Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

water stress Related Abstracts

13 Effects of Drought Stress on Red Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Cultivars during Post-Flowering Growth Stage

Authors: Abdollah Javanmard, Fariborz Shekari, Amin Abbasi

Abstract:

A pot experiment conducted to evaluate the response of two red bean cultivars, Sayad and Derakhshan, to water deficit stress during post-flowering growth stage and recovery potential of plants after stress. Treatments were included regular irrigation or control, water deficit during flowering stage, water deficit during pod formation and water deficit during pod filling period. Results showed that plant height had positive effects on yield of cultivars so that, the tall cultivar, ‘Sayad’, had higher yields. Stress application during flowering stage showed the highest negative impact on plant height and subsequently yield. The longest and the higher number of pods as well as the greatest number of seeds in pods were recorded in control treatment in ‘Sayad’. Stress application during pod formation resulted in the minimum amount of all studied traits in both cultivars. Stress encountered during seed filling period had the least effect on number and length of pods and seed/pod. However, 100 seeds weight significantly decreased. The highest amount for 100 seeds weight was record in control plants in ‘Derakhshan’. Under all treatments, ‘Sayad’ had higher biologic and seed yield compared to ‘Derakhshan’. The least amount of yield was recorded during stress application in pod formation and flowering period for ‘Sayad’ and ‘Derakhshan’ respectively. Harvest index of ‘Sayad’ was more affect by stress application. Data related to photosynthetic rate showed that during stress application, ‘Derakhshan’ owned rapid decline in photosynthesis. Beyond stress alleviation and onset of irrigation, recovery potential of ‘Sayad’ was higher than ‘Derakhshan’ and this cultivar was able to rapidly restore the photosynthesis rate of stress faced plants near control ones. In total, stress had lower impacts on photosynthetic rate of ‘Sayad’ cultivar.

Keywords: Yield, yield components, common bean, water stress, photosynthetic rate

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12 The Response of the Accumulated Biomass and the Efficiency of Water Use in Five Varieties of Durum Wheat Lines under Water Stress

Authors: Fellah Sihem

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The optimal use of soil moisture by culture, is related to the leaf area index, which stood in the cycle and its modulation according to the prevailing stress intensity. For a given stock of water in the soil, cultivar adapted and saving water is one that is no luxury consumption during the preanthesis. It modulates the leaf area index to regulate sweating in the degree of its water supply. In plants water saving, avoidance of dehydration is related to the reduction of water loss by cuticular and stomatal pathways. Muchow and Sinclair reported that the test of relative water content (TRE) is considered the best indicator of leaf water status. The search for indicators of the ability of the plant to make good use of the water, under water stress is a prerequisite for progress in improving performance under water stress. This experiment aims to characterize a set of durum wheat varieties, tested jars and vegetation under different levels of water stress to the surface of the leaf, relative water content, cell integrity, the accumulated biomass and efficiency of water use. The experiment was conducted during the 2005/2006 academic year, at the Agricultural Research Station of the Field Crop Institute of Setif, under semi-controlled conditions. Five genotypes of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf) were evaluated for their ability to tolerate moderate and severe water stress. The results showed that geno types respond differently to water stress. Dry matter accumulation and growth rate varied among geno types and were significantly reduced. At severe water stress biomass accumulated by Boussalam was the least affected.

Keywords: biomass, water stress, triticum durum, cell membrane integrity, relative water content

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11 Growth Analysis in Wheat as Influenced by Water Stress and Variety in Sokoto, Sudan Savannah, Nigeria

Authors: M. B. Sokoto, I. U. Abubakar

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The study was carried out on effect of water stress and variety on growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), during 2009/10 and 2010/11 dry seasons. The treatments consisted of factorial combination of water stress at three critical growth stage which was imposed by withholding water at (Tillering, Flowering, Grain filling) and Control (No stress) and two varieties (Star 11 TR 77173/SLM and Kauze/Weaver) laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. Water stress was assigned to the main-plot while variety was assigned to the sub-plots. Result revealed significant (P<0.05) effect of water stress, water stress at tillering significantly (P<0.05) reduced plant height, LAI, CGR, and NAR. Variety had a significant effect on plant height, LAI, CGR and NAR. In conclusion water stress at tillering was observed to be most critical growth stage in wheat, and water stress at this period should be avoided because it results to decrease in growth components in wheat. Wheat should be sown in November or at least first week of December in this area and other area with similar climate. Star II TR 77173/LM is recommended variety for the area.

