Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

water absorption Related Abstracts

14 Moisture Absorption Analysis of LLDPE-NR Nanocomposite for HV Insulation

Authors: M. S. Kamarulzaman, N. A. Muhamad, N. A. M. Jamail, M. A. M. Piah, N. F. Kasri


Insulation for high voltage application that has been service for a very long time is subjected to several types of degradation. The degradation can lead to premature breakdown and definitely will spent highly cost to replace the cable. Thus, there are many research on nano composite material get serious attention attention due to their abilities to enhance electrical performance by addition of nano filler. In this paper, water absorption of Low Linear Density Polyethyelene (LLDPE) with different amount of nano filler added is studied. This study is necessary to be conducted since most of electrical apparatus such as cable insulation are dominant used especially in high voltage application. The cable insulation are continuously exposed in uncontrolled environment may suffer degradation process. Three type of nano fillers, was used in this study are: Silicon dioxide (SiO2), Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and Monmorillonite (MMT). The percentage absorption of water was measured by weighted using high precision scales for absorption process up to 92 days. Experimental result demonstrate that SiO2 absorb less water than other filler while, the MMT has hydrophilic properties which it absorbs more water compare to another sample.

Keywords: nano composite, nano filler, water absorption, hydrophilic properties

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13 An Overview of Sludge Utilization into Fired Clay Brick

Authors: Aeslina Binti Abdul Kadir, Ahmad Shayuti Bin Abdul Rahim


Brick is one of the most common masonry units used as building material. Due to the demand, different types of waste have been investigated to be incorporated into the bricks. Many types of sludge have been incorporated in fired clay brick for example marble sludge, stone sludge, water sludge, sewage sludge, and ceramic sludge. The utilization of these waste materials in fired clay bricks usually has positive effects on the properties such as lightweight bricks with improved shrinkage, porosity, and strength. This paper reviews on utilization of different types of sludge wastes into fired clay bricks. Previous investigations have demonstrated positive effects on the physical and mechanical properties as well as less impact towards the environment. Thus, the utilizations of sludge waste could produce a good quality of brick and could be one of alternative disposal methods for the sludge wastes.

Keywords: compressive strength, shrinkage, water absorption, fired clay brick, sludge waste

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12 Effects of Kenaf and Rice Husk on Water Absorption and Flexural Properties of Kenaf/CaCO3/HDPE and Rice Husk/CaCO3/HDPE Hybrid Composites

Authors: Noor Zuhaira Abd Aziz


Rice husk and kenaf filled with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) composite were prepared separately using twin-screw extruder at 50rpm. Different filler loading up to 30 parts of rice husk particulate and kenaf fiber were mixed with the fixed 30% amount of CaCO3 mineral filler to produce rice husk/CaCO3/HDPE and kenaf/CaCO3/HDPE hybrid composites. In this study, the effects of natural fiber for both rice husk and kenaf in CaCO3/HDPE composite on physical and mechanical properties were investigated. The property analyses showed that water absorption increased with the presence of kenaf and rice husk fillers. Natural fibers in composite significantly influence water absorption properties due to natural characters of fibers which contain cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin structures. The result showed that 10% of additional natural fibers into hybrid composite had caused decreased flexural strength, however additional of high natural fiber (>10%) filler loading has proved to increase its flexural strength.

Keywords: Hybrid Composites, Mechanical Properties, water absorption

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11 Improvement of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Properties by Controlling the Water Flow in the Interfacial Transition Zone

Authors: M. Eckert, M. Oliveira, A. Bettencourt Ribeiro


The intensive use of natural aggregate, near the towns, associated to the increase of the global population, leads to its depletion and increases the transport distances. The uncontrolled deposition of construction and demolition waste in landfills and city outskirts, causes pollution and take up space for noblest purposes. The main problem of recycled aggregate lies in its high water absorption, what is due to the porosity of the materials which constitute this type of aggregate. When the aggregates are dry, water flows from the inside to the engaging cement paste matrix, and when they are saturated an inverse process occurs. This water flow breaks the aggregate-cement paste bonds and the greater water concentration, in the inter-facial transition zone, degrades the concrete properties in its fresh and hardened state. Based on the water absorption over time, it was optimized an staged mixing method, to regulate the said flow and manufacture recycled aggregate concrete with levels of work-ability, strength and shrinkage equivalent to those of conventional concrete.The physical, mechanical and geometrical properties of the aggregates where related to the properties of concrete in its fresh and hardened state. Three types of commercial recycled aggregates and two types of natural aggregates where evaluated. Six compositions with different percentages of recycled coarse aggregate where tested.

