard to be identified when setting the array ring of the transducers on a general corrosion area of the pipe. The objective of this study is then to discuss the effects of the above-mentioned general corrosion on guided wave tests by experiments and signal processing techniques, based on the use of the finite element method, the two-dimensional Fourier transform and the continuous wavelet transform. Results show that the excitation energy would be reduced when the array ring set on the pipe surface having general corrosion. The non-uniformed contact surface also produces the unwanted asymmetric modes of the propagating guided wave. Some of them are even mixing together with T(0,1) mode and increase the difficulty of measurements, especially when a defect or local corrosion merged in the general corrosion area. It is also showed that the guided waves attenuation are increasing with the increasing corrosion depth or the rising inspection frequency. However, the coherent signals caused by the general corrosion would be decayed with increasing frequency. The results obtained from this research should be able to provide detectors to understand the impact when the array ring set on the area of general corrosion and the way to distinguish the localized corrosion which is inside the area of general corrosion.

Keywords: Wavelet Transform, Finite Element Method, guided wave, two-dimensional fourier transform, general corrosion, localized corrosion

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10 Design of a Real Time Heart Sounds Recognition System

Authors: Omer Abdalla Ishag, Magdi Baker Amien


Physicians used the stethoscope for listening patient heart sounds in order to make a diagnosis. However, the determination of heart conditions by acoustic stethoscope is a difficult task so it requires special training of medical staff. This study developed an accurate model for analyzing the phonocardiograph signal based on PC and DSP processor. The system has been realized into two phases; offline and real time phase. In offline phase, 30 cases of heart sounds files were collected from medical students and doctor's world website. For experimental phase (real time), an electronic stethoscope has been designed, implemented and recorded signals from 30 volunteers, 17 were normal cases and 13 were various pathologies cases, these acquired 30 signals were preprocessed using an adaptive filter to remove lung sounds. The background noise has been removed from both offline and real data, using wavelet transform, then graphical and statistics features vector elements were extracted, finally a look-up table was used for classification heart sounds cases. The obtained results of the implemented system showed accuracy of 90%, 80% and sensitivity of 87.5%, 82.4% for offline data, and real data respectively. The whole system has been designed on TMS320VC5509a DSP Platform.

Keywords: Wavelet Transform, code composer studio, heart sounds, phonocardiograph

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9 Device Control Using Brain Computer Interface

Authors: P. Neeraj, Anurag Sharma, Harsukhpreet Singh


In current years, Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) scheme based on steady-state Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP) have earned much consideration. This study tries to evolve an SSVEP based BCI scheme that can regulate any gadget mock-up in two unique positions ON and OFF. In this paper, two distinctive gleam frequencies in low-frequency part were utilized to evoke the SSVEPs and were shown on a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screen utilizing Lab View. Two stimuli shading, Yellow, and Blue were utilized to prepare the system in SSVEPs. The Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals recorded from the occipital part. Elements of the brain were separated by utilizing discrete wavelet Transform. A prominent system for multilayer system diverse Neural Network Algorithm (NNA), is utilized to characterize SSVEP signals. During training of the network with diverse calculation Regression plot results demonstrated that when Levenberg-Marquardt preparing calculation was utilized the exactness turns out to be 93.9%, which is superior to another training algorithm.

Keywords: Neural Network, Brain Computer Interface, Electroencephalography, Wavelet Transform, steady-state visual evoked potential

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8 Classifications of Sleep Apnea (Obstructive, Central, Mixed) and Hypopnea Events Using Wavelet Packet Transform and Support Vector Machines (VSM)

Authors: Benghenia Hadj Abd El Kader


Sleep apnea events as obstructive, central, mixed or hypopnea are characterized by frequent breathing cessations or reduction in upper airflow during sleep. An advanced method for analyzing the patterning of biomedical signals to recognize obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea is presented. In the aim to extract characteristic parameters, which will be used for classifying the above stated (obstructive, central, mixed) sleep apnea and hypopnea, the proposed method is based first on the analysis of polysomnography signals such as electrocardiogram signal (ECG) and electromyogram (EMG), then classification of the (obstructive, central, mixed) sleep apnea and hypopnea. The analysis is carried out using the wavelet transform technique in order to extract characteristic parameters whereas classification is carried out by applying the SVM (support vector machine) technique. The obtained results show good recognition rates using characteristic parameters.

