Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 75

Water Quality Related Abstracts

75 A Study on Water Quality Parameters of Pond Water for Better Management of Pond

Authors: Dona Grace Jeyaseeli

Abstract:

Water quality conditions in a pond are controlled by both natural processes and human influences. Natural factors such as the source of the pond water and the types of rock and soil in the pond watershed will influence some water quality characteristics. These factors are difficult to control but usually cause few problems. Instead, most serious water quality problems originate from land uses or other activities near or in the pond. The effects of these activities can often be minimized through proper management and early detection of problems through testing. In the present study a survey of three ponds in Coimbatore city, Tamilnadu, India were analyzed and found that water quality problems in their ponds, ranging from muddy water to fish kills. Unfortunately, most pond owners have never tested their ponds, and water quality problems are usually only detected after they cause a problem. Hence the present study discusses some common water quality parameters that may cause problems in ponds and how to detect through testing for better management of pond.

Keywords: Test, Water Quality, Pond, problem

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74 Sources of Water Supply and Water Quality for Local Consumption: The Case Study of Eco-Tourism Village, Suan Luang Sub- District Municipality, Ampawa District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand

Authors: Paiboon Jeamponk, Tasanee Ponglaa, Patchapon Srisanguan

Abstract:

The aim of this research paper was based on an examination of sources of water supply and water quality for local consumption, conducted at eco-tourism villages of Suan Luang Sub- District Municipality of Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province. The study incorporated both questionnaire and field work of water testing as the research tool and method. The sample size of 288 households was based on the population of the district, whereas the selected sample water sources were from 60 households: 30 samples were ground water and another 30 were surface water. Degree of heavy metal contamination in the water including copper, iron, manganese, zinc, cadmium and lead was investigated utilizing the Atomic Absorption- Direct Aspiration method. The findings unveiled that 96.0 percent of household water consumption was based on water supply, while the rest on canal, river and rain water. The household behaviour of consumption revealed that 47.2 percent of people routinely consumed water without boiling or filtering prior to consumption. The investigation of water supply quality found that the degree of heavy metal contamination including metal, lead, iron, copper, manganese and cadmium met the standards of the Department of Health.

Keywords: Water supply, Water Quality, Thailand, sources of water supply

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73 Surface Water Quality in Orchard Area, Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand

Authors: Sivapan Choo-In, Sisuwan Kaseamsawat

Abstract:

This study aimed to evaluated the surface water quality for agriculture and consumption in the district. Surface water quality parameters in this study in cluding water temperature, turbidity, conductivity. salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, BOD, nitrate, Suspended solids, phosphorus. Total dissolve solids, iron, copper, zinc, manganese, lead and cadmium. Water samples were collected from small excavation, Lychee, Pomelo, and Coconut orchard for 3 season during January to December 2011. The surface water quality from small excavation, Lychee, pomelo, and coconut orchard are meet the type III of surface water quality standard issued by the National Environmental Quality Act B. E. 1992. except the concentration of heavy metal. And did not differ significantly at 0.05 level, except dissolved oxygen. The water is suitable for consumption by the usual sterile and generally improving water quality through the process before. And is suitable for agriculture.

Keywords: Water, Water Quality, Thailand, surface water quality

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72 Dissolved Oxygen Prediction Using Support Vector Machine

Authors: Mogeeb Mosleh, Sorayya Malek, Sharifah M. Syed

Abstract:

In this study, Support Vector Machine (SVM) technique was applied to predict the dichotomized value of Dissolved oxygen (DO) from two freshwater lakes namely Chini and Bera Lake (Malaysia). Data sample contained 11 parameters for water quality features from year 2005 until 2009. All data parameters were used to predicate the dissolved oxygen concentration which was dichotomized into 3 different levels (High, Medium, and Low). The input parameters were ranked, and forward selection method was applied to determine the optimum parameters that yield the lowest errors, and highest accuracy. Initial results showed that pH, water temperature, and conductivity are the most important parameters that significantly affect the predication of DO. Then, SVM model was applied using the Anova kernel with those parameters yielded 74% accuracy rate. We concluded that using SVM models to predicate the DO is feasible, and using dichotomized value of DO yields higher prediction accuracy than using precise DO value.

Keywords: Water Quality, support vector machine, dissolved oxygen, predication DO

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71 Reducing Metabolism Residues in Maintenance Goldfish (Carrasius auratus auratus) by Phytoremediation Plant

Authors: Anna Nurkhasanah, Hamzah Muhammad Ihsan, Nurul Wulandari

Abstract:

Water quality affects the body condition of aquatic organisms. One of the methods to manage water quality, usually called phytoremediation, involves using aquatic plants. The purpose of this study is to find out the best aquatic plants to reducing metabolism residues from aquatic organism. 5 aquariums (40x30x30 cm) containing 100 grams from each 4 different plants such as water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), salvinia (Salvinia molesta), cabomba (Cabomba caroliniana), and hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata), thirteen goldfis (Carrasius auratus auratus) are maintained. The maintenance is conducted through a week and water quality measurements are performed three times. The results show that pH value tends to range between 7,22-8,72. The temperature varies between 25-26 °C. DO values varies between 5,2-10,5 mg/L. Amoniac value is between 0,005–5,2 mg/L. Nitrite value is between 0,005 mg/L-2,356 mg/L. Nitrate value is between 0,791 mg/L-1,737 mg/L. CO2 value is between 2,2 mg/L-6,1 mg/L. The result of survival rate of goldfish for all treatments is 100%. Based on this study, the best aquatic plant to reduce metabolism residues is hydrilla.

