Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

Watershed Management Related Abstracts

2 Impact of Integrated Watershed Management Programme Based on Four Waters Concept: A Case Study of Sali Village, Rajasthan State of India

Authors: Garima Sharma, R. N. Sharma


Integrated watershed management programme based on 'Four Water Concept' was implemented in Sali village, in Jaipur District, Rajasthan State of India . The latitude 26.7234486 North and longitude 75.023876 East are the geocoordinate of the Sali. 'Four Waters Concept' is evolved by integrating the 'Four Waters', viz. rain water, soil moisture, ground water and surface water This methodology involves various water harvesting techniques to prevent the runoff of water by treatment of catchment, proper utilization of available water harvesting structures, renovation of the non-functional water harvesting structures and creation of new water harvesting structures. The case study included questionnaire survey from farmers and continuous study of village for two years. The total project area is 6153 Hac, and the project cost is Rs. 92.25 million. The sanctioned area of Sali Micro watershed is 2228 Hac with an outlay of Rs. 10.52 million. Watershed treatment activities such as water absorption trench, continuous contour trench, field bunding, check dams, were undertaken on agricultural lands for soil and water conservation. These measures have contributed in preventing runoff and increased the perennial availability of water in wells. According to the survey, water level in open wells in the area has risen by approximately 5 metres after the introduction of water harvesting structures. The continuous availability of water in wells has increased the area under irrigation and helped in crop diversification. Watershed management activities have brought the changes in cropping patterns and crop productivity. It helped in transforming 567 Hac culturable waste land into culturable arable land in the village. The farmers of village have created an additional income from the increased crop production. The programme also assured the availability of water during peak summers for the day to day activities of villagers. The outcomes indicate that there is positive impact of watershed management practices on the water resource potential as well the crop production of the area. This suggests that persistent efforts in this direction may lead to sustainability of the watershed.

Keywords: Watershed Management, four water concept, groundwater potential, irrigation potential

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1 Determination of Soil Loss by Erosion in Different Land Covers Categories and Slope Classes in Bovilla Watershed, Tirana, Albania

Authors: Valmir Baloshi, Fran Gjoka, Nehat Çollaku, Elvin Toromani


As a sediment production mechanism, soil erosion is the main environmental threat to the Bovilla watershed, including the decline of water quality of the Bovilla reservoir that provides drinking water to Tirana city (the capital of Albania). Therefore, an experiment with 25 erosion plots for soil erosion monitoring has been set up since June 2017. The aim was to determine the soil loss on plot and watershed scale in Bovilla watershed (Tirana region) for implementation of soil and water protection measures or payments for ecosystem services (PES) programs. The results of erosion monitoring for the period June 2017 - May 2018 showed that the highest values of surface runoff were noted in bare land of 38829.91 liters on slope of 74% and the lowest values in forest land of 12840.6 liters on slope of 64% while the highest values of soil loss were found in bare land of 595.15 t/ha on slope of 62% and lowest values in forest land of 18.99 t/ha on slope of 64%. These values are much higher than the average rate of soil loss in the European Union (2.46 ton/ha/year). In the same sloping class, the soil loss was reduced from orchard or bare land to the forest land, and in the same category of land use, the soil loss increased with increasing land slope. It is necessary to conduct chemical analyses of sediments to determine the amount of chemical elements leached out of the soil and end up in the reservoir of Bovilla. It is concluded that PES programs should be implemented for rehabilitation of sub-watersheds Ranxe, Vilez and Zall-Bastar of the Bovilla watershed with valuable conservation practices.

Keywords: Watershed Management, Land Cover, ANOVA, slope, soil loss, Bovilla

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