Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

water level fluctuation Related Abstracts

3 Annual Water Level Simulation Using Support Vector Machine

Authors: Maryam Khalilzadeh Poshtegal, Seyed Ahmad Mirbagheri, Mojtaba Noury


In this paper, by application of the input yearly data of rainfall, temperature and flow to the Urmia Lake, the simulation of water level fluctuation were applied by means of three models. According to the climate change investigation the fluctuation of lakes water level are of high interest. This study investigate data-driven models, support vector machines (SVM), SVM method which is a new regression procedure in water resources are applied to the yearly level data of Lake Urmia that is the biggest and the hyper saline lake in Iran. The evaluated lake levels are found to be in good correlation with the observed values. The results of SVM simulation show better accuracy and implementation. The mean square errors, mean absolute relative errors and determination coefficient statistics are used as comparison criteria.

Keywords: Simulation, support vector machine, Urmia Lake, water level fluctuation

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2 Forecasting Lake Malawi Water Level Fluctuations Using Stochastic Models

Authors: M. Mulumpwa, W. W. L. Jere, M. Lazaro, A. H. N. Mtethiwa


The study considered Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) processes to select an appropriate stochastic model to forecast the monthly data from the Lake Malawi water levels for the period 1986 through 2015. The appropriate model was chosen based on SARIMA (p, d, q) (P, D, Q)S. The Autocorrelation function (ACF), Partial autocorrelation (PACF), Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), Box–Ljung statistics, correlogram and distribution of residual errors were estimated. The SARIMA (1, 1, 0) (1, 1, 1)12 was selected to forecast the monthly data of the Lake Malawi water levels from August, 2015 to December, 2021. The plotted time series showed that the Lake Malawi water levels are decreasing since 2010 to date but not as much as was the case in 1995 through 1997. The future forecast of the Lake Malawi water levels until 2021 showed a mean of 474.47 m ranging from 473.93 to 475.02 meters with a confidence interval of 80% and 90% against registered mean of 473.398 m in 1997 and 475.475 m in 1989 which was the lowest and highest water levels in the lake respectively since 1986. The forecast also showed that the water levels of Lake Malawi will drop by 0.57 meters as compared to the mean water levels recorded in the previous years. These results suggest that the Lake Malawi water level may not likely go lower than that recorded in 1997. Therefore, utilisation and management of water-related activities and programs among others on the lake should provide room for such scenarios. The findings suggest a need to manage the Lake Malawi jointly and prudently with other stakeholders starting from the catchment area. This will reduce impacts of anthropogenic activities on the lake’s water quality, water level, aquatic and adjacent terrestrial ecosystems thereby ensuring its resilience to climate change impacts.

Keywords: Climate Change, Forecasting, anthropogenic activities, water level fluctuation, water levels, Lake Malawi

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1 Impact of Climate Change on Water Level and Properties of Gorgan Bay in the Southern Caspian Sea

Authors: Siamak Jamshidi


The Caspian Sea is the Earth's largest inland body of water. One of the most important issues related to the sea is water level changes. For measuring and recording Caspian Sea water level, there are at least three gauges and radar equipment in Anzali, Nowshahr and Amirabad Ports along the southern boundary of the Caspian Sea. It seems that evaporation, hotter surface air temperature, and in general climate change is the main reasons for its water level fluctuations. Gorgan Bay in the eastern part of the southern boundary of the Caspian Sea is one of the areas under the effect of water level fluctuation. Based on the results of field measurements near the Gorgan Bay mouth temperature ranged between 24°C–28°C and salinity was about 13.5 PSU in midsummer while temperature changed between 10-11.5°C and salinity mostly was 15-16.5 PSU in mid-winter. The decrease of Caspian Sea water level and rivers outflow are the two most important factors for the increase in water salinity of the Gorgan Bay. Results of field observations showed that, due to atmospheric factors, climate changes and decreasing of precipitation over the southern basin of the Caspian Sea during last decades, the water level of bay was reduced around 0.5 m.

Keywords: Climate Changes, Caspian Sea, water level fluctuation, Gorgan Bay

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