Keywords: Water Quality, Phytoremediation, Goldfish, Aquatic Plants

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70 Assessment of Drainage Water Quality in South Africa: Case Study of Vaal-Harts Irrigation Scheme

Authors: Fred A. O. Otieno, Josiah A. Adeyemo, Olumuyiwa I. Ojo

Abstract:

South Africa is water-stressed being a semi-arid country with limited annual rainfall supply and a lack of perennial streams. The future implications of population growth combined with the uncertainty of climate change are likely to have significant financial, human and ecological impacts on already scarce water resources. The waste water from the drainage canals of the Vaal-Harts irrigation scheme (VHS) located in Jan Kempdorp, a farming community in South Africa, were investigated for possible irrigation re-use and their effects on the immediate environment. Three major drains within the scheme were identified and sampled. Drainage water samples were analysed to determine its characteristics. The water samples analyzed had pH values in the range of 5.5 and 6.4 which is below the normal range for irrigation water and very low to moderate salinity (electrical conductivity 0.09-0.82 dS/m). The adjusted sodium adsorption ratio values in all the samples were also very low (<0.2), indicating very low sodicity hazards. The nitrate concentration in most of the samples was high, ranging from 4.8 to 53 mg/l. The reuse of the drainage water for irrigation is possible, but with further treatment. Some suggestions were offered in the safe management of drainage water in VHS.

Keywords: Environment, irrigation, Water Quality, Pollutants, drainage canal

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69 Studies on the Ecology of Sea Grasses in Uppanar Estuary, South East Coast of India

Authors: N. Veerappan

Abstract:

Seasonal variations of sea grasses and physico-chemical parameters were studied from April 2011 to March 2012. Samples were collected in four different seasons, namely post monsoon (January-March), summer (April-June) premonsoon (July-September) and monsoon (October-December) from the Uppanar estuary. Three species of sea grass biomass were measured during the study period: Halophila ovalis (215.3 g/m2 - 38.5 g/m2), Halophila beccarii (75.2 g/m2 –30.1 g/m2) and Halodule pinifolia (65.4 g/m2 - 26.5 g/m2), respectively. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) showed that NO2, NO3 PO4, and SiO4 influenced Halophila ovalis biomass distribution, whereas for Halophila beccarii and Halodule pinifolia, atmospheric temperature, water temperature, salinity, pH and DO proved important.

Keywords: Water Quality, sea grass, species biomass, Uppanar estuary

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68 Combination of Artificial Neural Network Model and Geographic Information System for Prediction Water Quality

Authors: Sirilak Areerachakul

Abstract:

Water quality has initiated serious management efforts in many countries. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models are developed as forecasting tools in predicting water quality trend based on historical data. This study endeavors to automatically classify water quality. The water quality classes are evaluated using 6 factor indices. These factors are pH value (pH), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Nitrate Nitrogen (NO3N), Ammonia Nitrogen (NH3N) and Total Coliform (T-Coliform). The methodology involves applying data mining techniques using multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network models. The data consisted of 11 sites of Saen Saep canal in Bangkok, Thailand. The data is obtained from the Department of Drainage and Sewerage Bangkok Metropolitan Administration during 2007-2011. The results of multilayer perceptron neural network exhibit a high accuracy multilayer perception rate at 94.23% in classifying the water quality of Saen Saep canal in Bangkok. Subsequently, this encouraging result could be combined with GIS data improves the classification accuracy significantly.

Keywords: Computer Science, Water Quality, Geographic Information System, Artificial Neural Network

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67 Physical and Chemical Parameters of Lower Ogun River, Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: F.I. Adeosun, A.A. Idowu, D.O. Odulate

Abstract:

The aims of carrying out this experiment were to determine the water quality and to investigate if the various human and ecological activities around the river have any effect on the physico-chemical parameters of the river’s resources with a view to effectively utilizing these resources. Water samples were collected from two stations on the surface water of Lower Ogun River Akomoje biweekly for a period of 5 months (January to May, 2011). Results showed that temperature ranged between 24.0-30.7oC, transparency (0.53-1.00 m), depth (1.0-3.88 m), alkalinity (4.5-14.5 mg/l), nitrates (0.235-5.445 mg/l), electrical conductivity (140-190µS/cm), dissolved oxygen (4.12-5.32 mg/l), phosphates (0.02 mg/l-0.7 5 mg/l) and total dissolved solids (70-95).The parameters at the deep end (station A) accounted for the bulk of the highest values; there was however no significant differences between the stations at P˂0.05 with the exception of transparency, depth, total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity. The phosphate value was relatively low which accounted for the low productivity and high transparency. The results obtained from the physico-chemical parameters agreed with the limits set by both national and international bodies for drinking and fish growth. It was however observed that during the period of data collection, catch was low and this could be attributed to low level of primary productivity due to the quality of physico-chemical parameters of the water. It is recommended that the agencies involved in the management of the river should put the right policies in place that will effectively enhance proper exploitation of the water resources. More research should also be carried out on the physico-chemical parameters since this work only studied the water for five months.

