Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

water hyacinth Related Abstracts

8 Environmental Impacts and Ecological Utilization of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in the Niger Delta Fresh Ecosystem

Authors: Seiyaboh E. I.


Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was introduced into many parts of the world, including Africa, as an ornamental garden pond plant because of its beauty. However, it is considered a dangerous pest today because when not controlled, water hyacinth will cover rivers, lakes and ponds entirely; this dramatically impacts water flow, blocks sunlight from reaching native aquatic plants, and starves the water of oxygen, often killing fish and other aquatic organisms. In the Niger Delta region, water hyacinth is considered a nuisance because of its very obvious devastating environmental impacts in the region. However, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) constitutes a very important part of an aquatic ecosystem. It possesses specialized growth habits, physiological characteristics and reproductive strategies that allow for rapid growth and spread in freshwater environments and this explains its very rapid spread in the Niger Delta freshwater ecosystem. This paper therefore focuses on the environmental consequences of the proliferation of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in the Niger Delta freshwater ecosystem, extent of impact, and options available for its ecological utilization which will help mitigate proliferation, restore effective freshwater ecosystem utilization and balance. It concludes by recommending sustainable practices outlining the beneficial uses of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) rather than control.

Keywords: Environmental Impacts, Niger Delta, ecological utilization, water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes

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7 Prevention of Cellulose and Hemicellulose Degradation on Fungal Pretreatment of Water Hyacinth Using Phanerochaete Chrysosporium

Authors: Eka Sari


Potential degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose during the fungal pretreatment of lignocellulose has led to fermentable sugar yield will be low. This potential is even greater if the pretreatment of lignocellulosic that have low lignin such as water hyacinth. In order to prepare lignocellulose that have low lignin content, especially water hyacinth efforts are needed to prevent the degradation of cellulose and cellulose. One attempt to prevent the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose is to replace the substrate needed by the addition of a simple carbon compounds such as glucose. Glucose sources used in this study is molasses. The purpose of this research to get the right of concentration of molasses to reduce the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose during the pretreatment process and obtain fermentable sugar yields on high. The results showed that the addition of molasses with a concentration of 2% is able to reduce the degradation of cellulose from 25.53% to 10% and hemicellulose degradation of 20.12% to 10.89%. Fermentable sugar yields produced only reached 43.91%. To improve the yield of glucose is then performed additional combonation of molasses of 2% molasses and co-factor Mn2+ 0.5%. Fermentable sugar yield increased to 67.66% and the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose decreased to 2.44% and 2.71%, respectively.

Keywords: Pretreatment, Cellulose, degradation, fungus, water hyacinth, hemicelulose

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6 Phytoremediation Rates of Water Hyacinth in an Aquaculture Effluent Hydroponic System

Authors: A. O. Ogunlela, E. A. Kiridi


Conventional wastewater treatment plants of activated carbon, electrodialysis, ion exchange, reverse osmosis etc. are expensive to install, operate and maintain especially in developing countries; therefore, the use of aquatic macrophytes for wastewater purification is a viable alternative. On the first day of experimentation, approximately 100g of water hyacinth was introduced into the hydroponic units in four replicates. The water quality parameters measured were total suspended solids (TSS), pH and electrical conductivity (EC). Others were concentration of ammonium–nitrogen (NH4+-N), nitrite-nitrogen (NO2--N), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N), phosphate–phosphorus (PO43--P), and biomass value. At phytoremediation intervals of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, the biomass recorded were 438.2 g, 600.7 g, 688.2 g and 725.7 g. Water hyacinth was able to reduce the pollutant concentration of all the selected parameter. The percentage reduction of pH ranged from 1.9% to 14.7%, EC from 49.8% to 97.0%, TDS from 50.4% to 97.6%, TSS from 34.0% to 78.3%, NH4+-N from 38.9% to 85.2%, NO2--N from 0% to 84.6%, NO3--N from 63.2% to 98.8% and PO43--P from 10% to 88.0%. Paired sample t-test shows that at 95% confidence level, it can be concluded statistically that the inequality between the pre-treatment and post-treatment values are significant. This suggests that the use of water hyacinth is valuable in the design and operation of aquaculture effluent treatment and should therefore be adopted by environmental and wastewater managers.

