Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Waste water Related Abstracts

29 Finite Dynamic Programming to Decision Making in the Use of Industrial Residual Water Treatment Plants

Authors: Oscar Vega Camacho, Andrea Vargas, Ellery Ariza


This paper presents the application of finite dynamic programming, specifically the "Markov Chain" model, as part of the decision making process of a company in the cosmetics sector located in the vicinity of Bogota DC. The objective of this process was to decide whether the company should completely reconstruct its waste water treatment plant or instead optimize the plant through the addition of equipment. The goal of both of these options was to make the required improvements in order to comply with parameters established by national legislation regarding the treatment of waste before it is released into the environment. This technique will allow the company to select the best option and implement a solution for the processing of waste to minimize environmental damage and the acquisition and implementation costs.

Keywords: Decision Making, Optimization, Waste water, Markov Chain

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28 Environmental Engineering Case Study of Waste Water Treatement

Authors: Harold Jideofor


Wastewater treatment consists of applying known technology to improve or upgrade the quality of a wastewater. Usually wastewater treatment will involve collecting the wastewater in a central, segregated location (the Wastewater Treatment Plant) and subjecting the wastewater to various treatment processes. Most often, since large volumes of wastewater are involved, treatment processes are carried out on continuously flowing wastewaters (continuous flow or "open" systems) rather than as "batch" or a series of periodic treatment processes in which treatment is carried out on parcels or "batches" of wastewaters. While most wastewater treatment processes are continuous flow, certain operations, such as vacuum filtration, involving storage of sludge, the addition of chemicals, filtration and removal or disposal of the treated sludge, are routinely handled as periodic batch operations.

Keywords: Environmental Engineering, wastewater treatment, Waste water

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27 Optimization Studies on Biosorption of Ni(II) and Cd(II) from Wastewater Using Pseudomonas putida in a Packed Bed Bioreactor

Authors: K.Narasimhulu, Y. Pydi Setty


The objective of this present study is the optimization of process parameters in biosorption of Ni(II) and Cd(II) ions by Pseudomonas putida using Response Surface Methodology in a Packed bed bioreactor. The experimental data were also tested with theoretical models to find the best fit model. The present paper elucidates RSM as an efficient approach for predictive model building and optimization of Ni(II) and Cd(II) ions using Pseudomonas putida. In packed bed biosorption studies, comparison of the breakthrough curves of Ni(II) and Cd(II) for Agar immobilized and PAA immobilized Pseudomonas putida at optimum conditions of flow rate of 300 mL/h, initial metal ion concentration of 100 mg/L and bed height of 20 cm with weight of biosorbent of 12 g, it was found that the Agar immobilized Pseudomonas putida showed maximum percent biosorption and bed saturation occurred at 20 minutes. Optimization results of Ni(II) and Cd(II) by Pseudomonas putida from the Design Expert software were obtained as bed height of 19.93 cm, initial metal ion concentration of 103.85 mg/L, and flow rate of 310.57 mL/h. The percent biosorption of Ni(II) and Cd(II) is 87.2% and 88.2% respectively. The predicted optimized parameters are in agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: Waste water, biosorption, packed bed bioreactor, response surface mthodology, pseudomonas putida

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26 Constructed Wetlands: A Sustainable Approach for Waste Water Treatment

Authors: S. Sehar, S. Khan, N. Ali, S. Ahmed


In the last decade, the hunt for cost-effective, eco-friendly and energy sustainable technologies for waste water treatment are gaining much attention due to emerging water crisis and rapidly depleting existing water reservoirs all over the world. In this scenario, constructed wetland being a “green technology” could be a reliable mean for waste water treatment especially in small communities due to cost-effectiveness, ease in management, less energy consumption and sludge production. Therefore, a low cost, lab-scale sub-surface flow hybrid constructed wetland (SS-HCW) was established for domestic waste water treatment.It was observed that not only the presence but also choice of suitable vegetation along with hydraulic retention time (HRT) are key intervening ingredients which directly influence pollutant removals in constructed wetlands. Another important aspect of vegetation is that it may facilitate microbial attachment in rhizosphere, thus promote biofilm formation via microbial interactions. The major factors that influence initial aggregation and subsequent biofilm formation i.e. divalent cations (Ca2+) and extra cellular DNA (eDNA) were also studied in detail. The presence of Ca2+ in constructed wetland demonstrate superior performances in terms of effluent quality, i.e BOD5, COD, TDS, TSS, and PO4- than in absence of Ca2+. Finally, light and scanning electron microscopies coupled with EDS were carried out to get more insights into the mechanics of biofilm formation with or without Ca addition. Therefore, the same strategy can be implemented in other waste water treatment technologies.