Keywords: Chemical, Physical, Water Quality, parameters, Ogunriver

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66 Consequential Effects of Coal Utilization on Urban Water Supply Sources – a Study of Ajali River in Enugu State Nigeria

Authors: Enebe Christian Chukwudi

Abstract:

Water bodies around the world notably underground water, ground water, rivers, streams, and seas, face degradation of their water quality as a result of activities associated with coal utilization including coal mining, coal processing, coal burning, waste storage and thermal pollution from coal plants which tend to contaminate these water bodies. This contamination results from heavy metals, presence of sulphate and iron, dissolved solids, mercury and other toxins contained in coal ash, sludge, and coal waste. These wastes sometimes find their way to sources of urban water supply and contaminate them. A major problem encountered in the supply of potable water to Enugu municipality is the contamination of Ajali River, the source of water supply to Enugu municipal by coal waste. Hydro geochemical analysis of Ajali water samples indicate high sulphate and iron content, high total dissolved solids(TDS), low pH (acidity values) and significant hardness in addition to presence of heavy metals, mercury, and other toxins. This is indicative of the following remedial measures: I. Proper disposal of mine wastes at designated disposal sites that are suitably prepared. II. Proper water treatment and III. Reduction of coal related contaminants taking advantage of clean coal technology.

Keywords: Waste, treatment, Utilization, Water Quality, Coal, Sources, Contamination, effects

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65 Physiochemical Analysis of Ground Water in Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria

Authors: E. D. Paul, C. E. Gimba, F. G. Okibe, S. Yakubu

Abstract:

Some physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal concentrations of water samples collected from ten boreholes in Samaru, Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria were analysed in order to assess the drinking water quality. Physicochemical parameters were determined using classical methods while the heavy metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Results of the analysis obtained were as follows: Temperature 29 – 310C, pH 5.74 – 6.19, Electrical conductivity 3.21 – 7.54 µs, DO 0.51 – 1.00 mg/L, BOD 0.0001 – 0.006 mg/L, COD 160 – 260 mg/L, TDS 2.08 – 4.55 mg/L, Total Hardness 97.44 – 401.36 mg/L CaCO3, and Chloride 0.97 – 59.12 mg/L. Concentrations of heavy metals were in the range; Zinc 0.000 – 0.7568 mg/L, Lead 0.000 – 0.070 mg/L and Cadmium 0.000 – 0.009 mg/L. The implications of these findings are discussed.

Keywords: Water Quality, Heavy Metals, Ground Water, Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS)

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64 Assessment of Water Quality Network in Karoon River by Dynamic Programming Approach (DPA)

Authors: A. A. Hassani, M. Nasri Nasrabadi

Abstract:

Karoon is one of the greatest and longest rivers of Iran, which because of the existence of numerous industrial, agricultural centers and drinking usage, has a strategic situation in the west and southwest parts of Iran, and the optimal monitoring of its water quality is an essential and indispensable national issue. Due to financial constraints, water quality monitoring network design is an efficient way to manage water quality. The most crucial part is to find appropriate locations for monitoring stations. Considering the objectives of water usage, we evaluate existing water quality sampling stations of this river. There are several methods for assessment of existing monitoring stations such as Sanders method, multiple criteria decision making and dynamic programming approach (DPA) which DPA opted in this study. The results showed that due to the drinking water quality index out of 20 existing monitoring stations, nine stations should be retained on the river, that include of Gorgor-Band-Ghir of A zone, Dez-Band-Ghir of B zone, Teir, Pole Panjom and Zargan of C zone, Darkhoein, Hafar, Chobade, and Sabonsazi of D zone. In additional, stations of Dez river have the best conditions.

Keywords: Water Quality, network monitoring, DPA, karoon river, sampling site

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63 Physico-Chemical Quality Study of Geothermal Waters of the Region DjéRid-Tunisia

Authors: Anis Eloud, Mohamed Ben Amor

Abstract:

Tunisia is a semi-arid country on ¾ of its territory. It is characterized by the scarcity of water resources and accentuated by climate variability. The potential water resources are estimated at 4.6 million m3 / year, of which 2.7 million m3 / year represent surface water and 1.9 million m3 / year feed all the layers that make up the renewable groundwater resources. Water available in Tunisia easily exceed health or agricultural salinity standards. Barely 50% of water resources are less than 1.5 g / l divided at 72% of surface water salinity, 20% of deep groundwater and only 8% in groundwater levels. Southern Tunisia has the largest web "of water in the country, these waters are characterized by a relatively high salinity may exceed 4 gl-1. This is the "root of many problems encountered during their operation. In the region of Djérid, Albian wells are numerous. These wells debit a geothermal water with an average flow of 390 L / s. This water is characterized by a relatively high salinity and temperature of which is around 65 ° C at the source. Which promotes the formation of limescale deposits within the water supply pipe and the cooling loss thereby increasing the load in direct relation with enormous expense and circuits to replace these lines when completely plugged. The present work is a study of geothermal water quality of the region Djérid from physico-chemical analyzes.

