Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

wastewater treatment plant Related Abstracts

4 Finding Optimal Operation Condition in a Biological Nutrient Removal Process with Balancing Effluent Quality, Economic Cost and GHG Emissions

Authors: Changkyoo Yoo, Minjeong Kim, Seungchul Lee, Iman Janghorban Esfahani, Jeong Tai Kim

Abstract:

It is hard to maintain the effluent quality of the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) under with fixed types of operational control because of continuously changed influent flow rate and pollutant load. The aims of this study is development of multi-loop multi-objective control (ML-MOC) strategy in plant-wide scope targeting four objectives: 1) maximization of nutrient removal efficiency, 2) minimization of operational cost, 3) maximization of CH4 production in anaerobic digestion (AD) for CH4 reuse as a heat source and energy source, and 4) minimization of N2O gas emission to cope with global warming. First, benchmark simulation mode is modified to describe N2O dynamic in biological process, namely benchmark simulation model for greenhouse gases (BSM2G). Then, three types of single-loop proportional-integral (PI) controllers for DO controller, NO3 controller, and CH4 controller are implemented. Their optimal set-points of the controllers are found by using multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA). Finally, multi loop-MOC in BSM2G is implemented and evaluated in BSM2G. Compared with the reference case, the ML-MOC with the optimal set-points showed best control performances than references with improved performances of 34%, 5% and 79% of effluent quality, CH4 productivity, and N2O emission respectively, with the decrease of 65% in operational cost.

Keywords: Benchmark simulation model for greenhouse gas, multi-loop multi-objective controller, multi-objective genetic algorithm, wastewater treatment plant

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3 Changes to Populations Might Aid the Spread Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment

Authors: Yasir Bashawri, Vincent N. Chigor James McDonald, Merfyn Williams, Davey Jones, A. Prysor Williams

Abstract:

Resistance to antibiotics has become a threat to public health. As a result of their misuse and overuse, bacteria have become resistant to many common antibiotics. Βeta lactam (β-lactam) antibiotics are one of the most significant classes of antimicrobials in providing therapeutic benefits for the treatment of bacterial infections in both human and veterinary medicine, for approximately 60% of all antibiotics are used. In particular, some Enterobacteriaceae produce Extend Spectrum Beta Lactamases (ESBLs) that enable them to some break down multi-groups of antibiotics. CTX-M enzymes have rapidly become the most important ESBLs, with increases in mainly CTX-M 15 in many countries during the last decade. Global travel by intercontinental medical ‘tourists’, migrant employees and overseas students could theoretically be a risk factor for spreading antibiotic resistance genes in different parts of the world. Bangor city, North Wales, is subject to sudden demographic changes due to a large proportion (>25%) of the population being students, most of which arrive over a space of days. This makes it a suitable location to study the impacts of large demographic change on the presence of ESBLs. The aim of this study is to monitor the presence of ESBLs in Escherichia coli and faecal coliform bacteria isolated from Bangor wastewater treatment plant, before, during and after the arrival week of students to Bangor University. Over a five-week period, water samples were collected twice a week, from the influent, primary sedimentation tank, aeration tank and the final effluent. Isolation and counts for Escherichia coli and other faecal coliforms were done on selective agar (primary UTI agar). ESBL presence will be confirmed by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Sampling at all points of the tertiary treatment stages will indicate the effectiveness of wastewater treatment in reducing the spread of ESBLs genes. The study will yield valuable information to help tackle a problem which many regard to be the one of the biggest threats to modern-day society.

Keywords: wastewater treatment plant, enterobacteriaceae, extended spectrum β-lactamase, international travel

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2 Evaluation of Fluidized Bed Bioreactor Process for Mmabatho Waste Water Treatment Plant

Authors: Shohreh Azizi, Wag Nel

Abstract:

The rapid population growth in South Africa has increased the requirement of waste water treatment facilities. The aim of this study is to assess the potential use of Fluidized bed Bio Reactor for Mmabatho sewage treatment plant. The samples were collected from the Inlet and Outlet of reactor daily to analysis the pH, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Suspended Solid (TSS) as per standard method APHA 2005. The studies were undertaken on a continue laboratory scale, and analytical data was collected before and after treatment. The reduction of 87.22 % COD, 89.80 BOD % was achieved. Fluidized Bed Bio Reactor remove Bod/COD removal as well as nutrient removal. The efforts also made to study the impact of the biological system if the domestic wastewater gets contaminated with any industrial contamination and the result shows that the biological system can tolerate high Total dissolved solids up to 6000 mg/L as well as high heavy metal concentration up to 4 mg/L. The data obtained through the experimental research are demonstrated that the FBBR may be used (<3 h total Hydraulic Retention Time) for secondary treatment in Mmabatho wastewater treatment plant.

Keywords: heavy metal, wastewater treatment plant, fluidized bed bioreactor, biological system, high TDS

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1 Artificial Neural Network-Based Prediction of Effluent Quality of Wastewater Treatment Plant Employing Data Preprocessing Approaches

Authors: Vahid Nourani, Atefeh Ashrafi

Abstract:

Prediction of treated wastewater quality is a matter of growing importance in water treatment procedure. In this way artificial neural network (ANN), as a robust data-driven approach, has been widely used for forecasting the effluent quality of wastewater treatment. However, developing ANN model based on appropriate input variables is a major concern due to the numerous parameters which are collected from treatment process and the number of them are increasing in the light of electronic sensors development. Various studies have been conducted, using different clustering methods, in order to classify most related and effective input variables. This issue has been overlooked in the selecting dominant input variables among wastewater treatment parameters which could effectively lead to more accurate prediction of water quality. In the presented study two ANN models were developed with the aim of forecasting effluent quality of Tabriz city’s wastewater treatment plant. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was utilized to determine water quality as a target parameter. Model A used Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for input selection as a linear variance-based clustering method. Model B used those variables identified by the mutual information (MI) measure. Therefore, the optimal ANN structure when the result of model B compared with model A showed up to 15% percent increment in Determination Coefficient (DC). Thus, this study highlights the advantage of PCA method in selecting dominant input variables for ANN modeling of wastewater plant efficiency performance.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Principal Component Analysis, wastewater treatment plant, biochemical oxygen demand, mutual information, Tabriz wastewater treatment plant

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