Keywords: Waste Water Treatment, Waste water, Biofilm Formation, hybrid constructed wetland

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25 Treatment of Simulated Textile Wastewater Containing Reactive Azo Dyes Using Laboratory Scale Trickling Filter

Authors: Ayesha Irum, Sadia Mumtaz, Abdul Rehman, Iffat Naz, Safia Ahmed


The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential applicability of biological trickling filter system for the treatment of simulated textile wastewater containing reactive azo dyes with bacterial consortium under non-sterile conditions. The percentage decolorization for the treatment of wastewater containing structurally different dyes was found to be higher than 95% in all trials. The stable bacterial count of the biofilm on stone media of the trickling filter during the treatment confirmed the presence, proliferation, dominance and involvement of the added microbial consortium in the treatment of textile wastewater. Results of physicochemical parameters revealed the reduction in chemical oxygen demand (58.5-75.1%), sulphates (18.9-36.5%), and phosphates (63.6-73.0%). UV-Visible and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed decolorization of dye containing wastewater was the ultimate consequence of biodegradation. Toxicological studies revealed the nontoxic nature of degradative metabolites.

Keywords: biodegradation, Waste water, textile dyes, trickling filters

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24 Study of Environmental Impact

Authors: Houmame Benbouali


The risks, in general, exist in any project; one can hardly carry out a project without taking risks. The hydraulic works are rather complex projects in their design, realization and exploitation, and are often subjected at the multiple risks being able to influence with their good performance, and can have an negative impact on their environment. The present study was carried out to quote the impacts caused by purification plant STEP Chlef on the environment, it aims has studies the environmental impacts during construction and when designing this STEP, it is divided into two parts: The first part results from a research task bibliographer which contain three chapters (-cleansing of water worn-general information on water worn-proceed of purification of waste water). The second part is an experimental part which is divided into four chapters (detailed state initial-description of the station of purification-evaluation of the impacts of the project analyzes measurements and recommendations).

Keywords: Environmental Impact, Waste Water Treatment, Waste water, treatment plant

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23 Influence of the Flow Rate Ratio in a Jet Pump on the Size of Air Bubbles

Authors: L. Grinis, N. Lubashevsky, Y. Ostrovski


In waste water treatment processes, aeration introduces air into a liquid. In these systems, air is introduced by different devices submerged in the waste water. Smaller bubbles result in more bubble surface area per unit of volume and higher oxygen transfer efficiency. Jet pumps are devices that use air bubbles and are widely used in waste water treatment processes. The principle of jet pumps is their ability to transfer energy of one fluid, called primary or motive, into a secondary fluid or gas. These pumps have no moving parts and are able to work in remote areas under extreme conditions. The objective of this work is to study experimentally the characteristics of the jet pump and the size of air bubbles in the laboratory water tank. The effect of flow rate ratio on pump performance is investigated in order to have a better understanding about pump behavior under various conditions, in order to determine the efficiency of receiving air bubbles different sizes. The experiments show that we should take care when increasing the flow rate ratio while seeking to decrease bubble size in the outlet flow. This study will help improve and extend the use of the jet pump in many practical applications.