Keywords: Growth, Wheat, Variety, water stress, Sudan savannah

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10 Germination Behavior of Tricholaena teneriffae L. a perennial Grass Species

Authors: Mohamed Chaieb, Imed Mezghani, Yousra Ben Salah

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Tricholaena teneriffae L. is a xerophytic perennial herb that belongs to the Poaceae family likely to be used for ecological restoration programs. It's a dominant and economically important species widely distributed in the Bou-Hedma National Park, Tunisia. Reintroduction and expansion of T. teneriffae depend solely on sexual reproduction. This makes the understanding of its germination requirements vital for conservation and management. To provide basic information for its conservation and reintroduction, we studied the influence of environmental factors on seed germination patterns. The germination responses of seeds were determined over a wide range of constant temperatures (15–35°C), polyethylene glycol solutions of different osmotic potentials (0 to −2 MPa) and salt solution (0 to 150 mM of NaCl). Results indicated that the optimum temperature germination was attained at 25°C which corresponds to temperatures prevailing during mid spring season in the Mediterranean area. Seeds germinated in Polyethylene Glycol solutions exhibited significantly lower germination than control especially when water potential fell below -0.6 MPa. Germination percentage and rate decreased with an increase NaCl concentration. Seeds germination was substantially delayed and reduced with an increase in NaCl to levels above 50 mM. T. teneriffae is moderately salt tolerant at germination stage.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, temperature, Salt Stress, Germination, water stress, Tricholaena teneriffae L

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9 Effects of Using Super-Absorbent Polymers on Physiological Indexes of Maize

Authors: Shoaei Shahram, Rafiei Felora

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To study the effects of using superabsorbent polymers on physiological of maize in deficit Irrigation condition .an experiment carried out in split plot factorial based on completely Randomized Block design (RCBD) with three replication in 2012years. Deficit Irrigation was applied by three different Irrigation amount. Super absorbent polymers in 3 levels were and two veriety of maize allocated in sub plots. there was significant difference between Irrigation levels in all experimental Traits by increasing in deficit irrigation. Results of this research showed water stress significantly decreased relative water content (RWC) LAI,Ash percentage in both hybrids, and increased Cell membrane percentage and SPAD,ADF percent.whereas the application of super absorbent polymer compensated the negative effect of drought stress, especially in high rates of polymer application .These mentioned rates of polymer had the best effect to all of the studied traits. These findings can be suggested that the irrigation intervals of corn could be increased by application of super absorbent polymer.

Keywords: water stress, super absorbent, p hysiological, zea maize

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8 Inversion of PROSPECT+SAIL Model for Estimating Vegetation Parameters from Hyperspectral Measurements with Application to Drought-Induced Impacts Detection

Authors: Bagher Bayat, Wouter Verhoef, Behnaz Arabi, Christiaan Van der Tol

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The aim of this study was to follow the canopy reflectance patterns in response to soil water deficit and to detect trends of changes in biophysical and biochemical parameters of grass (Poa pratensis species). We used visual interpretation, imaging spectroscopy and radiative transfer model inversion to monitor the gradual manifestation of water stress effects in a laboratory setting. Plots of 21 cm x 14.5 cm surface area with Poa pratensis plants that formed a closed canopy were subjected to water stress for 50 days. In a regular weekly schedule, canopy reflectance was measured. In addition, Leaf Area Index (LAI), Chlorophyll (a+b) content (Cab) and Leaf Water Content (Cw) were measured at regular time intervals. The 1-D bidirectional canopy reflectance model SAIL, coupled with the leaf optical properties model PROSPECT, was inverted using hyperspectral measurements by means of an iterative optimization method to retrieve vegetation biophysical and biochemical parameters. The relationships between retrieved LAI, Cab, Cw, and Cs (Senescent material) with soil moisture content were established in two separated groups; stress and non-stressed. To differentiate the water stress condition from the non-stressed condition, a threshold was defined that was based on the laboratory produced Soil Water Characteristic (SWC) curve. All parameters retrieved by model inversion using canopy spectral data showed good correlation with soil water content in the water stress condition. These parameters co-varied with soil moisture content under the stress condition (Chl: R2= 0.91, Cw: R2= 0.97, Cs: R2= 0.88 and LAI: R2=0.48) at the canopy level. To validate the results, the relationship between vegetation parameters that were measured in the laboratory and soil moisture content was established. The results were totally in agreement with the modeling outputs and confirmed the results produced by radiative transfer model inversion and spectroscopy. Since water stress changes all parts of the spectrum, we concluded that analysis of the reflectance spectrum in the VIS-NIR-MIR region is a promising tool for monitoring water stress impacts on vegetation.

