Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

water depth Related Abstracts

3 Water Depth and Optical Attenuation Characteristics of Natural Water Reservoirs nearby Kolkata City Assessed from Hyperion Hyperspectral and LISS-3 Multispectral Images

Authors: Barun Raychaudhuri

Abstract:

A methodology is proposed for estimating the optical attenuation and proportional depth variation of shallow inland water. The process is demonstrated with EO-1 Hyperion hyperspectral and IRS-P6 LISS-3 multispectral images of Kolkata city nearby area centered around 22º33′ N 88º26′ E. The attenuation coefficient of water was found to change with fine resolution of wavebands and in presence of suspended organic matter in water.

Keywords: Hyperspectral, hyperion, Kolkata, water depth

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2 Quantification of Factors Contributing to Wave-In-Deck on Fixed Jacket Platforms

Authors: C. Y. Ng, A. M. Johan, A. E. Kajuputra

Abstract:

Wave-in-deck phenomenon for fixed jacket platforms at shallow water condition has been reported as a notable risk to the workability and reliability of the platform. Reduction in reservoir pressure, due to the extraction of hydrocarbon for an extended period of time, has caused the occurrence of seabed subsidence. Platform experiencing subsidence promotes reduction of air gaps, which eventually allows the waves to attack the bottom decks. The impact of the wave-in-deck generates additional loads to the structure and therefore increases the values of the moment arms. Higher moment arms trigger instability in terms of overturning, eventually decreases the reserve strength ratio (RSR) values of the structure. The mechanics of wave-in-decks, however, is still not well understood and have not been fully incorporated into the design codes and standards. Hence, it is necessary to revisit the current design codes and standards for platform design optimization. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of RSR due to wave-in-deck on four-legged jacket platforms in Malaysia. Base shear values with regards to calibration and modifications of wave characteristics were obtained using SESAM GeniE. Correspondingly, pushover analysis is conducted using USFOS to retrieve the RSR. The effects of the contributing factors i.e. the wave height, wave period and water depth with regards to the RSR and base shear values were analyzed and discussed. This research proposal is important in optimizing the design life of the existing and aging offshore structures. Outcomes of this research are expected to provide a proper evaluation of the wave-in-deck mechanics and in return contribute to the current mitigation strategies in managing the issue.

Keywords: water depth, wave-in-deck loads, wave effects, fixed jacket platforms

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1 A Comparative Study on Primary Productivity in Fish Cage Culture Unit and Fish Pond in Relation to Different Level of Water Depth

Authors: Pawan Kumar Sharma, J. Stephan Sampath Kumar, D. Manikandavelu, V. Senthil Kumar

Abstract:

The total amount of productivity in the system is the gross primary productivity. The present study was carried out to understand the relationship between productivity in the cages and water depth. The experiment was conducted in the fish cages installed in the pond at the Directorate of Sustainable Aquaculture, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu Dr. J. Jayalalithaa Fisheries University, Tamil Nadu (10° 47' 13.1964'' N; 79° 8' 16.1700''E). Primary productivity was estimated by light and dark bottle method. The measurement of primary productivity was done at different depths viz., 20 cm, 40 cm, and 60 cm. Six Biological Oxygen Demand bottles of 300 ml capacity were collected and tagged. The productivity was obtained in mg O2/l/hr. The maximum dissolved oxygen level at 20 cm depth was observed 5.62 ± 0.22 mg/l/hr in the light bottle in pond water while the minimum dissolved oxygen level at 20 cm depth in a cage was observed 3.62 ± 0.18 mg/l/hr in dark bottle. In the same way, the maximum and minimum value of dissolved oxygen was observed at 40, and 60 cm depth and results were compared. A slight change in pH was observed in the cage and pond. The maximum gross primary productivity observed was 1.97 mg/l/hr in pond at 20 cm depth while minimum gross primary productivity observed was 0.82±0.16 mg/l/hr in a cage at 60 cm depth. The community respiration was also variable with the depth in both cage and pond. Maximum community respiration was found 1.50±0.19 mg/l/hr in pond at 20 cm depth. A strong positive linear relationship was observed between primary productivity and fish yields in ponds. The pond primary productivity can contribute substantially to the nutrition of farm-raised aquaculture species, including shrimp. The growth of phytoplankton’s is dependent on the sun light, availability of primary nutrients (N, P, and K) in the water body and transparency, so to increase the primary productivity fertilization through organic manure may be done that will clean to the pond environment also.

Keywords: water depth, cage aquaculture, net primary productivity, gross primary productivity, community respiration

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