Keywords: Waste water, retention time, jet pump, air bubbles size

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22 Study of Treatment Plant of The City Chlef Study of Environmental Impact

Authors: Houmame Benbouali, Aboubakr Gribi


The risks, in general, exist in any project, one can hardly carry out a project without taking risks. The hydraulic works are rather complex projects in their design, realization and exploitation and are often subjected at the multiple risks being able to influence with their good performance and can have a negative impact on their environment. The present study was carried out to quote the impacts caused by purification plant STEP Chlef on the environment, it aims has studied the environmental impacts during construction and when designing this STEP, it is divided into two parts: The first part results from a research task bibliographer which contain three chapters (- cleansing of water-worn- general information on water worn-proceed of purification of waste water). The second part is an experimental part which is divided into four chapters (detailed state initial description of the station of purification-evaluation of the impacts of the project analyzes measurements and recommendations).

Keywords: Waste Water Treatment, Waste water, treatment plant, Chlef

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21 Investigation the Polluting Effect of Heavy Elements on Underground Water in Behbahan Plain, South West Zagros

Authors: Zohreh Marbooti, Rezvan Khavari


Groundwater as an essential part of natural resources seems to be an important issue in environmental engineering, so preservation and purification of it can have a critical value for any community. This paper investigates the concentration of elements of Pb, Cd, As, Se. For ground water in Behbahan (a city on south west of Iran), to this purpose a group of 30 wells were studied to examine the concentration of the elements of Pb, Cd, As, Se, and also to determine PH, EC, TDS, temperature and the ions of HCO32-, SO42-, Cl-, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+ for the wells. Results of the analyses show that the concentration of the elements of Pb, As and, Cd in 33,13,56 percent of the wells respectively and Se in all the samples were greater than normal range of WHO. Since there is a low correlation between Pb and major ions of (HCO32-, SO42-, Cl-, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+) it can be revealed that Pb overconcentration caused by human contamination. Relative great correlation between Se and the ions showed that Se derived from Gypsum and Dolomit. The big correlation between As and major cations and onions, imply that As can originate from dissolution and liquidation of mineral evaporation in the zone. The high rate of Cadmium concentration in urban sewagewater is due to the small industries, workshops and, mills wastewater.

Keywords: Pollution, Waste water, heavy elements, underground water

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20 Cobalt Ions Adsorption by Quartz and Illite and Calcite from Waste Water

Authors: Saad A. Aljlil


Adsorption of cobalt ions on quartz and illite and calcite from waste water was investigated. The effect of pH on the adsorption of cobalt ions was studied. The maximum capacities of cobalt ions of the three adsorbents increase with increasing cobalt solution temperature. The maximum capacities were (4.66) mg/g for quartz, (3.94) mg/g for illite, and (3.44) mg/g for calcite. The enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, and entropy for adsorption of cobalt ions on the three adsorbents were calculated. It was found that the adsorption process of the cobalt ions of the adsorbent was an endothermic process. consequently increasing the temperature causes the increase of the cobalt ions adsorption of the adsorbents. Therefore, the adsorption process is preferred at high temperature levels. The equilibrium adsorption data were correlated using Langmuir model, Freundlich model. The experimental data of cobalt ions of the adsorbents correlated well with Freundlich model.

Keywords: Adsorption, Waste water, quartz, langmuir, freundlich, illite, calcite

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19 An Approach to Integrated Water Resources Management, a Plan for Action to Climate Change in India

Authors: H. K. Ramaraju


World is in deep trouble and deeper denial. Worse, the denial is now entirely on the side of action. It is well accepted that climate change is a reality. Scientists say we need to cap temperature increases at 2°C to avoid catastrophe, which means capping emissions at 450 ppm .We know global average temperatures have already increased by 0.8°C and there is enough green house gas in the atmosphere to lead to another 0.8°C increase. There is still a window of opportunity, a tiny one, to tackle the crisis. But where is the action? In the 1990’s, when the world did even not understand, let alone accept, the crises, it was more willing to move to tackle climate change. Today we are in reverse in gear. The rich world has realized it is easy to talk big, but tough to take steps to actually reduce emissions. The agreement was that these countries would reduce so that the developing World could increase. Instead, between 1990 and 2006, their carbon dioxide emissions increased by a whopping 14.5 percent, even green countries of Europe are unable to match words with action. Stop deforestation and take a 20 percent advantage in our carbon balance sheet, with out doing anything at home called REDD (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation) and push for carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies. There are warning signs elsewhere and they need to be read correctly and acted up on , if not the cases like flood –act of nature or manmade disaster. The full length paper orient in proper understanding of the issues and identifying the most appropriate course of action.