Keywords: shrinkage, water absorption, recycled aggregate, interfacial transition zone, compressive-strength

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10 Improving the Dimensional Stability of Bamboo Woven Strand Board

Authors: Gulelat Gatew


Bamboo Woven Strand Board (WSB) products are manufactured from Ethiopia highland bamboo (Yushania alpina) as a multiple layer mat structure for enhanced mechanical performance. Hence, it shows similar mechanical properties as tropical hardwood products. WSB, therefore, constitutes a sustainable alternative to tropical hardwood products. The resin and wax ratio had a great influence on the determinants properties of the product quality such as internal bonding, water absorption, thickness swelling, bending and stiffness properties. Among these properties, because of the hygroscopic nature of the bamboo, thickness swelling and water absorption are important performances of WSB for using in construction and outdoor facilities. When WSB is exposed to water or moist environment, they tend to swell and absorb water in all directions. The degree of swelling and water absorption depends on the type of resin used, resin formulation, resin ratio, wax type and ratio. The objective of this research is investigating effects of phenol formaldehyde and wax on thickness swelling and water absorption behavior on bamboo WSB for construction and outdoor facilities. The experiments were conducted to measure the effects of wax and phenol-formaldehyde resin content on WSB thickness swelling and water absorption which leads to investigate its effect on dimension stability and mechanical properties. Both experiments were performed with 2–hour and 24-hour water immersion test and a significant set of data regarding the influence of such method parameters is also presented. The addition of up to 2% wax with 10% of phenol formaldehyde significantly reduced thickness swelling and water absorption of WSB which resulted in making it more hydrophobic and less susceptible to the influences of moisture in high humidity conditions compared to the panels without wax.

Keywords: water absorption, phenol formaldehyde resin, thickness swelling, woven strand board (WSB)

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9 The Temperature Degradation Process of Siloxane Polymeric Coatings

Authors: Andrzej Szewczak


Study of the effect of high temperatures on polymer coatings represents an important field of research of their properties. Polymers, as materials with numerous features (chemical resistance, ease of processing and recycling, corrosion resistance, low density and weight) are currently the most widely used modern building materials, among others in the resin concrete, plastic parts, and hydrophobic coatings. Unfortunately, the polymers have also disadvantages, one of which decides about their usage - low resistance to high temperatures and brittleness. This applies in particular thin and flexible polymeric coatings applied to other materials, such a steel and concrete, which degrade under varying thermal conditions. Research about improvement of this state includes methods of modification of the polymer composition, structure, conditioning conditions, and the polymerization reaction. At present, ways are sought to reflect the actual environmental conditions, in which the coating will be operating after it has been applied to other material. These studies are difficult because of the need for adopting a proper model of the polymer operation and the determination of phenomena occurring at the time of temperature fluctuations. For this reason, alternative methods are being developed, taking into account the rapid modeling and the simulation of the actual operating conditions of polymeric coating’s materials in real conditions. The nature of a duration is typical for the temperature influence in the environment. Studies typically involve the measurement of variation one or more physical and mechanical properties of such coating in time. Based on these results it is possible to determine the effects of temperature loading and develop methods affecting in the improvement of coatings’ properties. This paper contains a description of the stability studies of silicone coatings deposited on the surface of a ceramic brick. The brick’s surface was hydrophobized by two types of inorganic polymers: nano-polymer preparation based on dialkyl siloxanes (Series 1 - 5) and an aqueous solution of the silicon (series 6 - 10). In order to enhance the stability of the film formed on the brick’s surface and immunize it to variable temperature and humidity loading, the nano silica was added to the polymer. The right combination of the polymer liquid phase and the solid phase of nano silica was obtained by disintegration of the mixture by the sonification. The changes of viscosity and surface tension of polymers were defined, which are the basic rheological parameters affecting the state and the durability of the polymer coating. The coatings created on the brick’s surfaces were then subjected to a temperature loading of 100° C and moisture by total immersion in water, in order to determine any water absorption changes caused by damages and the degradation of the polymer film. The effect of moisture and temperature was determined by measurement (at specified number of cycles) of changes in the surface hardness (using a Vickers’ method) and the absorption of individual samples. As a result, on the basis of the obtained results, the degradation process of polymer coatings related to their durability changes in time was determined.