Keywords: Hyperspectral Remote Sensing, water stress, model inversion, vegetation responses

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7 Assessment of Drought Tolerance Maize Hybrids at Grain Growth Stage in Mediterranean Area

Authors: Ayman El Sabagh, Celaleddin Barutçular, Hirofumi Saneoka

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Drought is one of the most serious problems posing a grave threat to cereals production including maize. Maize improvement in drought-stress tolerance poses a great challenge as the global need for food and bio-enegry increases. Thus, the current study was planned to explore the variations and determine the performance of target traits of maize hybrids at grain growth stage under drought conditions during 2014 under Adana, Mediterranean climate conditions, Turkey. Maize hybrids (Sancia, Indaco, 71May69, Aaccel, Calgary, 70May82, 72May80) were evaluated under (irrigated and water stress). Results revealed that, grain yield and yield traits had a negative effects because of water stress conditions compared with the normal irrigation. As well as, based on the result under normal irrigation, the maximum biological yield and harvest index were recorded. According to the differences among hybrids were found that, significant differences were observed among hybrids with respect to yield and yield traits under current research. Based on the results, grain weight had more effect on grain yield than grain number during grain filling growth stage under water stress conditions. In this concern, according to low drought susceptibility index (less grain yield losses), the hybrid (Indaco) was more stable in grain number and grain weight. Consequently, it may be concluded that this hybrid would be recommended for use in the future breeding programs for production of drought tolerant hybrids.

Keywords: water stress, maize, grain yield, drought susceptibility index, grain growth

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6 Land Equivalent Ration of Chickpea - Barley as Affected by Mixed Cropping System and Vermicompost in Water Stress Condition

Authors: Masoud Rafiee

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Study of the effect of vermin compost on yield, and Land equivalent ration (LER) of chickpea-barley mixed cropping under normal dry land condition can be useful in order to increase qualitative and quantitative performance. In this case, two factors include fertilizer (vermicompost biological fertilizer, ammonium phosphate chemical fertilizer, vermicompost + %75 chemical fertilizer) and chickpea + barley mixed cropping (sole chickpea, %75 chickpea: %25 barley, %50 chickpea: %50 barley, %25 chickpea: %75 barley, and sole barley) in RCBD in three replications in two experiments include normal and dry land conditions were studied. Result showed that total LER base on dry matter was affected by environment and mixed cropping interaction and was more than 1 in all mixed cropping treatments. In different mixed cropping rates, wet forage yield decreased by decreasing chickpea ratio as well as increasing barley ratio. Total LER mean in base on forage dry matter in mixed-, chemical-, and vermicompost fertilizer treatments were 1.12, 1.05 and 1.10 in normal condition and 1.15, 1.08 and 1.14 in dry land condition, respectively, represented the important of biological fertilizer in mixed cropping systems.

Keywords: water stress, biological fertilizer, land equivalent ration, mixed cropping systems

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5 Evaluation of Water Management Options to Improve the Crop Yield and Water Productivity for Semi-Arid Watershed in Southern India Using AquaCrop Model

Authors: R. Nagarajan, V. S. Manivasagam

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Modeling the soil, water and crop growth interactions are attaining major importance, considering the future climate change and water availability for agriculture to meet the growing food demand. Progress in understanding the crop growth response during water stress period through crop modeling approach provides an opportunity for improving and sustaining the future agriculture water use efficiency. An attempt has been made to evaluate the potential use of crop modeling approach for assessing the minimal supplementary irrigation requirement for crop growth during water limited condition and its practical significance in sustainable improvement of crop yield and water productivity. Among the numerous crop models, water driven-AquaCrop model has been chosen for the present study considering the modeling approach and water stress impact on yield simulation. The study has been evaluated in rainfed maize grown area of semi-arid Shanmuganadi watershed (a tributary of the Cauvery river system) located in southern India during the rabi cropping season (October-February). In addition to actual rainfed maize growth simulation, irrigated maize scenarios were simulated for assessing the supplementary irrigation requirement during water shortage condition for the period 2012-2015. The simulation results for rainfed maize have shown that the average maize yield of 0.5-2 t ha-1 was observed during deficit monsoon season (<350 mm) whereas 5.3 t ha-1 was noticed during sufficient monsoonal period (>350 mm). Scenario results for irrigated maize simulation during deficit monsoonal period has revealed that 150-200 mm of supplementary irrigation has ensured the 5.8 t ha-1 of irrigated maize yield. Thus, study results clearly portrayed that minimal application of supplementary irrigation during the critical growth period along with the deficit rainfall has increased the crop water productivity from 1.07 to 2.59 kg m-3 for major soil types. Overall, AquaCrop is found to be very effective for the sustainable irrigation assessment considering the model simplicity and minimal inputs requirement.