Keywords: Phytoremediation, pollutant, water hyacinth, aquaculture effluent

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5 Effect of Water Hyacinth on Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Ahmed Shaban Abdel Hay Gabr


Water hyacinth (W-H) has an adverse effect on Nile river in Egypt, it absorbs high quantities of water, it needs to serve these quantities especially at this time, so by burning W-H, it can be used in concrete mix to reduce the permeability of concrete and increase both the compressive and splitting strength. The effect of W-H on non-structural concrete properties was studied, but there is a lack of studies about the behavior of structural concrete containing W-H. Therefore, in the present study, the behavior of 15 RC beams with 100 x 150 mm cross section, 1250 mm span, different reinforcement ratios and different W-H ratios were studied by testing the beams under two-point bending test. The test results showed that Water Hyacinth is compatible with RC which yields promising results.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, Beams, water hyacinth, reinforcement ratio

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4 Evaluation of Toxic Metals in Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) from Valsequillo Reservoir, Puebla, Central Mexico

Authors: P. F. Rodríguez-Espinosa, Jacobo Tabla, M. E. Perez-Lopez


Valsequillo reservoir located in Puebla City, Central Mexico receives water from the Atoyac River (Northwest) and from Alseseca River in the north. It has been the receptacle of municipal and industrial wastes for the past few decades affecting the water quality lethally. As a result, there is an outburst of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) in the reservoir occupying around 50 % of the total area. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to assess the concentration levels of toxic metals (Co, Zn, Ni, Cu and As) in the water hyacinths and the ambient waters during the dry season. Fourteen water samples and three water hyacinth samples were procured from the Valsequillo reservoir. The collected samples of water hyacinth (roots, rhizome, stems and leaves) were analyzed using an Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) Ultramass 700 (Varian Inc.) to determine the metal levels. Results showed that water hyacinth presented an exhaustion in metal capture from the inlet to outlet of the reservoir. The maximum bioaccumulation factors (BF) of Co, Zn, Ni, Cu and As were 5000, 47474, 4929, 17090 and 74000 respectively. On the other hand, the maximum Translocation Factor (TF) of 0.85 was observed in Zn, whilst Co presented the minimum TF of 0.059. Thus, the results presented the fact that water hyacinth in Valsequillo reservoir proves to be an important environmental utility for efficiently accumulating and translocating heavy metals from the ambient waters to its organelles (stems and leaves).

Keywords: water hyacinth, toxic metals, bioaccumulation factor, translocation factor

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3 Poly(S/DVB)HIPE Filled with Cellulose from Water Hyacinth

Authors: Manit Nithitanakul, Metinee Kawsomboon, Thanchanok Tulaphol, Jitima Preechawong


PolyHIPE is a porous polymeric material from polymerization of high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) which contains 74% of internal phase (disperse phase) and 26 % of external phase (continues phase). Typically, polyHIPE was prepared from styrene (S) and divinylbenzene (DVB) and they were used in various kind of applications such as catalyst support, gas adsorption, separation membranes, and tissue engineering scaffolds due to high specific surface areas, high porousity, ability to adsorb large quantities of liquid. In this research, cellulose from water hyacinth (Eichornia Crassipes), an aquatic plant that grows and spread rapidly in rivers and waterways in Thailand was added into polyHIPE to increase mechanical property of polyHIPE. Addition of unmodified and modified cellulose to poly(S/DVB)HIPE resulting in a decrease in the surface area and thermal stability of the resulting materials. Mechanical properties of the resulting polyHIPEs filled with both unmodified and modified cellulose exhibited higher compressive strength and Young’s modulus by 146.3% and 162.5% respectively, compared to unfilled polyHIPEs. The water adsorption capacity of filled polyHIPE was also improved.