Keywords: Emissions, Deforestation, Waste water, catastrophe

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18 Investigation of Utilization Possibility of Fluid Gas Desulfurization Waste for Industrial Waste Water Treatment

Authors: S. Kızıltas Demir, A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, N. Tugrul, S. Piskin


Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGD) is a waste material arouse from coal power plants. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is a biomaterial with porous structure. In this study, FGD gypsum which retrieved from coal power plant in Turkey was characterized and HAP particles which can be used as an adsorbent in wastewater treatment application were synthesized from the FGD gypsum. The raw materials are characterized by using X Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques and produced HAP are characterized by using XRD. As a result, HAP particles were synthesized at the molar ratio of 5:10, 5:15, 5:20, 5:24, at room temperature, in alkaline medium (pH=11) and in 1 hour-reaction time. Among these conditions, 5:20 had the best result.

Keywords: Waste water, FGD wastes, HAP, phosphogypsum

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17 Application of Dissolved Air Flotation for Removal of Oil from Wastewater

Authors: Talat Ghomashchi, Zahra Akbari, Shirin Malekpour, Marjan Alimirzaee


Mixing the waste water of industries with natural water has caused environmental pollution. So researcher try to obtain methods and optimum conditions for waste water treatment. One of important stage in waste water treatment is dissolved air flotation. DAF is used for the removal of suspended solids and oils from waste water. In this paper, the effect of several parameters on flotation efficiency with Cationic polyacrylamide as flocculant, was examined, namely, (a) concentration of cationic flocculants, (b) pH (c) fast mixing time, (d) fast mixing speed,(e) slow mixing time,(f) retention time and temperature. After design of experiment, in each trial turbidity of waste water was measured by spectrophotometer. Results show that contribution of pH and concentration of flocculant on flotation efficiency are 75% and 9% respectively. Cationic polyacrylamide led to a significant increase in the settling speed and effect of temperature is negligible. In the optimum condition, the outcome of the DAF unit is increased and amount of suspended solid and oil in waste water is decreased effectively.

Keywords: treatment, Waste water, Dissolved Air Flotation, oil Industry

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16 Evaluation of Moringa oleifera in Decolourization of Dyes in Textile Wastewater

Authors: Nagia Ali, R. S. R. El-Mohamedy


The purpose of this paper is to irradiate the dyes biologically through the use of Moreinga oleifera. The study confirms the potential use of Moringa oleifera in decolourization of dyes and thus opens up a scope for future analysis pertaining to its performance in treatment of textile effluent. In this paper, the ability of natural products in removing dyes was tested using two reactive dyes and one acid dye. After a preliminary screening for dye removal capacity, a vegetal protein extract derived from Moeringa oleifera seed was fully studied. The influences of several parameters such as pH, temperature or initial dye concentration were tested and the behavior of coagulants was compared. It was found that dye removal decreased as pH increased. Temperature did not seem to have a considerable effect, while initial dye concentration appeared to be a very important variable.

Keywords: Waste water, reactive dyes, acid dyes, decolourization, Moreinga oleifera

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15 Impact of Wastewater Irrigation on Soil and Vegetable Quality in Peri Urban Cropping System