Keywords: Geothermal, Water Quality, Salinity, supply pipe

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62 Flocculation on the Treatment of Olive Oil Mill Wastewater: Pre-Treatment

Authors: G. Hodaifa, J. A. Páez, C. Agabo, E. Ramos, J. C. Gutiérrez, A. Rosal

Abstract:

Currently, the continuous two-phase decanter process used for olive oil production is the more internationally widespread. The wastewaters generated from this industry (OMW) is a real environmental problem because of its high organic load. Among proposed treatments for these wastewaters, the advanced oxidation technologies (Fenton process, ozone, photoFenton, etc.) are the most favourable. The direct application of these processes is somewhat expensive. Therefore, the application of a previous stage based on a flocculation-sedimentation operation is of high importance. In this research five commercial flocculants (three cationic, and two anionic) have been used to achieve the separation of phases (liquid clarified-sludge). For each flocculant, different concentrations (0-1000 mg/L) have been studied. In these experiments, sludge volume formed over time and the final water quality were determined. The final removal percentages of total phenols (11.3-25.1%), COD (5.6-20.4%), total carbon (2.3-26.5%), total organic carbon (1.50-23.8%), total nitrogen (1.45-24.8%), and turbidity (27.9-61.4%) were obtained. Also, the variation on the electric conductivity reduction percentage (1-8%) was determined. Finally, the best flocculants with highest removal percentages have been determined (QG2001 and Flocudex CS49).

Keywords: Water Quality, Flocculation, flocculants, olive oil mill wastewater

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61 Assessment of Water Quality of Euphrates River at Babylon Governorate, for Drinking, Irrigation and general, Using Water Quality Index (Canadian Version) (CCMEWQI)

Authors: Amer Obaid Saud

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Water quality index (WQI) is considered as an effective tool in categorization of water resources for its quality and suitability for different uses. The Canadian version of water quality index (CCME WQI) which based on the comparison of the water quality parameters to regulatory standards and give a single value to the water quality of a source was applied in this study to assess the water quality of Euphrates river in Iraq at Babylon Governorate north of Baghdad and determine its suitability for aquatic environment (GWQI), drinking water (PWSI) and irrigation(IWQI). Five stations were selected on the river in Babylon (Euphrates River/AL-Musiab, Hindia barrage, two stations at Hilla city and the fifth station at Al-Hshmeya north of Hilla. Fifteen water samples were collected every month during August 2013 to July 2014 at the study sites and analyzed for the physico-chemical parameters like (Temperature, pH, Electrical Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids(TDS), Total Suspended Solids(TSS), Total Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Calcium and Magnesium Concentration, some of nutrient like Nitrite, Nitrate, Phosphate also the study of concentration of some heavy metals (Fe, Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Cd) in water and comparison of measures to benchmarks such as guidelines and objectives to assess change in water quality. The result of Canadian version of(CCME .WQI) to assess the irrigation water quality (IWQI) of Euphrates river was (83-good) at site one during second seasonal period while the lowest was (66-Fair) in the second station during the fourth seasonal period, the values of potable water supply index (PWSI)that the highest value was (68-Fair) in the fifth site during the second period while the lowest value (42 -Poor) in the second site during the first seasonal period,the highest value for general water quality (GWQI) was (74-Fair) in site five during the second seasonal period, the lowest value (48-Marginal) in the second site during the first seasonal period. It was observed that the main cause of deterioration in water quality was due to the lack of, unprotected river sites ,high anthropogenic activities and direct discharge of industrial effluent.

Keywords: Water Quality, Euphrates River, Babylon governorate, Canadian version

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60 Study of Surface Water Quality in the Wadi El Harrach for Its Use in the Artificial Groundwater Recharge of the Mitidja, North Algeria

Authors: M. Meddi, A. Boufekane

Abstract:

The Mitidja coastal groundwater which extends over an area of 1450 km2 is a strategic resource in the Algiers region. The high dependence of the regional economy on the use of this groundwater forces us to have recourse to its artificial recharge from the Wadi El Harrach in its upstream part. This system of artificial recharge has shown its effectiveness in the development of water resource mentioned in the succeeding works in several regions of the world. The objective of this study is to: Increase the reserves of water inputs by infiltration, raise the water level and its good quality in wells and boreholes, reduce losses to the sea, and address seawater intrusion by maintaining balance in the freshwater-saltwater interface in the downstream part of the groundwater basin. After analyzing the situation, it was noticed that a qualitative monitoring of the Wadi water for the groundwater recharge has to be done. For this purpose, we proceeded during three successive years (2010, 2011, and 2012) to the monthly sampling of water in the upstream part of the Wadi El Harrach for chemical analysis. The variation of the sediment transport concentration will be also measured. This monitoring aims to characterize the water quality and avoid clogging in the proposed recharge area. The results of these analyses showed the good chemical quality according to the analyses we performed in the laboratory during the three years, but they are too loaded with suspended matters. We noticed that these fine particles come from the grinding of limestone of sandpit located upstream of the area of the proposed recharge system. This problem can be solved by a water supply upstream of sandpit. For the recharge, we propose the method of using two wells for dual use, which means that it can be used for water supply and extraction. This solution is inexpensive in our case and could easily be used as wells are already drilled in the upstream part. This solution increases over time the piezometric level and also reduce groundwater contamination by saltwater in the downstream part.