Keywords: Surface modification, Cellulose, polyHIPE, water hyacinth, porous polymer

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2 Biogas Production Using Water Hyacinth as a Means of Waste Management Control at Hartbeespoort Dam, South Africa

Authors: Tonderayi Matambo, Diane Hildebrandt, Trevor Malambo Simbayi


The rapid growth of population in recent decades has resulted in an increased need for energy to meet human activities. As energy demands increase, the need for other sources of energy other than fossil fuels, increases in turn. Furthermore, environmental concerns such as global warming due to the use of fossil fuels, depleting fossil fuel reserves and the rising cost of oil have contributed to an increased interest in renewables sources of energy. Biogas is a renewable source of energy produced through the process of anaerobic digestion (AD) and it offers a two-fold solution; it provides an environmentally friendly source of energy and its production helps to reduce the amount of organic waste taken to landfills. This research seeks to address the waste management problem caused by an aquatic weed called water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) at the Hartbeespoort (Harties) Dam in the North West Province of South Africa, through biogas production of the weed. Water hyacinth is a category 1 invasive species and it is deemed to be the most problematic aquatic weed. This weed is said to double its size in the space of five days. Eutrophication in the Hartbeespoort Dam has manifested itself through the excessive algae bloom and water hyacinth infestation. A large amount of biomass from water hyacinth and algae are generated per annum from the two hundred hectare surface area of the dam exposed to the sun. This biomass creates a waste management problem. Water hyacinth when in full bloom can cover nearly half of the surface of Hartbeespoort Dam. The presence of water hyacinth in the dam has caused economic and environmental problems. Economic activities such as fishing, boating, and recreation, are hampered by the water hyacinth’s prolific growth. This research proposes the use of water hyacinth as a feedstock or substrate for biogas production in order to find an economic and environmentally friendly means of waste management for the communities living around the Hartbeespoort Dam. In order to achieve this objective, water hyacinth will be collected from the dam and it will be mechanically pretreated before anaerobic digestion. Pretreatment is required for lignocellulosic materials like water hyacinth because such materials are called recalcitrant solid materials. Cow manure will be employed as a source of microorganisms needed for biogas production to occur. Once the water hyacinth and the cow dung are mixed, they will be placed in laboratory anaerobic reactors. Biogas production will be monitored daily through the downward displacement of water. Characterization of the substrates (cow manure and water hyacinth) to determine the nitrogen, sulfur, carbon and hydrogen, total solids (TS) and volatile solids (VS). Liquid samples from the anaerobic digesters will be collected and analyzed for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) composition by means of a liquid gas chromatography machine.

Keywords: Waste Management, Biogas, Anaerobic Digestion, water hyacinth

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1 Pilot Scale Sub-Surface Constructed Wetland: Evaluation of Performance of Bed Vegetated with Water Hyacinth in the Treatment of Domestic Sewage

Authors: Abdul-Hakeem Olatunji Abiola, A. E. Adeniran, A. O. Ajimo, A. B. Lamilisa


Introduction: Conventional wastewater treatment technology has been found to fail in developing countries because they are expensive to construct, operate and maintain. Constructed wetlands are nowadays considered as a low-cost alternative for effective wastewater treatment, especially where suitable land can be available. This study aims to evaluate the performance of the constructed wetland vegetated with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) plant for the treatment of wastewater. Methodology: The sub-surface flow wetland used for this study was an experimental scale constructed wetland consisting of four beds A, B, C, and D. Beds A, B, and D were vegetated while bed C which was used as a control was non-vegetated. This present study presents the results from bed B vegetated with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and control bed C which was non-vegetated. The influent of the experimental scale wetland has been pre-treated with sedimentation, screening and anaerobic chamber before feeding into the experimental scale wetland. Results: pH and conductivity level were more reduced, colour of effluent was more improved, nitrate, iron, phosphate, and chromium were more removed, and dissolved oxygen was more improved in the water hyacinth bed than the control bed. While manganese, nickel, cyanuric acid, and copper were more removed from the control bed than the water hyacinth bed. Conclusion: The performance of the experimental scale constructed wetland bed planted with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is better than that of the control bed. It is therefore recommended that plain bed without any plant should not be encouraged.

Keywords: treatment, water hyacinth, domestic sewage, constructed experimental scale wetland

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