Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Water resources management Related Abstracts

7 Iraq Water Resources Planning: Perspectives and Prognoses

Authors: Sven Knutsson, Nadhir Al-Ansari, Ammar A. Ali

Abstract:

Iraq is located in the Middle East. It covers an area of 433,970 square kilometres populated by about 32 million inhabitants. Iraq greatly relies in its water resources on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Recently, Iraq is suffering from water shortage problems. This is due to external and internal factors. The former includes global warming and water resources policies of neighbouring countries while the latter includes mismanagement of its water resources. The supply and demand are predicted to be 43 and 66.8 Billion Cubic Meters (BCM) respectively in 2015, while in 2025 it will be 17.61 and 77 BCM respectively. In addition, future prediction suggests that Tigris and Euphrates Rivers will be completely dry in 2040. To overcome this problem, prudent water management policies are to be adopted. This includes Strategic Water Management Vision, development of irrigation techniques, reduction of water losses, use of non-conventional water resources and research and development planning.

Keywords: Water resources management, Water scarcity, Iraq, Tigris River, Euphrates River

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6 Geographic Information Systems and Remotely Sensed Data for the Hydrological Modelling of Mazowe Dam

Authors: Ellen Nhedzi Gozo

Abstract:

Unavailability of adequate hydro-meteorological data has always limited the analysis and understanding of hydrological behaviour of several dam catchments including Mazowe Dam in Zimbabwe. The problem of insufficient data for Mazowe Dam catchment analysis was solved by extracting catchment characteristics and aerial hydro-meteorological data from ASTER, LANDSAT, Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission SRTM remote sensing (RS) images using ILWIS, ArcGIS and ERDAS Imagine geographic information systems (GIS) software. Available observed hydrological as well as meteorological data complemented the use of the remotely sensed information. Ground truth land cover was mapped using a Garmin Etrex global positioning system (GPS) system. This information was then used to validate land cover classification detail that was obtained from remote sensing images. A bathymetry survey was conducted using a SONAR system connected to GPS. Hydrological modelling using the HBV model was then performed to simulate the hydrological process of the catchment in an effort to verify the reliability of the derived parameters. The model output shows a high Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient that is close to 1 indicating that the parameters derived from remote sensing and GIS can be applied with confidence in the analysis of Mazowe Dam catchment.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Geographic Information Systems, Water resources management, Hydrological Modelling

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5 Solids and Nutrient Loads Exported by Preserved and Impacted Low-Order Streams: A Comparison among Water Bodies in Different Latitudes in Brazil

Authors: Wesley A. Saltarelli, Nicolas R. Finkler, Davi G. F. Cunha, Taison A. Bortolin, Vania E. Schneider

Abstract:

Estimating the relative contribution of nonpoint or point sources of pollution in low-orders streams is an important tool for the water resources management. The location of headwaters in areas with anthropogenic impacts from urbanization and agriculture is a common scenario in developing countries. This condition can lead to conflicts among different water users and compromise ecosystem services. Water pollution also contributes to exporting organic loads to downstream areas, including higher order rivers. The purpose of this research is to preliminarily assess nutrients and solids loads exported by water bodies located in watersheds with different types of land uses in São Carlos - SP (Latitude. -22.0087; Longitude. -47.8909) and Caxias do Sul - RS (Latitude. -29.1634, Longitude. -51.1796), Brazil, using regression analysis. The variables analyzed in this study were Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), Nitrate (NO3-), Total Phosphorus (TP) and Total Suspended Solids (TSS). Data were obtained in October and December 2015 for São Carlos (SC) and in November 2012 and March 2013 for Caxias do Sul (CXS). Such periods had similar weather patterns regarding precipitation and temperature. Altogether, 11 sites were divided into two groups, some classified as more pristine (SC1, SC4, SC5, SC6 and CXS2), with predominance of native forest; and others considered as impacted (SC2, SC3, CXS1, CXS3, CXS4 and CXS5), presenting larger urban and/or agricultural areas. Previous linear regression was applied for data on flow and drainage area of each site (R² = 0.9741), suggesting that the loads to be assessed had a significant relationship with the drainage areas. Thereafter, regression analysis was conducted between the drainage areas and the total loads for the two land use groups. The R² values were 0.070, 0.830, 0.752 e 0.455 respectively for SST, TKN, NO3- and TP loads in the more preserved areas, suggesting that the loads generated by runoff are significant in these locations. However, the respective R² values for sites located in impacted areas were respectively 0.488, 0.054, 0.519 e 0.059 for SST, TKN, NO3- and P loads, indicating a less important relationship between total loads and runoff as compared to the previous scenario. This study suggests three possible conclusions that will be further explored in the full-text article, with more sampling sites and periods: a) In preserved areas, nonpoint sources of pollution are more significant in determining water quality in relation to the studied variables; b) The nutrient (TKN and P) loads in impacted areas may be associated with point sources such as domestic wastewater discharges with inadequate treatment levels; and c) The presence of NO3- in impacted areas can be associated to the runoff, particularly in agricultural areas, where the application of fertilizers is common at certain times of the year.