Keywords: temperature, Silicones, water absorption, surface hardness, siloxanes

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8 Strength Properties of Ca-Based Alkali Activated Fly Ash System

Authors: Jung-Il Suh, Hong-Gun Park, Jae-Eun Oh


Recently, the use of long-span precast concrete (PC) construction has increased in modular construction such as storage buildings and parking facilities. When applying long span PC member, reducing weight of long span PC member should be conducted considering lifting capacity of crane and self-weight of PC member and use of structural lightweight concrete made by lightweight aggregate (LWA) can be considered. In the process of lightweight concrete production, segregation and bleeding could occur due to difference of specific gravity between cement (3.3) and lightweight aggregate (1.2~1.8) and reducing weight of binder is needed to prevent the segregation between binder and aggregate. Also, lightweight precast concrete made by cementitious materials such as fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace (GGBFS) which is lower than specific gravity of cement as a substitute for cement has been studied. When only using fly ash for cementless binder alkali-activation of fly ash is most important chemical process in which the original fly ash is dissolved by a strong alkaline medium in steam curing with high-temperature condition. Because curing condition is similar with environment of precast member production, additional process is not needed. Na-based chloride generally used as a strong alkali activator has a practical problem such as high pH toxicity and high manufacturing cost. Instead of Na-based alkali activator calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] and sodium hydroxide [Na2CO3] might be used because it has a lower pH and less expensive than Na-based alkali activator. This study explored the influences on Ca(OH)2-Na2CO3-activated fly ash system in its microstructural aspects and strength and permeability using powder X-ray analysis (XRD), thermogravimetry (TGA), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). On the basis of microstructural analysis, the conclusions are made as follows. Increase of Ca(OH)2/FA wt.% did not affect improvement of compressive strength. Also, Ca(OH)2/FA wt.% and Na2CO3/FA wt.% had little effect on specific gravity of saturated surface dry (SSD) and absolute dry (AD) condition to calculate water absorption. Especially, the binder is appropriate for structural lightweight concrete because specific gravity of the hardened paste has no difference with that of lightweight aggregate. The XRD and TGA/DTG results did not present considerable difference for the types and quantities of hydration products depending on w/b ratio, Ca(OH)2 wt.%, and Na2CO3 wt.%. In the case of higher molar quantity of Ca(OH)2 to Na2CO3, XRD peak indicated unreacted Ca(OH)2 while DTG peak was not presented because of small quantity. Thus, presence of unreacted Ca(OH)2 is too small quantity to effect on mechanical performance. As a result of MIP, the porosity volume related to capillary pore depends on the w/b ratio. In the same condition of w/b ratio, quantities of Ca(OH)2 and Na2CO3 have more influence on pore size distribution rather than total porosity. While average pore size decreased as Na2CO3/FA w.t% increased, the average pore size increased over 20 nm as Ca(OH)2/FA wt.% increased which has inverse proportional relationship between pore size and mechanical properties such as compressive strength and water permeability.