Keywords: EMG, mixed, Wavelet Transform, ECG, SVM classifier, obstructive, central, sleep apnea, hypopnea

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7 Effects of Various Wavelet Transforms in Dynamic Analysis of Structures

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi, Sadegh Balaghi, Ehsan Khojastehfar


Time history dynamic analysis of structures is considered as an exact method while being computationally intensive. Filtration of earthquake strong ground motions applying wavelet transform is an approach towards reduction of computational efforts, particularly in optimization of structures against seismic effects. Wavelet transforms are categorized into continuum and discrete transforms. Since earthquake strong ground motion is a discrete function, the discrete wavelet transform is applied in the present paper. Wavelet transform reduces analysis time by filtration of non-effective frequencies of strong ground motion. Filtration process may be repeated several times while the approximation induces more errors. In this paper, strong ground motion of earthquake has been filtered once applying each wavelet. Strong ground motion of Northridge earthquake is filtered applying various wavelets and dynamic analysis of sampled shear and moment frames is implemented. The error, regarding application of each wavelet, is computed based on comparison of dynamic response of sampled structures with exact responses. Exact responses are computed by dynamic analysis of structures applying non-filtered strong ground motion.

Keywords: Wavelet Transform, computational error, computational duration, strong ground motion data

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6 Detection of Voltage Sag and Voltage Swell in Power Quality Using Wavelet Transforms

Authors: Nor Asrina Binti Ramlee


Voltage sag, voltage swell, high-frequency noise and voltage transients are kinds of disturbances in power quality. They are also known as power quality events. Equipment used in the industry nowadays has become more sensitive to these events with the increasing complexity of equipment. This leads to the importance of distributing clean power quality to the consumer. To provide better service, the best analysis on power quality is very vital. Thus, this paper presents the events detection focusing on voltage sag and swell. The method is developed by applying time domain signal analysis using wavelet transform approach in MATLAB. Four types of mother wavelet namely Haar, Dmey, Daubechies, and Symlet are used to detect the events. This project analyzed real interrupted signal obtained from 22 kV transmission line in Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia. The signals will be decomposed through the wavelet mothers. The best mother is the one that is capable to detect the time location of the event accurately.

Keywords: Power Quality, Wavelet Transform, voltage sag, voltage swell

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5 Optimization of Shear Frame Structures Applying Various Forms of Wavelet Transforms

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi, Sohrab Nemati, Ehsan Khojastehfar, Sadegh Balaghi


In the present research, various formulations of wavelet transform are applied on acceleration time history of earthquake. The mentioned transforms decompose the strong ground motion into low and high frequency parts. Since the high frequency portion of strong ground motion has a minor effect on dynamic response of structures, the structure is excited by low frequency part. Consequently, the seismic response of structure is predicted consuming one half of computational time, comparing with conventional time history analysis. Towards reducing the computational effort needed in seismic optimization of structure, seismic optimization of a shear frame structure is conducted by applying various forms of mentioned transformation through genetic algorithm.

Keywords: Optimization, Earthquake, Wavelet Transform, time history analysis

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4 Object Tracking in Motion Blurred Images with Adaptive Mean Shift and Wavelet Feature

Authors: Iman Iraei, Mina Sharifi


A method for object tracking in motion blurred images is proposed in this article. This paper shows that object tracking could be improved with this approach. We use mean shift algorithm to track different objects as a main tracker. But, the problem is that mean shift could not track the selected object accurately in blurred scenes. So, for better tracking result, and increasing the accuracy of tracking, wavelet transform is used. We use a feature named as blur extent, which could help us to get better results in tracking. For calculating of this feature, we should use Harr wavelet. We can look at this matter from two different angles which lead to determine whether an image is blurred or not and to what extent an image is blur. In fact, this feature left an impact on the covariance matrix of mean shift algorithm and cause to better performance of tracking. This method has been concentrated mostly on motion blur parameter. transform. The results reveal the ability of our method in order to reach more accurately tracking.