Keywords: Water Quality, artificial groundwater recharge, Mitidja, North Algeria

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59 Effects of Effort and Water Quality on Productivity (CPUE) of Hampal (Hampala macrolepidota) Resources in Jatiluhur Dam, West Java

Authors: Ririn Marinasari, S. Pi

Abstract:

Hampal (Hampala macrolepidota) is one of Citarum river indigenous fishes that still find in Jatiluhur dam. IUCN at 2013 said that hampal listed on redlist species category, this species was rare in Jatiluhur dam. This species more and more decreasing because change of habitats characteristic such as water quality and fishing effort. This study aims to determine and identify the influence of fishing effort and the quality of water on the productivity of fish resources hampal (Hampala macrolepidota) in Jatiluhur. The study was conducted from October to November 2013. Zones of research include lacustrine zone, transition and Riverin. Hampal fish productivity value computed by Hampal’s CPUE values. The results showed that fish MSY hampal obtained from surplus production model of Schaefer is equal to 0.2045 tons / quarterly. In the years 2011-2012 have occurred over fishing in 2013 while still under fishing. Total catches have exceeded the MSY during the year 2011 and the third quarterly of 2012 tons of fish that exceed 0.2045 hampal. The rate of utilization of fish resources hampal is equal to 80% of MSY or equal to the allowable catch (Total Allowable Catch) for fish in Jatiluhur hampal based Schaefer surplus production theory. Fishing effort, water quality parameters such as DO, turbidity and negatively correlated sulfide as H2S, while the temperature and pH positively correlated to productivity or unit catches fish hampal efforts in quarterly time series in the period 2011-2013. Shows that the higher fishing effort, DO, turbidity and sulfide in H2S and diminishing the temperature and pH of the productivity decreases. Variables that affect the productivity of fishing hampal only H2S only factor beta coefficient -0.834 which indicates a negative effect. It can be caused by H2S levels are toxic and have already exceeded the quality standard, while for other water quality parameters are still below the maximum standards allowed in the waters. Result of the study can be a reference of fishing regulation for hampal conservation in Jatiluhur dam.

Keywords: Productivity, Water Quality, effort, hampal

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58 Monitoring and Evaluation of the Water Quality of Taal Lake, Talisay, Batangas, Philippines

Authors: Felipe B. Martinez, Imelda C. Galera

Abstract:

This paper presents an update on the physico-chemical properties of the Taal Lake for local government officials and representatives of non-government organizations by monitoring and evaluating a total of nine (9) water quality parameters. The study further shows that the Taal Lakes surface temperature, pH, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, color, and dissolved oxygen content conform to the standards set by the Department of Environment and Natural resources (DENR); while phosphate, chlorine, and 5-Day 20°C BOD are below the standard. Likewise, the T-test result shows no significant difference in the overall average of the two sites at the Taal Lake (P > 0.05). Based on the data, the Lake is safe for primary contact recreation such as bathing, swimming and skin diving, and can be used for aqua culture purposes.

Keywords: Water Quality, cool dry season, hot dry season, rainy season, Taal Lake

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57 Groundwater Quality Monitoring in the Shoush Suburbs, Khouzestan Province, Iran

Authors: Ali Gholami, Mohammad Tahsin Karimi Nezhad, Zaynab Shadbahr

Abstract:

In recent years many attempts have been made to assess groundwater contamination by nitrates worldwide. The assessment of spatial and temporal variations of physico-chemical parameters of water is necessary to mange water quality. The objectives of the study were to evaluate spatial variability and temporal changes of hydrochemical factors by water sampling from 24 wells in the Shoush City suburb. The analysis was conducted for the whole area and for different land use and geological classes. In addition, nitrate concentration variability with descriptive parameters such as sampling depth, dissolved oxygen, and on ground nitrogen loadings was also investigated The results showed that nitrate concentrations did not exceed the standard limit (50 mg/l). EC of water samples, ranged from 900 to 1200 µs/cm, TDS from 775 to 830 mg/l and pH from 5.6 to 9.

Keywords: Groundwater, Water Quality, GIS, Iran

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56 Lake Bardawil Water Quality

Authors: Mohamed Elkashouty, Mohamed Elkammar, Mohamed Gomma, Menal Elminiami

Abstract:

Lake Bardawil is considered as one of the major morphological features of northern Sinai. It represents the largest fish production lake for export in Egypt. Nineteen and thirty one samples were collected from lake water during winter and summer (2005). TDS, cations, anions, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Co and Pb concentrations were measured within winter and summer seasons. During summer, in the eastern sector of the lake, TDS concentration is decreased due northeastern part (38000 ppm), it is attributed to dilution from seawater through Boughaz II. The TDS concentration increased generally in the central and southern parts of the lake (44000 and 42000 ppm, respectively). It is caused by they are far from dilution from seawater, disconnected water body, shallow depth (mean 2 m), and high evaporation rate. In the western sector, the TDS content ranged from low (38000 ppm) in the northeastern part to high (50000 ppm) in the western part. Generally, the TDS concentration in the western sector is higher than those in the eastern. It is attributed to low volume of water body for the former, high evaporation rate, and therefore increase in TDS content in the lake water.During winter season, in the eastern sector, the wind velocity is high which enhance the water current to inflow into the lake through Boughaz I and II. The resultant water lake is diluted by seawater and rainfall in the winter season. The TDS concentration increased due southern part of the lake (42000 ppm) and declined in the northern part (36000 ppm). The concentration of Co, Ni, Pb, Fe, Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn and Pb within winter and summery seasons, in lake water are low, which considered as background concentrations with respect to seawater. Therefore, there are no industrial, agricultural and sanitary wastewaters dump into the lake. This confirms the statement that has been written at the entrance of Lake Bardawil at El-Telool area "Lake Bardawil, one of the purest lakes in the world". It indicate that the Lake Bardawil is excellent area for fish production for export (current state) and is the second main fish source in Egypt after the Mediterranean Sea after the illness of Lake Manzala.