Keywords: Microstructure, fly ash, compressive strength, water absorption, Ca(OH)2, Na2CO3

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7 Effect of Waste Foundry Slag and Alccofine on Durability Properties of High Strength Concrete

Authors: Devinder Sharma, Sanjay Sharma, Ajay Goyal, Ashish Kapoor


The present research paper discussed the durability properties of high strength concrete (HSC) using Foundry Slag(FD) as partial substitute for fine aggregates (FA) and Alccofine (AF) in addition to portland pozzolana (PPC) cement. Specimens of Concrete M100 grade with water/binder ratio 0.239, with Foundry Slag (FD) varying from 0 to 50% and with optimum quantity of AF(15%) were casted and tested for durability properties such as Water absorption, water permeability, resistance to sulphate attack, alkali attack and nitrate attack of HSC at the age of 7, 14, 28, 56 and 90 days. Substitution of fine aggregates (FA) with up to 45% of foundry slag(FD) content and cement with 15% substitution and addition of alccofine showed an excellent resistance against durability properties at all ages but showed a decrease in these properties with 50% of FD contents. Loss of weight in concrete samples due to sulphate attack, alkali attack and nitrate attack of HSC at the age of 365 days was compared with loss in compressive strength. Correlation between loss in weight and loss in compressive strength in all the tests was found to be excellent.

Keywords: high strength concrete, water permeability, water absorption, alccofine, alkali attack, foundry slag, nitrate attack

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6 Obtaining the Hydraulic Concrete Resistant to the Aggressive Environment by Using Admixtures

Authors: N. Tabatadze


The research aim is to study the physical and mechanical characteristics of hydraulic concrete in the surface active environment. The specific goal is to obtain high strength and low deformable concrete based on nano additives, resistant to the aggressive environment. As result of research, the alkali-silica reaction was improved (relative elongation 0,122 % of admixture instead of 0,126 % of basic concrete after 14 days). The aggressive environment impact on the strength of heavy concrete, fabricated on the basis of the hydraulic admixture with the penetrating waterproof additives also was improved (strength on compression R28=47,5 mPa of admixture instead of R28=35,8 mPa). Moreover, water absorption (W=0,59 % of admixture instead of W=1,41 %), water tightness (R14=37,9 mPa instead R14=28,7 mPa) and water-resistance (B=18 instead B=12). The basic parameters of concrete with admixture was improved in comparison with basic concrete.

Keywords: water absorption, hydraulic concrete, alkali-silica reaction, water-resistance

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5 Fluorination Renders the Wood Surface Hydrophobic without Any Loos of Physical and Mechanical Properties

Authors: Martial Pouzet, Marc Dubois, Karine Charlet, Alexis Béakou


The availability, the ecologic and economic characteristics of wood are advantages which explain the very wide scope of applications of this material, in several domains such as paper industry, furniture, carpentry and building. However, wood is a hygroscopic material highly sensitive to ambient humidity and temperature. The swelling and the shrinking caused by water absorption and desorption cycles lead to crack and deformation in the wood volume, making it incompatible for such applications. In this study, dynamic fluorination using F2 gas was applied to wood samples (douglas and silver fir species) to decrease their hydrophilic character. The covalent grafting of fluorine atoms onto wood surface through a conversion of C-OH group into C-F was validated by Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy and 19F solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. It revealed that the wood, which is initially hydrophilic, acquired a hydrophobic character comparable to that of the Teflon, thanks to fluorination. A good durability of this treatment was also determined by aging tests under ambient atmosphere and under UV irradiation. Moreover, this treatment allowed obtaining hydrophobic character without major structural (morphology, density and colour) or mechanical changes. The maintaining of these properties after fluorination, which requires neither toxic solvent nor heating, appears as a remarkable advantage over other more traditional physical and chemical wood treatments.

Keywords: Spectroscopy, Surface treatment, Cellulose, water absorption

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4 Water Absorption Studies on Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

Authors: G. L. Devnani, Shishir Sinha


In the recent years, researchers have drawn their focus on natural fibers reinforced composite materials because of their excellent properties like low cost, lower weight, better tensile and flexural strengths, biodegradability etc. There is little concern however that when these materials are put in moist conditions for long duration, their mechanical properties degrade. Therefore, in order to take maximum advantage of these novel materials, one should have a complete understanding of their moisture or water absorption phenomena. Various fiber surface treatment methods like alkaline treatment, acetylation etc. have also been suggested for reduction in water absorption of these composites. In the present study, a detailed review is done for water absorption behavior of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites, and experiments also have been performed on these composites with varying the parameters like fiber loading etc. for understanding the water absorption kinetics. Various surface treatment methods also performed to reduce the water absorption behavior of these materials and effort is made to develop a proper understanding of water absorption mechanism mathematically and experimentally for full potential utilization of natural fiber reinforced polymer composite materials.