Authors: Neelam Patel


Farmers in peri-urban areas of developing countries depend on wastewater for Irrigation but with great environmental and health hazards. Since, irrigation with wastewater is growing in the developing countries but its suitability to environment and other health factors should be checked. Metal pollution is a very serious issue these days, various neuro, physical and mental disorders are prevailing due to the metal pollution. Waste water contaminated with heavy metals got accumulated in the soil and then bioaccumulated in the vegetables irrigated with waste water. A 3-year field experiment on cauliflower has been done by using wastewater with two different methods of irrigation i.e. Drip and Flood irrigation and checked the impact on the cauliflower and soil quality. Heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb) have been studied in wastewater used for the irrigation and their accumulation in the soil and vegetable was studied. The study reveals that the concentration of heavy metals increases by 100 times from initial in soil. After 3 years, the concentration of Copper(41 ppm) Chromium(39.4 ppm) Lead(62.2ppm) Zinc(100.5 ppm) and Nickel(75.7 ppm) in Flood irrigated soil while in Drip irrigated soil , Copper (36.4 ppm) Chromium(36.8 ppm) Lead(53.7 ppm) Zinc(70.3 ppm) and Nickel (53.9 ppm). In vegetable, the wastewater irrigated shows an increase in the concentration of metals with the time and the accumulation of Nickel (6.98ppm), Lead (30.18 ppm) and Zinc (55.83 ppm) in drip irrigated while in flood irrigated, Nickel (30.58 ppm), Lead (73.95ppm) Zinc (93.50 ppm) and Copper (54.58 ppm) in edible part of cauliflower which is above the permissible limits suggested by different international agencies. On other hand, the nutrients content i.e. Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium in soil was increased in concentration with time. The study pointed out that the metal contaminated waste water consisting the nutrients in it but also heavy metals which causes health issues in human. While the increase in concentration of nutrients in the soil indirectly helpful to the farmers economically by restricting the use of fertilizers. But the metal pollution directly affects the health of human being. The different method of irrigation suggested that the drip irrigated vegetable acquired less metal then the flood one and is a better combo with the waste water for the irrigation.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Waste water, Drip Irrigation, metal contamination

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14 Determination of the Oxidative Potential of Organic Materials: Method Development

Authors: Jui Afrin, Akhtarul Islam


In this paper, the solution of glucose, yeast and glucose yeast mixture are being used as sample solution for determining the chemical oxygen demand (COD). In general COD determination method used to determine the different rang of oxidative potential. But in this work has shown to determine the definite oxidative potential for different concentration for known COD value and wanted to see the difference between experimental value and the theoretical value for evaluating the method drawbacks. In this study, made the values of oxidative potential like 400 mg/L, 500 mg/L, 600 mg/L, 700 mg/L and 800mg/L for various sample solutions and determined the oxidative potential according to our developed method. Plotting the experimental COD values vs. sample solutions of various concentrations in mg/L to draw the curve. From these curves see that the curves for glucose solution is not linear; its deviate from linearity for the lower concentration and the reason for this deviation is unknown. If these drawback can be removed this method can be effectively used to determine Oxidative Potential of Industrial wastewater (such as: Leather industry wastewater, Municipal wastewater, Food industry wastewater, Textile wastewater, Pharmaceuticals waste water) that’s why more experiment and study required.

Keywords: Development, Waste water, bod (biological oxygen demand), cod (chemical oxygen demand), oxidative potential, titration

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13 Removal of Toxic Ni++ Ions from Wastewater by Nano-Bentonite

Authors: A. M. Ahmed, Mona A. Darwish


Removal of Ni++ ions from aqueous solution by sorption ontoNano-bentonite was investigated. Experiments were carried out as a function amount of Nano-bentonite, pH, concentration of metal, constant time, agitation speed and temperature. The adsorption parameter of metal ions followed the Langmuir Freundlich adsorption isotherm were applied to analyze adsorption data. The adsorption process has fit pseudo-second order kinetic models. Thermodynamics parameters e.g.ΔG*, ΔS °and ΔH ° of adsorption process have also been calculated and the sorption process was found to be endothermic. The adsorption process has fit pseudo-second order kinetic models. Langmuir and Freundich adsorption isotherm models were applied to analyze adsorption data and both were found to be applicable to the adsorption process. Thermodynamic parameters, e.g., ∆G °, ∆S ° and ∆H ° of the on-going adsorption process have also been calculated and the sorption process was found to be endothermic. Finally, it can be seen that Bentonite was found to be more effective for the removal of Ni (II) same with some experimental conditions.