Keywords: Water Quality, major ions, lake Bardawil, toxic metals

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55 Investigation of Heavy Metals and Nitrate Level in Drinking Water and the Side Effects on Public Health in the Capital City of Iran

Authors: Iman Nazari, Behrouz Shaabani, Ali Ramouz

Abstract:

Regarding to the dramatic rise of cancer prevalence of cancers in Iran and also base on the investigations around environmental factors which causes cancer, The air and water pollution is in high level in Iran’s capital city this issue motivated us to start an investigation on concentration of heavy metals and nitrate in Tehran’s Tap water, additionally we investigated the effects of this contaminations on public health, it is clear that heavy metals and also nitrate are causes cancers directly and indirectly, we divided the city to four districts: (1) North, (2) East, (3) West, (4) South and totally collected over 30 samples from noted districts, we obvious difference in concentrations, after a study we founded the reasons of this difference, the old distribution system, non-standard sewage disposal system, travel up from contaminated rains, releasing industrial wastes waters without any pretreatment, the most important one is the old distribution system, Tehran is an old city hence distribution system is old too we know that the old water pipes were built from alloys which containing several of this harmful heavy metals, releasing of this heavy metals from pipes to the tap water is one of the most Important reasons, as the result we presented the concentrations by districts and the alternatives to decreasing the level of this contaminations.

Keywords: Water Quality, Heavy Metals, drinking water, environmental toxinology

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54 Evaluation of Cirata Reservoir Sustainability Using Multi Dimensionalscaling (MDS)

Authors: Kholil Kholil, Aniwidayati

Abstract:

MDS (Multi-Dimensional Scaling) is one method that has been widely used to evaluate the use of natural resources. By using Raffish software tool, we will able to analyze sustainability level of the natural resources use. This paper will discuss the level of sustainability of the reservoir using MDS (Multi-Dimensional Scaling) based on five dimensions: (1) Ecology & Layout, (2) Economics, (3) Social & Culture, (4) Regulations & Institutional, and (5) Infrastructure and Technology. MDS analysis results show that the dimension of ecological and layout, institutional and the regulation are lack of sustainability due to the low index score of 45.76 and 42.24. While for the economic, social and culture, and infrastructure and technology dimension reach each score of 63.12, 64.42, and 68.64 (only the sufficient sustainability category). It means that the sustainability performance of Cirata Reservoir seriously threatened.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Water Quality, Carrying Capacity, Sedimentation, sustainability index, MDS, cirata reservoir

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53 Investigation of Surface Water Quality Intera-Annual Variations, Gorganroud Basin, Iran

Authors: K. Ebrahimi, S. Shahid, H. Dehban

Abstract:

Climate variability can affect surface water quality. The objective of present study is to assess the impacts of climate variability on water quality of Gorganroud River, Iran, over the time period 1971 to 2011. To achieve this aim, climate variability and water quality variations were studied involving a newly developed drought index (MRDI) and hysteresis curves, respectively. The results show that climate variability significantly affected surface water quality over the time. The existence of yearly internal variation and hysteresis phenomenon for pH and EC parameters was observed. It was found that though drought affected pH considerably, it could not affect EC significantly.

Keywords: Water Quality, Climate Variability, hysteresis curves, multi drought index

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52 Estimation of Longitudinal Dispersion Coefficient Using Tracer Data

Authors: K. Ebrahimi, Sh. Shahid, M. Mohammadi Ghaleni, M. H. Omid

Abstract:

The longitudinal dispersion coefficient is a crucial parameter for 1-D water quality analysis of riverine flows. So far, different types of empirical equations for estimation of the coefficient have been developed, based on various case studies. The main objective of this paper is to develop an empirical equation for estimation of the coefficient for a riverine flow. For this purpose, a set of tracer experiments was conducted, involving salt tracer, at three sections located in downstream of a lengthy canal. Tracer data were measured in three mixing lengths along the canal including; 45, 75 and 100m. According to the results, the obtained coefficients from new developed empirical equation gave an encouraging level of agreement with the theoretical values.

Keywords: Water Quality, Dispersion, river, coefficients, tracer

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51 Importance of Different Spatial Parameters in Water Quality Analysis within Intensive Agricultural Area

Authors: Marina Bubalo, Davor Romić, Stjepan Husnjak, Helena Bakić

Abstract:

