Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

watercourses Related Abstracts

2 Geospatial Techniques for Impact Assessment of Canal Rehabilitation Program in Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: Sumaira Zafar, Arjumand Zaidi, Muhammad Arslan Hafeez

Abstract:

Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS) is the largest contiguous irrigation system of the world comprising Indus River and its tributaries, canals, distributaries, and watercourses. A big challenge faced by IBIS is transmission losses through seepage and leaks that account to 41 percent of the total water derived from the river and about 40 percent of that is through watercourses. Irrigation system rehabilitation programs in Pakistan are focused on improvement of canal system at the watercourse level (tertiary channels). Under these irrigation system management programs more than 22,800 watercourses have been improved or lined out of 43,000 (12,900 Kilometers) watercourses. The evaluation of the improvement work is required at this stage to testify the success of the programs. In this paper, emerging technologies of GIS and satellite remote sensing are used for impact assessment of watercourse rehabilitation work in Sindh. To evaluate the efficiency of the improved watercourses, few parameters are selected like soil moisture along watercourses, availability of water at tail end and changes in cultivable command areas. Improved watercourses details and maps are acquired from National Program for Improvement of Watercourses (NPIW) and Space and Upper Atmospheric Research Commission (SUPARCO). High resolution satellite images of Google Earth for the year of 2004 to 2013 are used for digitizing command areas. Temporal maps of cultivable command areas show a noticeable increase in the cultivable land served by improved watercourses. Field visits are conducted to validate the results. Interviews with farmers and landowners also reveal their overall satisfaction in terms of availability of water at the tail end and increased crop production.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Geospatial, GIS, Impact Assessment, watercourses, seepage, canal lining

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1 Impact of Lined and Unlined Water Bodies on the Distribution and Abundance of Fresh Water Snails in Certain Governorates in Egypt

Authors: Nahed Mohamed Ismail, Bayomy Mostafa, Ahmed Abdel Kader, Ahmed Mohamed Azzam

Abstract:

Effect of lining watercourses on the distribution and abundance of fresh water snails at two Egyptian governorates, Baheria (new reclaimed area) and Giza was studied. Seasonal survey in lined and unlined sites during two successive years was carried out. Samples of snails and water were collected from each examined site and the ecological conditions were recorded. The collected snails from each site were placed in plastic aquaria and transferred to the laboratory, where they were sorted out, identified, counted and examined for natural infection. The size frequency distribution was calculated for each snail species. Results revealed that snails were represented in all examined watercourses (lined and unlined) at the two tested habitats by 14 species. (Biomphalaria alexandrina, B. glabrata, Bulinus truncatus, Physa acuta. Helisoma duryi, Lymnaea natalensis, Planorbis planorbis, Cleopatra bulimoids, Lanistes carinatus, Bellamya unicolor, Melanoides tuberculata, Theodoxus nilotica, Succinia cleopatra and Gabbiella senaarensis). During spring, the percentage of live (45%) and dead (55%) snail species was extremely highly significant lower (p>0.001) in lined water bodies compared to the unlined ones (93.5% and 6.5%, respectively) in the examined sites at Baheria. At Giza, the percentage values of live snail species from all lined watercourses (82.6% and 60.2%, during winter and spring, respectively) was significantly lower (p>0.05 & p>0.01) than those in unlined ones (91.1% and 79%, respectively). Size frequency distribution of snails collected from the lined and unlined water bodies at Baheria and Giza governorates during all seasons revealed that during survey, snail populations were stable and the recruitment of young to adult was continuing for some species, where the recruits were observed with adults. However, there was no sign of small snails occurrence in case of B. glabrata and B. alexandrina during autumn, winter and spring and disappear during summer at Giza. Meanwhile they completely absent during all seasons at Baheria Governorate. Chemical analysis of some heavy metals of water samples collected from lined and unlined sites from Baheria and Giza governorates during autumn, winter and spring were approximately as the same in both lined and unlined water bodies. However, Zn and Fe were higher in lined sites (0.78±0.37and 17.4 ± 4.3, respectively) than that of unlined ones (0.4±0.1 and 10.95 ± 1.93, respectively) and Cu was absent in both lined and unlined sites during summer at Baheria governorate. At Giza, Cu and Pb were absent and Fe were higher in lined sites (4.7± 4.2) than that of unlined ones (2.5 ± 1.4) during summer. Statistical analysis showed that no significant difference in all physico-chemical parameters of water in lined and unlined water bodies at the two tested habitats during all seasons. However, it was found that the water conductivity and TDS showed a lower mean values in lined sites than those of unlined ones. Thus, the present obtained data support the concept of utilizing environmental modification such as lining of water courses to help in minimizing the population density of certain vector snails and consequently reduce the transmission of snails born diseases.

Keywords: fresh water, watercourses, lining, snails

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