Keywords: water stress, AquaCrop, crop modeling, rainfed maize

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4 The Effect of Alternative Organic Fertilizer and Chemical Fertilizer on Nitrogen and Yield of Peppermint (Mentha peperita)

Authors: Seyed Ali Mohammad, Modarres Sanavy, Hamed Keshavarz, Ali Mokhtassi-Bidgoli

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One of the biggest challenges for the current and future generations is to produce sufficient food for the world population with the existing limited available water resources. Peppermint is a specialty crop used for food and medicinal purposes. Its main component is menthol. It is used predominantly for oral hygiene, pharmaceuticals, and foods. Although drought stress is considered as a negative factor in agriculture, being responsible for severe yield losses; medicinal plants grown under semi-arid conditions usually produce higher concentrations of active substances than same species grown under moderate climates. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer management is central to the profitability and sustainability of forage crop production. Sub-optimal N supply will result in poor yields, and excess N application can lead to nitrate leaching and environmental pollution. In order to determine the response of peppermint to drought stress and different fertilizer treatments, a field experiment with peppermint was conducted in a sandy loam soil at a site of the Tarbiat Modares University, Agriculture Faculty, Tehran, Iran. The experiment used a complete randomized block design, with six rates of fertilizer strategies (F1: control, F2: Urea, F3: 75% urea + 25% vermicompost, F4: 50% urea + 50% vermicompost, F5: 25% urea + 75% vermicompost and F6: vermicompost) and three irrigation regime (S1: 45%, S2: 60% and S3: 75% FC) with three replication. The traits such as nitrogen, chlorophyll, carotenoids, anthocyanin, flavonoid and fresh biomass were studied. The results showed that the treatments had a significant effect on the studied traits as drought stress reduced photosynthetic pigment concentration. Also, drought stress reduced fresh yield of peppermint. Non stress condition had the greater amount of chlorophyll and fresh yield more than other irrigation treatments. The highest concentration of chlorophyll and the fresh biomass was obtained in F2 fertilizing treatments. Sever water stress (S1) produced decreased photosynthetic pigment content fresh yield of peppermint. Supply of N could improve photosynthetic capacity by enhancing photosynthetic pigment content. Perhaps application of vermicompost significantly improved the organic carbon, available N, P and K content in soil over urea fertilization alone. To get sustainable production of peppermint, application of vermicompost along with N through synthetic fertilizer is recommended for light textured sandy loam soils.

Keywords: water stress, vermicompost, peppermint, fresh yield, synthetic nitrogen

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3 Genetic Variability Studies of Some Quantitative Traits in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. [Walp.] ) under Water Stress

Authors: Muhammad Bello Ibrahim, Auwal Ibrahim Magashi, Lawan Dan Larai Fagwalawa

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A research was conducted to study genetic variability of some quantitative traits in varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. [Walp]) under water stressed from Zaria, Nigeria. Seeds of seven varieties of cowpea (Sampea 1, Sampea 2, IAR1074, Sampea 7, Sampea 8, Sampea 10 and Sampea 12) collected from Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR), Samaru, Zaria were screened for water stressed tolerance. The seeds were then sown in poly bags containing sandy-loam arranged in Completely Randomized Design with three replications for quantitative traits evaluation. The nutritional composition of the seeds obtained from the water stress tolerant varieties of cowpea were analyzed. The result obtained revealed highly significant difference (P ≤ 0.01) in the effects of water stress on the number of wilted and dead plants at 40 days after sowing (DAS) and significant (P ≤ 0.05) 34 DAS. However, sampea 10 has the highest mean performance in terms of number of wilted plants at 34 DAS while sampea 2 and IAR 1074 has the lowest mean performance. However, sampea 7 was found to have the highest mean performance for the number of wilted plants at 40 DAS and sampea 2 is lowest. The result for quantitative traits study indicated highly significant difference (P ≤ 0.01) in the plant height, number of days to 50% flowering, number of days to maturity, number of pods per plant, pod length, number of seeds per plant and 100 seed weight; and significant (P ≤ 0.05) at seedling height and number of branches per plant. Similarly, IAR1074 was found to have high performance in terms of most of the quantitative traits under study. However, sampea 8 has the highest mean performance at nutritional level. It was therefore concluded that, all the seven cowpea genotypes were water stress tolerant and produced considerable yield that contained significant nutrients. It was recommended that IAR1074 should be grown for yield while sampea 8 should be grown for protein supplements.