Keywords: Water resources management, Land Use, Streams, Linear Regression, point and non-point pollution sources

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4 Robust Decision Support Framework for Addressing Uncertainties in Water Resources Management in the Mekong

Authors: Chusit Apirumanekul, Chayanis Krittasudthacheewa, Ratchapat Ratanavaraha, Yanyong Inmuong

Abstract:

Rapid economic development in the Lower Mekong region is leading to changes in water quantity and quality. Changes in land- and forest-use, infrastructure development, increasing urbanization, migration patterns and climate risks are increasing demands for water, within various sectors, placing pressure on scarce water resources. Appropriate policies, strategies, and planning are urgently needed for improved water resource management. Over the last decade, Thailand has experienced more frequent and intense drought situations, affecting the level of water storage in reservoirs along with insufficient water allocation for agriculture during the dry season. The Huay Saibat River Basin, one of the well-known water-scarce areas in the northeastern region of Thailand, is experiencing ongoing water scarcity that affects both farming livelihoods and household consumption. Drought management in Thailand mainly focuses on emergency responses, rather than advance preparation and mitigation for long-term solutions. Despite many efforts from local authorities to mitigate the drought situation, there is yet no long-term comprehensive water management strategy, that integrates climate risks alongside other uncertainties. This paper assesses the application in the Huay Saibat River Basin, of the Robust Decision Support framework, to explore the feasibility of multiple drought management policies; including a shift in cropping season, in crop changes, in infrastructural operations and in the use of groundwater, under a wide range of uncertainties, including climate and land-use change. A series of consultative meetings were organized with relevant agencies and experts at the local level, to understand and explore plausible water resources strategies and identify thresholds to evaluate the performance of those strategies. Three different climate conditions were identified (dry, normal and wet). Other non-climatic factors influencing water allocation were further identified, including changes from sugarcane to rubber, delaying rice planting, increasing natural retention storage and using groundwater to supply demands for household consumption and small-scale gardening. Water allocation and water use in various sectors, such as in agriculture, domestic, industry and the environment, were estimated by utilising the Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) system, under various scenarios developed from the combination of climatic and non-climatic factors mentioned earlier. Water coverage (i.e. percentage of water demand being successfully supplied) was defined as a threshold for water resource strategy assessment. Thresholds for different sectors (agriculture, domestic, industry, and environment) were specified during multi-stakeholder engagements. Plausible water strategies (e.g. increasing natural retention storage, change of crop type and use of groundwater as an alternative source) were evaluated based on specified thresholds in 4 sectors (agriculture, domestic, industry, and environment) under 3 climate conditions. 'Business as usual' was evaluated for comparison. The strategies considered robust, emerge when performance is assessed as successful, under a wide range of uncertainties across the river basin. Without adopting any strategy, the water scarcity situation is likely to escalate in the future. Among the strategies identified, the use of groundwater as an alternative source was considered a potential option in combating water scarcity for the basin. Further studies are needed to explore the feasibility for groundwater use as a potential sustainable source.

Keywords: Climate Change, Water resources management, Scenarios, robust decision support

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3 Application of WebGIS-Based Water Environment Capacity Inquiry and Planning System in Water Resources Management

Authors: Tao Ding, Danjia Yan, Jinye Li, Chao Ren, Xinhua Hu

Abstract:

The paper based on the research background of the current situation of water shortage in China and intelligent management of water resources in the information era. And the paper adopts WebGIS technology, combining the mathematical model of water resources management to develop a WebGIS-based water environment capacity inquiry and polluted water emission planning. The research significance of the paper is that it can inquiry the water environment capacity of Jinhua City in real time and plan how to drain polluted water into the river, so as to realize the effective management of water resources. This system makes sewage planning more convenient and faster. For the planning of the discharge enterprise, the decision on the optimal location of the sewage outlet can be achieved through calculation of the Sewage discharge planning model in the river, without the need for site visits. The system can achieve effective management of water resources and has great application value.

