Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

water consumption Related Abstracts

5 Smart Meters and In-Home Displays to Encourage Water Conservation through Behavioural Change

Authors: Julia Terlet, Thomas H. Beach, Yacine Rezgui

Abstract:

Urbanization, population growth, climate change and the current increase in water demand have made the adoption of innovative demand management strategies crucial to the water industry. Water conservation in urban areas has to be improved by encouraging consumers to adopt more sustainable habits and behaviours. This includes informing and educating them about their households’ water consumption and advising them about ways to achieve significant savings on a daily basis. This paper presents a study conducted in the context of the European FP7 WISDOM Project. By integrating innovative Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) frameworks, this project aims at achieving a change in water savings. More specifically, behavioural change will be attempted by implementing smart meters and in-home displays in a trial group of selected households within Cardiff (UK). Using this device, consumers will be able to receive feedback and information about their consumption but will also have the opportunity to compare their consumption to the consumption of other consumers and similar households. Following an initial survey, it appeared necessary to implement these in-home displays in a way that matches consumer's motivations to save water. The results demonstrated the importance of various factors influencing people’s daily water consumption. Both the relevant literature on the subject and the results of our survey therefore led us to include within the in-home device a variety of elements. It first appeared crucial to make consumers aware of the economic aspect of water conservation and especially of the significant financial savings that can be achieved by reducing their household’s water consumption on the long term. Likewise, reminding participants of the impact of their consumption on the environment by making them more aware of water scarcity issues around the world will help increasing their motivation to save water. Additionally, peer pressure and social comparisons with neighbours and other consumers, accentuated by the use of online social networks such as Facebook or Twitter, will likely encourage consumers to reduce their consumption. Participants will also be able to compare their current consumption to their past consumption and to observe the consequences of their efforts to save water through diverse graphs and charts. Finally, including a virtual water game within the display will help the whole household, children and adults, to achieve significant reductions by providing them with simple tips and advice to save water on a daily basis. Moreover, by setting daily and weekly goals for them to reach, the game will expectantly generate cooperation between family members. Members of each household will indeed be encouraged to work together to reduce their water consumption within different rooms of the house, such as the bathroom, the kitchen, or the toilets. Overall, this study will allow us to understand the elements that attract consumers the most and the features that are most commonly used by the participants. In this way, we intend to determine the main factors influencing water consumption in order to identify the measures that will most encourage water conservation in both the long and short term.

Keywords: Water Conservation, water consumption, behavioural change, ICT technologies

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4 Assessment of Water Resources and Inculcation of Controlled Water Consumption System

Authors: Vakhtang Geladze, Nana Bolashvili, Tamazi Karalashvili, Nino Machavariani, Vajha Neidze, Nana Kvirkvelia, Tamar Chichinadze

Abstract:

Deficiency of fresh water is a vital global problem today. It must be taken into consideration that in the nearest future fresh water crisis will become even more acute owing to the global climate warming and fast desertification processes in the world. Georgia has signed the association agreement with Euro Union last year where the priority spheres of cooperation are the management of water resources, development of trans-boundary approach to the problem and active participation in the “Euro Union water initiative” component of “the East Europe, Caucasus and the Central Asia”. Fresh water resources are the main natural wealth of Georgia. According to the average water layer height, Georgia is behind such European countries only as Norway, Switzerland and Austria. The annual average water provision of Georgia is 4-8 times higher than in its neighbor countries Armenia and Azerbaijan. Despite abundant water resources in Georgia, there is considerable discrepancy between their volume and use in some regions because of the uneven territorial distribution. In the East Georgia, water supply of the territory and population is four times less than in the West Georgia.

Keywords: Water Resources, Water management, GIS, water consumption

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3 Examination of Woody Taxa in Urban Parks in the Context of Climate Change: Resat Oyal Kulturpark and Hudavendigar Urban Park Samples

Authors: Murat Zencirkıran, Elvan Ender

Abstract:

Climate change, which has become effective on a global scale, is accompanied by an increase in negative conditions for human, plant and animal life. Especially these negative conditions (drought, warming, glowing, etc.) are felt more rapidly in urban life and affect the sustainability of green areas which are of great importance in terms of life comfort. In this context, the choice of woody taxa used in the design and design of green spaces in the city increase one more time. Within the scope of this study, two of four urban parks located in the city center of Bursa province were selected and evaluated for woody taxa. Urban parks have been identified as the oldest and newest urban park in Bursa, and it has been tried to emphasize the differences that may exist over time. It was determined that 54 woody taxa took place in Resat Oyal Kulturpark and 76 woody taxa in Hudavendigar Urban Park. These taxa have been evaluated in terms of water consumption and ecological tolerances by taking into account climate change, and suggestions have been developed against possible problems.

Keywords: water consumption, urban park, ecological hardiness, woody plants

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2 Factors Affecting Sustainable Water Management in Water-Challenged Societies: Case Study of Doha Qatar

Authors: L. Mathew, D. Thomas

Abstract:

Qatar is a desert country with scarce fresh water resources, low rainfall and very high evaporation rate. It meets the majority of its water requirement through desalination process which is very expensive. Pressures are expected to mount on account of high population growth rate and demands posed by being the venue for 2022 FIFA World cup. This study contributes towards advancing the knowledge of the factors affecting sustainable water consumption in water-challenged societies by examining the case of Doha, Qatar. Survey research methods have been predominantly used for this research. Surveys were conducted using self-administered questionnaires. Focused group interviews and personal interviews with Qatar’s residents were also used to obtain deeper insights. Salient socio-cultural factors that drive the water consumption behavior of the public and which in turn affect sustainable water management practices are determined. Suggestions for reducing water consumption as well as fiscal and punitive measures to curb overuse and misuse of water are also identified.

Keywords: Middle East, Water management, Sustainability, water consumption, Qatar

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1 A Chemical-Free Colouration Technique for Regenerated Fibres Using Waste Alpaca Fibres

Authors: M. Abdullah Al Faruque, Rechana Remadevi, Abu Naser M. Ahsanul Haque, Joselito Razal, Xungai Wang, Maryam Naebe

Abstract:

Generally, the colouration of textile fibres is performed by using synthetic colourants in dope dyeing or conventional dyeing methods. However, the toxic effect of some synthetic colorants due to long-term exposure can cause several health threats including cancer, asthma and skin diseases. Moreover, in colouration process, these colourants not only consume a massive amount of water but also generates huge proportion of wastewater to the environment. Despite having the environmentally friendly characteristics, current natural colourants have downsides in their yield and need chemical extraction processes which are water consuming as well. In view of this, the present work focuses to develop a chemical-free biocompatible and natural pigment based colouration technique to colour regenerated fibres. Waste alpaca fibre was used as a colourant and the colour properties, as well as the mechanical properties, of the regenerated fibres were investigated. The colourant from waste alpaca was fabricated through mechanical milling process and it was directly applied to the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) dope solution in different ratios of alpaca: PAN (10:90, 20:80, 30:70). The results obtained from the chemical structure characterization suggested that all the coloured regenerated fibres exhibited chemical functional groups of both PAN and alpaca. Furthermore, the color strength was increased gradually with the increment of alpaca content and showed excellent washing fastness properties. These results reveal a potential new pathway for chemical-free dyeing technique for fibres with improved properties.

Keywords: Alpaca, water consumption, polyacrylonitrile, natural colorant, chemical-free coloration, wet spinning

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