Even though European Council Directive 91/676/EEC known as Nitrates Directive was adopted in 1991, the issue of water quality preservation in areas of intensive agricultural production still persist all over Europe. High nitrate nitrogen concentrations in surface and groundwater originating from diffuse sources are one of the most important environmental problems in modern intensive agriculture. The fate of nitrogen in soil, surface and groundwater in agricultural area is mostly affected by anthropogenic activity (i.e. agricultural practice) and hydrological and climatological conditions. The aim of this study was to identify impact of land use, soil type, soil vulnerability to pollutant percolation, and natural aquifer vulnerability to nitrate occurrence in surface and groundwater within an intensive agricultural area. The study was set in Varaždin County (northern Croatia), which is under significant influence of the large rivers Drava and Mura and due to that entire area is dominated by alluvial soil with shallow active profile mainly on gravel base. Negative agricultural impact on water quality in this area is evident therefore the half of selected county is a part of delineated nitrate vulnerable zones (NVZ). Data on water quality were collected from 7 surface and 8 groundwater monitoring stations in the County. Also, recent study of the area implied detailed inventory of agricultural production and fertilizers use with the aim to produce new agricultural land use database as one of dominant parameters. The analysis of this database done using ArcGIS 10.1 showed that 52,7% of total County area is agricultural land and 59,2% of agricultural land is used for intensive agricultural production. On the other hand, 56% of soil within the county is classified as soil vulnerable to pollutant percolation. The situation is similar with natural aquifer vulnerability; northern part of the county ranges from high to very high aquifer vulnerability. Statistical analysis of water quality data is done using SPSS 13.0. Cluster analysis group both surface and groundwater stations in two groups according to nitrate nitrogen concentrations. Mean nitrate nitrogen concentration in surface water – group 1 ranges from 4,2 to 5,5 mg/l and in surface water – group 2 from 24 to 42 mg/l. The results are similar, but evidently higher, in groundwater samples; mean nitrate nitrogen concentration in group 1 ranges from 3,9 to 17 mg/l and in group 2 from 36 to 96 mg/l. ANOVA analysis confirmed statistical significance between stations that are classified in the same group. The previously listed parameters (land use, soil type, etc.) were used in factorial correspondence analysis (FCA) to detect importance of each stated parameter in local water quality. Since stated parameters mostly cannot be altered, there is obvious necessity for more precise and more adapted land management in such conditions.

Keywords: Water Quality, nitrate, agricultural area, factorial correspondence analysis

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50 Water Quality in Buyuk Menderes Graben, Turkey

Authors: Tugbanur Ozen Balaban, Gultekin Tarcan, Unsal Gemici, Mumtaz Colak, I. Hakki Karamanderesi

Abstract:

Buyuk Menderes Graben is located in the Western Anatolia (Turkey). The graben has become the largest industrial and agricultural area with a total population exceeding 3.000.000. There are two big cities within the study areas from west to east as Aydın and Denizli. The study area is very rich with regard to cold ground waters and thermal waters. Electrical production using geothermal potential has become very popular in the last decades in this area. Buyuk Menderes Graben is a tectonically active extensional region and is undergoing a north–south extensional tectonic regime which commenced at the latest during Early Middle Miocene period. The basement of the study area consists of Menderes massif rocks that are made up of high-to low-grade metamorphics and they are aquifer for both cold ground waters and thermal waters depending on the location. Neogene terrestrial sediments, which are mainly composed by alluvium fan deposits unconformably cover the basement rocks in different facies have very low permeability and locally may act as cap rocks for the geothermal systems. The youngest unit is Quaternary alluvium which is the shallow regional aquifer consists of Holocene alluvial deposits in the study area. All the waters are of meteoric origin and reflect shallow or deep circulation according to the 8O, 2H and 3H contents. Meteoric waters move to deep zones by fractured system and rise to the surface along the faults. Water samples (drilling well, spring and surface waters) and local seawater were collected between 2010 and 2012 years. Geochemical modeling was calculated distribution of the aqueous species and exchange processes by using PHREEQCi speciation code. Geochemical analyses show that cold ground water types are evolving from Ca–Mg–HCO3 to Na–Cl–SO4 and geothermal aquifer waters reflect the water types of Na-Cl-HCO3 in Aydın. Water types of Denizli are Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4. Thermal water types reflect generally Na-HCO3-SO4. The B versus Cl rates increase from east to west with the proportion of seawater introduced into the fresh water aquifers and geothermal reservoirs. Concentrations of some elements (As, B, Fe and Ni) are higher than the tolerance limit of the drinking water standard of Turkey (TS 266) and international drinking water standards (WHO, FAO etc).

Keywords: Water Quality, Isotope chemistry, Buyuk Menderes, geochemical modelling

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49 A Multivariate Statistical Approach for Water Quality Assessment of River Hindon, India

Authors: Nida Rizvi, Deeksha Katyal, Varun Joshi

Abstract:

River Hindon is an important river catering the demand of highly populated rural and industrial cluster of western Uttar Pradesh, India. Water quality of river Hindon is deteriorating at an alarming rate due to various industrial, municipal and agricultural activities. The present study aimed at identifying the pollution sources and quantifying the degree to which these sources are responsible for the deteriorating water quality of the river. Various water quality parameters, like pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium, chloride, nitrate, sulphate, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and total alkalinity were assessed. Water quality data obtained from eight study sites for one year has been subjected to the two multivariate techniques, namely, principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Principal component analysis was applied with the aim to find out spatial variability and to identify the sources responsible for the water quality of the river. Three Varifactors were obtained after varimax rotation of initial principal components using principal component analysis. Cluster analysis was carried out to classify sampling stations of certain similarity, which grouped eight different sites into two clusters. The study reveals that the anthropogenic influence (municipal, industrial, waste water and agricultural runoff) was the major source of river water pollution. Thus, this study illustrates the utility of multivariate statistical techniques for analysis and elucidation of multifaceted data sets, recognition of pollution sources/factors and understanding temporal/spatial variations in water quality for effective river water quality management.

