Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Water Security Related Abstracts

5 AquaCrop Model Simulation for Water Productivity of Teff (Eragrostic tef): A Case Study in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

Authors: Bart Schultz, Abraham Mehari Haile, Yenesew Mengiste Yihun, Teklu Erkossa

Abstract:

Teff (Eragrostic tef) is a staple food in Ethiopia. The local and international demand for the crop is ever increasing pushing the current price five times compared with that in 2006. To meet this escalating demand increasing production including using irrigation is imperative. Optimum application of irrigation water, especially in semi-arid areas is profoundly important. AquaCrop model application in irrigation water scheduling and simulation of water productivity helps both irrigation planners and agricultural water managers. This paper presents simulation and evaluation of AquaCrop model in optimizing the yield and biomass response to variation in timing and rate of irrigation water application. Canopy expansion, canopy senescence and harvest index are the key physiological processes sensitive to water stress. For full irrigation water application treatment there was a strong relationship between the measured and simulated canopy and biomass with r2 and d values of 0.87 and 0.96 for canopy and 0.97 and 0.74 for biomass, respectively. However, the model under estimated the simulated yield and biomass for higher water stress level. For treatment receiving full irrigation the harvest index value obtained were 29%. The harvest index value shows generally a decreasing trend under water stress condition. AquaCrop model calibration and validation using the dry season field experiments of 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 shows that AquaCrop adequately simulated the yield response to different irrigation water scenarios. We conclude that the AquaCrop model can be used in irrigation water scheduling and optimizing water productivity of Teff grown under water scarce semi-arid conditions.

Keywords: Simulation, Water Security, Climate Smart Agriculture, AquaCrop, teff, water stress regions

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4 River Catchment’s Demography and the Dynamics of Access to Clean Water in the Rural South Africa

Authors: Yiseyon Sunday Hosu, Motebang Dominic Vincent Nakin, Elphina N. Cishe

Abstract:

Universal access to clean and safe drinking water and basic sanitation is one of the targets of the 6th Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This paper explores the evidence-based indicators of Water Rights Acts (2013) among households in the rural communities in the Mthatha River catchment of OR Tambo District Municipality of South Africa. Daily access to minimum 25 litres/person and the factors influencing clean water access were investigated in the catchment. A total number of 420 households were surveyed in the upper, peri-urban, lower and coastal regions of Mthatha Rivier catchment. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted on the data collected from the households to elicit vital information on domestic water security among rural community dwellers. The results show that approximately 68 percent of total households surveyed have access to the required minimum 25 litre/person/day, with 66.3 percent in upper region, 76 per cent in the peri-urban, 1.1 percent in the lower and 2.3 percent in the coastal regions. Only 30 percent among the total surveyed households had access to piped water either in the house or public taps. The logistic regression showed that access to clean water was influenced by lack of water infrastructure, proximity to urban regions, daily flow of pipe-borne water, household size and distance to public taps. This paper recommends that viable integrated rural community-based water infrastructure provision strategies between NGOs and local authority and the promotion of point of use (POU) technologies to enhance better access to clean water.

Keywords: Water Security, Rural Community, domestic water, household technology

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3 Evaluating the Water Balance of Sokoto Basement Complex to Address Water Security Challenges

Authors: Murtala Gada Abubakar, Aliyu T. Umar

Abstract:

A substantial part of Nigeria is part of semi-arid areas of the world, underlain by basement complex (hard) rocks which are very poor in both transmission and storage of appreciable quantity of water. Recently, a growing attention is being paid on the need to develop water resources in these areas largely due to concerns about increasing droughts and the need to maintain water security challenges. While there is ample body of knowledge that captures the hydrological behaviours of the sedimentary part, reported research which unambiguously illustrates water distribution in the basement complex of the Sokoto basin remains sparse. Considering the growing need to meet the water requirements of those living in this region necessitated the call for accurate water balance estimations that can inform a sustainable planning and development to address water security challenges for the area. To meet this task, a one-dimensional soil water balance model was developed and utilised to assess the state of water distribution within the Sokoto basin basement complex using measured meteorological variables and information about different landscapes within the complex. The model simulated the soil water storage and rates of input and output of water in response to climate and irrigation where applicable using data from 2001 to 2010 inclusive. The results revealed areas within the Sokoto basin basement complex that are rich and deficient in groundwater resource. The high potential areas identified includes the fadama, the fractured rocks and the cultivated lands, while the low potential areas are the sealed surfaces and non-fractured rocks. This study concludes that the modelling approach is a useful tool for assessing the hydrological behaviour and for better understanding the water resource availability within a basement complex.