Keywords: water stress, Cowpea, genetic variability, quantitative traits

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2 Growth and Yield Response of an Indian Wheat Cultivar (HD 2967) to Ozone and Water Stress in Open-Top Chambers with Emphasis on Its Antioxidant Status, Photosynthesis and Nutrient Allocation

Authors: Annesha Ghosh, S. B. Agrawal

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Agricultural sector is facing a serious threat due to climate change and exacerbation of different atmospheric pollutants. Tropospheric ozone (O₃) is considered as a dynamic air pollutant imposing substantial phytotoxicity to natural vegetations and agriculture worldwide. Naturally, plants are exposed to different environmental factors and their interactions. Amongst such interactions, studies related to O₃ and water stress are still rare. In the present experiment, wheat cultivar HD2967 were grown in open top chambers (OTC) under two O₃ concentration; ambient O₃ level (A) and elevated O₃ (E) (ambient + 20 ppb O₃) along with two different water supply; well-watered (W) and 50% water stress conditions (WS), with an aim to assess the individual and interactive effect of two most prevailing stress factors in Indo-Gangetic Plains of India. Exposure to elevated O₃ dose caused early senescence symptoms and reduction in growth and biomass of the test cultivar. The adversity was more pronounced under the combined effect of EWS. Significant reduction of stomatal conductance (gs) and assimilation rate were observed under combined stress condition compared to the control (AW). However, plants grown under individual stress conditions displayed higher gs, biomass, and antioxidant defense mechanism compared to the plants grown under the presence of combined stresses. Higher induction in most of the enzyme activities of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was displayed by HD 2967 under EW while, under the presence of combined stresses (EWS), a moderate increment of APX and CAT activity was observed only at its vegetative phase. Furthermore, variations in nutrient uptake and redistribution to different plants parts were also observed in the present study. Reduction in water availability has checked nutrient uptake (N, K, P, Ca, Cu, Mg, Zn) in above-ground parts (leaf) and below-ground parts (root). On the other hand, carbon (C) accumulation with subsequent C-N ratio was observed to be higher in the leaves under EWS. Such major nutrient check and limitation in carbon fixation due to lower gs under combined stress conditions might have weakened the defense mechanisms of the test cultivar. Grain yield was significantly reduced under EWS followed by AWS and EW as compared to their control, exhibiting an additive effect on the grain yield.

Keywords: Wheat, Antioxidants, Yield, ozone, water stress, open-top chambers

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1 Physiological Response of Water-Restricted Xhosa Goats Supplemented with Vitamin C

Authors: O.F. Akinmoladun, F.N. Fon, C.T. Mpendulo, O. Okoh

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The sustainability of livestock production is under threat as a result of water scarcity, fluctuating precipitation, and high environmental temperature. These combined stressors have impacted negatively on general animal production and welfare, necessitating a very reliable and cost-effective management practices, especially in arid and water-limited regions of the world. Instead of the above, this study was designed to investigate the growth performance and physiological response of water-restricted Xhosa ear-lobe goats fed diets supplemented with single or multiple vitamin C (VC) during summer. The total forty-eight goats used for the experiment were balanced for body weight and randomly assigned to the seven treatment groups (seven goats/treatment): GI (W100%); GII (W70%); GIII (W50%); GIV (W70%+3g/day VC); GV ((W50% +3g/day VC); GVI (W70%+3g/d VC+extra 5g on every eight-day); GVII (W50%+3g/d VC+extra 5g on every eight-day). The design was a complete randomized design and VC was administered per os. At the end of the 75-day feeding trial, GIII (W50%) animals were the most affected (P<0.05) and the effect was more pronounced in their body condition scores (BCs). Weight loss and depression in feed intake due to water restriction (P<0.05) were attenuated by VC treated groups (GIV-GVII). Changes in body thermal gradient (BTG) and rectal temperature (RcT) were similar (P>0.05) across the various experimental groups. The attenuation effect of VC was significant in responses to respiratory rate (RR) and cortisol. Supplementation of VC (either single or multiple) did not significantly (P>0.05) improve water restriction effect on body condition scores (BCs) and FAMACHA©. The current study found out that Xhosa ear lobe goats can adapt to the prevailing bioclimatic changes and limited water intake. However, supplementation of vitamin C can be beneficial at modulating these stressful stimuli. Continuous consistencies in the outcome of vitamin C on water-stressed animals can help validate recommendations especially to farmers in the arid and water-limited regions across the globe.

Keywords: water stress, vitamin C, Xhosa ear-lobe, thermotolerance

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