Keywords: Water resources management, WebGIS, sewerage planning, water environment capacity

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2 Hydrodynamics in Wetlands of Brazilian Savanna: Electrical Tomography and Geoprocessing

Authors: Lucas M. Furlan, Cesar A. Moreira, Jepherson F. Sales, Guilherme T. Bueno, Manuel E. Ferreira, Carla V. S. Coelho, Vania Rosolen

Abstract:

Located in the western part of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, the study area consists of a savanna environment, represented by sedimentary plateau and a soil cover composed by lateritic and hydromorphic soils - in the latter, occurring the deferruginization and concentration of high-alumina clays, exploited as refractory material. In the hydromorphic topographic depressions (wetlands) the hydropedogical relationships are little known, but it is observed that in times of rainfall, the depressed region behaves like a natural seasonal reservoir - which suggests that the wetlands on the surface of the plateau are places of recharge of the aquifer. The aquifer recharge areas are extremely important for the sustainable social, economic and environmental development of societies. The understanding of hydrodynamics in relation to the functioning of the ferruginous and hydromorphic lateritic soils system in the savanna environment is a subject rarely explored in the literature, especially its understanding through the joint application of geoprocessing by UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) and electrical tomography. The objective of this work is to understand the hydrogeological dynamics in a wetland (with an area of 426.064 m²), in the Brazilian savanna,as well as the understanding of the subsurface architecture of hydromorphic depressions in relation to the recharge of aquifers. The wetland was compartmentalized in three different regions, according to the geoprocessing. Hydraulic conductivity studies were performed in each of these three portions. Electrical tomography was performed on 9 lines of 80 meters in length and spaced 10 meters apart (direction N45), and a line with 80 meters perpendicular to all others. With the data, it was possible to generate a 3D cube. The integrated analysis showed that the area behaves like a natural seasonal reservoir in the months of greater precipitation (December – 289mm; January – 277,9mm; February – 213,2mm), because the hydraulic conductivity is very low in all areas. In the aerial images, geotag correction of the images was performed, that is, the correction of the coordinates of the images by means of the corrected coordinates of the Positioning by Precision Point of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE-PPP). Later, the orthomosaic and the digital surface model (DSM) were generated, which with specific geoprocessing generated the volume of water that the wetland can contain - 780,922m³ in total, 265,205m³ in the region with intermediate flooding and 49,140m³ in the central region, where a greater accumulation of water was observed. Through the electrical tomography it was possible to identify that up to the depth of 6 meters the water infiltrates vertically in the central region. From the 8 meters depth, the water encounters a more resistive layer and the infiltration begins to occur horizontally - tending to concentrate the recharge of the aquifer to the northeast and southwest of the wetland. The hydrodynamics of the area is complex and has many challenges in its understanding. The next step is to relate hydrodynamics to the evolution of the landscape, with the enrichment of high-alumina clays, and to propose a management model for the seasonal reservoir.

Keywords: Water resources management, Hydropedology, Unmanned aerial vehicle, electrical tomography

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1 Climate Change Impact on Water Resources Management in Remote Islands Using Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems

Authors: Evangelos Baltas, Elissavet Feloni, Ioannis Kourtis, Konstantinos Kotsifakis

Abstract:

Water inadequacy in small dry islands scattered in the Aegean Sea (Greece) is a major problem regarding Water Resources Management (WRM), especially during the summer period due to tourism. In the present work, various WRM schemes are designed and presented. The WRM schemes take into account current infrastructure and include Rainwater Harvesting tanks and Reverse Osmosis Desalination Units. The energy requirements are covered mainly by wind turbines and/or a seawater pumped storage system. Sizing is based on the available data for population and tourism per island, after taking into account a slight increase in the population (up to 1.5% per year), and it guarantees at least 80% reliability for the energy supply and 99.9% for potable water. Evaluation of scenarios is carried out from a financial perspective, after calculating the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) of each investment for a lifespan of 30 years. The wind-powered desalination plant was found to be the most cost-effective practice, from an economic point of view. Finally, in order to estimate the Climate Change (CC) impact, six different CC scenarios were investigated. The corresponding rate of on-grid versus off-grid energy required for ensuring the targeted reliability for the zero and each climatic scenario was investigated per island. The results revealed that under CC the grid-on energy required would increase and as a result, the reduction in wind turbines and seawater pumped storage systems’ reliability will be in the range of 4 to 44%. However, the range of this percentage change does not exceed 22% per island for all examined CC scenarios. Overall, CC is proposed to be incorporated into the design process for WRM-related projects. Acknowledgements: This research is co-financed by Greece and the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) through the Operational Program «Human Resources Development, Education and Lifelong Learning 2014-2020» in the context of the project “Development of a combined rain harvesting and renewable energy-based system for covering domestic and agricultural water requirements in small dry Greek Islands” (MIS 5004775).

Keywords: Climate Change, Desalination, Water resources management, Rainwater Harvesting, small dry islands, RES, seawater pumped storage system

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