Keywords: Hydrological Processes, Water Security, basement complex, Sokoto Basin

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2 Organic Farming for Sustainable Production of Some Promising Halophytic Species in Saline Environment

Authors: Medhat Tawfik, Ezzat Abd El Lateef, Bahr Amany, Mohamed Magda

Abstract:

Applying organic farming systems in biosaline agriculture is unconventional approach for sustainable use of marginal soil and desert land for planting non-traditional halophytic crops such as Leptochloa fusca, Kochia indica, Sporobolus virginicus and Spartina patens. These plants are highly salt tolerant C4 halophytic forage plants grown well in coastal salt marsh. These halophytic plant will take important place in the farming system, especially in the coastal areas and salt-affected land. We can call it environmentally smart crops because they ensure food security, contribute to energy security, guarantee environmental sustainability, and mitigate the negative impacts of climate change. Organic Agriculture is the most important and widely practiced agro-ecological farming system. It is claimed to be the most sustainable approach and long term adaptation strategy. It promotes soil fertility and diversity at all levels and makes soils less susceptible to erosion. It is also reported to be climate change resilience farming systems as it promotes the proper management of soil, water, biodiversity and local knowledge and provides producers with ecologically sound management decisions. A field experiment was carried out at the Model Farm of National Research Centre, El Tour, South Sinai to study the impact of (Mycorrhiza 1kg/fed., charcoal 4 tons/fed., chicken manure 5 tons/fed., in addition to control treatment) on some growth characters, photosynthetic pigments content, and some physiological aspects i.e. prolind and soluble carbohydrates content, succulence and osmotic pressure values, as well as nutritive values i.e. Crude fat (CF), Acid detergent fiber (ADF), Neutral detergent fiber (NDF), Ether extract (EE) and Nitrogen-free extract (NFE) of five halophytic plant species (Leptochloa fusca, Kochia indica, Sporobolus virginicus and Spartina patens). Our results showed that organic fertilizer treatment enhanced all the previous character as compared with control with superiority to chicken manure over the other treatments.

Keywords: Organic Agriculture, Water Security, halophytic plants, saline environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
1 Managing City Pipe Leaks through Community Participation Using a Web and Mobile Application in South Africa

Authors: Nsenda Lukumwena, Mpai Mokoena

Abstract:

South Africa is one of the driest countries in the world and is facing a water crisis. In addition to inadequate infrastructure and poor planning, the country is experiencing high rates of water wastage due to pipe leaks. This study outlines the level of water wastage and develops a smart solution to efficiently manage and reduce the effects of pipe leaks, while monitoring the situation before and after fixing the pipe leaks. To understand the issue in depth, a literature review of journal papers and government reports was conducted. A questionnaire was designed and distributed to the general public. Additionally, the municipality office was contacted from a managerial perspective. The analysis from the study indicated that the majority of the citizens are aware of the water crisis and are willing to participate positively to decrease the level of water wasted. Furthermore, the response from the municipality acknowledged that more practical solutions are needed to reduce water wastage, and resources to attend to pipe leaks swiftly. Therefore, this paper proposes a specific solution for municipalities, local plumbers and citizens to minimize the effects of pipe leaks. The solution provides web and mobile application platforms to report and manage leaks swiftly. The solution is beneficial to the country in achieving water security and would promote a culture of responsibility toward water usage.

Keywords: Mobile Application, Water Security, water crisis, urban distribution networks, leak management, responsible citizens

Procedia PDF Downloads 4