Keywords: Wavelet Transform, object tracking, mean shift, blur extent, motion blur

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3 Denoising of Magnetotelluric Signals by Filtering

Authors: Rodrigo Montufar-Chaveznava, Fernando Brambila-Paz, Ivette Caldelas


In this paper, we present the advances corresponding to the denoising processing of magnetotelluric signals using several filters. In particular, we use the most common spatial domain filters such as median and mean, but we are also using the Fourier and wavelet transform for frequency domain filtering. We employ three datasets obtained at the different sampling rate (128, 4096 and 8192 bps) and evaluate the mean square error, signal-to-noise relation, and peak signal-to-noise relation to compare the kernels and determine the most suitable for each case. The magnetotelluric signals correspond to earth exploration when water is searched. The object is to find a denoising strategy different to the one included in the commercial equipment that is employed in this task.

Keywords: Filtering, Wavelet Transform, denoising, magnetotelluric signals

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2 Fault Detection and Diagnosis of Broken Bar Problem in Induction Motors Base Wavelet Analysis and EMD Method: Case Study of Mobarakeh Steel Company in Iran

Authors: M. Ahmadi, M. Kafil, H. Ebrahimi


Nowadays, induction motors have a significant role in industries. Condition monitoring (CM) of this equipment has gained a remarkable importance during recent years due to huge production losses, substantial imposed costs and increases in vulnerability, risk, and uncertainty levels. Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) is one of the most important techniques in CM. This method can be used for rotor broken bars detection. Signal processing methods such as Fast Fourier transformation (FFT), Wavelet transformation and Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) are used for analyzing MCSA output data. In this study, these signal processing methods are used for broken bar problem detection of Mobarakeh steel company induction motors. Based on wavelet transformation method, an index for fault detection, CF, is introduced which is the variation of maximum to the mean of wavelet transformation coefficients. We find that, in the broken bar condition, the amount of CF factor is greater than the healthy condition. Based on EMD method, the energy of intrinsic mode functions (IMF) is calculated and finds that when motor bars become broken the energy of IMFs increases.

Keywords: Diagnostics, Condition Monitoring, Fourier transform, Wavelet Transform, empirical mode decomposition, broken bar

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1 Interpersonal Body-Synchronization in Young Children When Watching Video Together

Authors: Saeko Takahashi, Kazuo Hiraki


Is it more fun to watch videos together than watching alone? Previous studies showed that synchronizing with others enhances subsequent prosocial behavior and affiliation, and conversely, prosocial individuals tend to coordinate with a partner to a greater extent. However, compared to adults, less is known about interpersonal coordination of young children in real-life situations because most studies have focused on children’s particular movement using specific tools or tasks in a laboratory setting. It has also been unclear if prosociality of young children affect the extent of interpersonal coordination within dyads. The present study examined data from motion capture of five body parts of 4-year-old dyads watching the same stimuli together or alone. A questionnaire survey including participants’ prosocial trait was also conducted. The wavelet coherence of each body parts within dyads was calculated as a measure of the extent of interpersonal coordination. Results showed that the dyads became significantly more coordinated in a social situation compared to a non-social situation. Moreover, dyads with averagely higher prosociality were more coordinated. These results shed some light on the development of interpersonal coordination in terms of social ability in young children. This study also offers a useful method for a study of spontaneous coordination in young children and infants without instructions or verbal responses.

Keywords: Child Development, Wavelet Transform, synchrony, interpersonal coordination, prosociality

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