Keywords: Composites, Natural Fiber, Alkaline Treatment, water absorption

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3 Polycaprolactone/Thermally Exfoliated Graphene Oxide Biocomposite Films: A Promising Moisture Absorption Behavior

Authors: Neetu Malik, Sharad Shrivastava, Subrata Bandhu Ghosh


Biocomposite materials were fabricated using mixing biodegradable polymer polycaprolactone (PCL) and Thermally Exfoliated Graphene Oxide (TEGO) through solution casting. Various samples of biocomposite films were prepared by varying the TEGO wt% composition by 0.1%, 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%. Thereafter, the density and water absorption of the composites were investigated with respect to immersion time in water. The moisture absorption results show that with an increase in weight percentage (from 0.1 to wt 1.5%) of TEGO within the biopolymer films, the absorption value of bio-nanocomposite films reduced rapidly from 27.4% to 14.3%. The density of hybrid composites also increased with increase in weight percentage of TEGO. These results indicate that the optimized composition of constituents in composite membrane could effectively reduce the anhydrous conditions of bio-composite film.

Keywords: Density, water absorption, PCL, thermally exfoliated graphene oxide

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2 Influential Effect of Self-Healing Treatment on Water Absorption and Electrical Resistance of Normal and Light Weight Aggregate Concretes

Authors: B. Tayebani, N. Hosseinibalam, D. Mostofinejad


Interest in using bacteria in cement materials due to its positive influences has been increased. Cement materials such as mortar and concrete basically suffer from higher porosity and water absorption compared to other building materials such as steel materials. Because of the negative side-effects of certain chemical techniques, biological methods have been proposed as a desired and environmentally friendly strategy for reducing concrete porosity and diminishing water absorption. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation carried out to evaluate the influence of Sporosarcina pasteurii bacteria on the behaviour of two types of concretes (light weight aggregate concrete and normal weight concrete). The resistance of specimens to water penetration by testing water absorption and evaluating the electrical resistance of those concretes was examined and compared. As a conclusion, 20% increase in electrical resistance and 10% reduction in water absorption of lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC) and for normal concrete the results show 7% decrease in water absorption and almost 10% increase in electrical resistance.

Keywords: Bacteria, Electrical Resistance, water absorption, lightweight aggregate concrete, biological method, normal weight concrete

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1 Mechanical Behavior of Recycled Mortars Manufactured from Moisture Correction Using the Halogen Light Thermogravimetric Balance as an Alternative to the Traditional ASTM C 128 Method

Authors: Diana Gomez-Cano, J. C. Ochoa-Botero, Roberto Bernal Correa, Yhan Paul Arias


To obtain high mechanical performance, the fresh conditions of a mortar are decisive. Measuring the absorption of aggregates used in mortar mixes is a fundamental requirement for proper design of the mixes prior to their placement in construction sites. In this sense, absorption is a determining factor in the design of a mix because it conditions the amount of water, which in turn affects the water/cement ratio and the final porosity of the mortar. Thus, this work focuses on the mechanical behavior of recycled mortars manufactured from moisture correction using the Thermogravimetric Balancing Halogen Light (TBHL) technique in comparison with the traditional ASTM C 128 International Standard method. The advantages of using the TBHL technique are favorable in terms of reduced consumption of resources such as materials, energy, and time. The results show that in contrast to the ASTM C 128 method, the TBHL alternative technique allows obtaining a higher precision in the absorption values of recycled aggregates, which is reflected not only in a more efficient process in terms of sustainability in the characterization of construction materials but also in an effect on the mechanical performance of recycled mortars.

Keywords: water absorption, alternative raw materials, halogen light, recycled mortar, resources optimization

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