Keywords: Water Quality, Cluster Analysis, multivariate statistical techniques, river Hindon

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48 Studies on the Physico-Chemical Parameters of Jebba Lake, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: M. B. Mshelia, J. K. Balogun, J. Auta, N. O. Bankole

Abstract:

Studies on some aspects of the physico-chemical parameters of Jebba Lake, Niger State, Nigeria was carried out from January to December, 2011. The aim was to investigate some of the physico-chemical parameters relevant to life and health of fish in the water body. Six (6) sampling sites were selected at random which covered Northern (Faku and Awuru), middle (Old Gbajibo and Shankade) and southern zones (New Gbajibo and Jebba dam} of Jebba Lake. Sampling was carried out for the period of 12 Months. The Physico-chemical parameters that were considered were water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, water transparency, phosphate and nitrate. They were all measured using standard methods. The results showed that water temperature values ranged between 26.06 ± 0.15a in Jebba lake site to 27.34 ± 0.12b in Shankade sampling site, depth varied from 8.08m to 31.64m, water current was between 20.10.62 cm/sec and 26.46 cm/sec, Secchi disc transparency ranged from0.46±0.01 m in New Gbajibo, while the highest mean value was 0.53 ± 0.04 m in Jebba dam., pH varied from 6.49 ± 0.01 and 7.59,5.35±0.03a mg/l in New Gbajibo and 6.75 ± 0.03 mg/l in Faku.The dissolved oxygen varied between 5.35±0.03a mg/l in New Gbajibo and 6.75 ± 0.03 mg/l in Faku.,The mean conductivity value was highest in Faku and Jebba with 128.8 ± 0.32 and 128.8 ± 0.42homs/cm) respectively, Alkalinity ranged 43.00±0.02 to33.30±0.32 mg/l., The nitrate-nitrogen range (2.37 ± 0.08 – 6.40 ± 0.50mg/l)., The mean values of phosphate-phosphorus (PO4-P) recorded varied between 0.18 ± 0.00 mg/l in Faku to 0.47 + 0.10 mg/l in Old Gbajibo.The highest mean value for total dissolved solids was 57.88 ± 0.28 mg/l in Shankade, while the lowest mean value of 39.17 ± 0.42 mg/l was recorded in Faku. Free CO2 ranged from 1.75 mg/l to 2.94 mg/l, Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was between 4.25 mg/l and 5.41 mg/l and nitrate-nitrogen concentration was between 2.37 mg/l and 6.40 mg/l. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) between these parameters in relation to stations. Generally, the physico-chemical characteristics of Lake Jebba were within the productive values for aquatic systems, and strongly indicate that the lake is unpolluted.

Keywords: Water Quality, physico-chemical parameters, Jebba Lake, secchi disc, DO meter, sampling sites

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47 Applied of LAWA Classification for Assessment of the Water by Nutrients Elements: Case Oran Sebkha Basin

Authors: Boualla Nabila

Abstract:

The increasing demand on water, either for the drinkable water supply, or for the agricultural and industrial custom, requires a very thorough hydrochemical study to protect better and manage this resource. Oran is relatively a city with the worst quality of the water. Recently, the growing populations may put stress on natural waters by impairing the quality of the water. Campaign of water sampling of 55 points capturing different levels of the aquifer system was done for chemical analyzes of nutriments elements. The results allowed us to approach the problem of contamination based on the largely uniform nationwide approach LAWA (LänderarbeitsgruppeWasser), based on the EU CIS guidance, has been applied for the identification of pressures and impacts, allowing for easy comparison. Groundwater samples were analyzed, also, for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulphate, carbonate and bicarbonate. The analytical results obtained in this hydrochemistry study were interpreted using Durov diagram. Based on these representations, the anomaly of high groundwater salinity observed in Oran Sebkha basin was explained by the high chloride concentration and to the presence of inverse cation exchange reaction. Durov diagram plot revealed that the groundwater has been evolved from Ca-HCO3 recharge water through mixing with the pre-existing groundwater to give mixed water of Mg-SO4 and Mg-Cl types that eventually reached a final stage of evolution represented by a Na-Cl water type.

Keywords: Water Quality, Contamination, nutrients elements, approach LAWA, durov diagram

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46 Leaching Properties of Phosphate Rocks in the Nile River

Authors: Abdelkader T. Ahmed

Abstract:

Phosphate Rocks (PR) are natural sediment rocks. These rocks contain several chemical compositions of heavy metals and radioactive elements. Mining and transportation these rocks beside or through the natural water streams may lead to water contamination. When PR is in contact with water in the field, as a consequence of precipitation events, changes in water table or sinking in water streams, elements such as salts and heavy metals, may be released to the water. In this work, the leaching properties of PR in Nile River water was investigated by experimental lab work. The study focused on evaluating potential environmental impacts of some constituents, including phosphors, cadmium, curium and lead of PR on the water quality of Nile by applying tank leaching tests. In these tests the potential impact of changing conditions, such as phosphate content in PR, liquid to solid ratio (L/S) and pH value, was studied on the long-term release of heavy metals and salts. Experimental results showed that cadmium and lead were released in very low concentrations but curium and phosphors were in high concentrations. Results showed also that the release rate from PR for all constituents was low even in long periods.

Keywords: Water Quality, leaching tests, Nile river, phosphate rocks

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