Keywords: Adsorption, Waste water, Nickel, bentonite

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12 Optimization of Chitosan Membrane Production Parameters for Zinc Ion Adsorption

Authors: Peter O. Osifo, Hein W. J. P. Neomagus, Hein V. D. Merwe


Chitosan materials from different sources of raw materials were characterized in order to determine optimal preparation conditions and parameters for membrane production. The membrane parameters such as molecular weight, viscosity, and degree of deacetylation were used to evaluate the membrane performance for zinc ion adsorption. The molecular weight of the chitosan was found to influence the viscosity of the chitosan/acetic acid solution. An increase in molecular weight (60000-400000 kg.kmol-1) of the chitosan resulted in a higher viscosity (0.05-0.65 Pa.s) of the chitosan/acetic acid solution. The effect of the degree of deacetylation on the viscosity is not significant. The effect of the membrane production parameters (chitosan- and acetic acid concentration) on the viscosity is mainly determined by the chitosan concentration. For higher chitosan concentrations, a membrane with a better adsorption capacity was obtained. The membrane adsorption capacity increases from 20-130 mg Zn per gram of wet membrane for an increase in chitosan concentration from 2-7 mass %. Chitosan concentrations below 2 and above 7.5 mass % produced membranes that lack good mechanical properties. The optimum manufacturing conditions including chitosan concentration, acetic acid concentration, sodium hydroxide concentration and crosslinking for chitosan membranes within the workable range were defined by the criteria of adsorption capacity and flux. The adsorption increases (50-120 mg.g-1) as the acetic acid concentration increases (1-7 mass %). The sodium hydroxide concentration seems not to have a large effect on the adsorption characteristics of the membrane however, a maximum was reached at a concentration of 5 mass %. The adsorption capacity per gram of wet membrane strongly increases with the chitosan concentration in the acetic acid solution but remains constant per gram of dry chitosan. The optimum solution for membrane production consists of 7 mass % chitosan and 4 mass % acetic acid in de-ionised water. The sodium hydroxide concentration for phase inversion is at optimum at 5 mass %. The optimum cross-linking time was determined to be 6 hours (Percentage crosslinking of 18%). As the cross-linking time increases the adsorption of the zinc decreases (150-50 mg.g-1) in the time range of 0 to 12 hours. After a crosslinking time of 12 hours, the adsorption capacity remains constant. This trend is comparable to the effect on flux through the membrane. The flux decreases (10-3 with an increase in crosslinking time range of 0 to 12 hours and reaches a constant minimum after 12 hours.

Keywords: Adsorption, Waste water, Membrane, Heavy Metal Ions, chitosan

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11 The Study of Chitosan beads Adsorption Properties for the Removal of Heavy Metals

Authors: Peter O. Osifo, Hein W. J. P. Neomagus


In this study, a predicted pH model was used to determine adsorption equilibrium properties of copper, lead, zinc and cadmium. Chitosan was prepared from the exoskeleton of Cape rock-lobsters, collected from the surroundings of Cape Town, South Africa. The beads were cross-linked with gluteraldehyde to restore its chemical stability in acid media. The chitosan beads were characterized; the beads water contents and pKa varied in the range of 90-96% and 4.3-6.0 respectively and the degree of crosslinking for the beads was 18%. A pH-model, which described the reversibility of the metal adsorbed onto the beads, was used to predict the equilibrium properties of copper, lead, zinc and cadmium adsorption onto the cross-linked beads. The model accounts for the effect of pH and the important model parameters; the equilibrium adsorption constant (Kads) and to a lesser extent the adsorbent adsorption capacity (qmax). The adsorption equilibrium constant for copper, lead, zinc and cadmium were found to be 2.58×10-3, 2.22×0-3, 9.55×0-3, and 4.79×0-3, respectively. The adsorbent maximum capacity was determined to be 4.2 mmol/g.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Adsorption, Waste water, chitosan beads

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10 Technical Option Brought Solution for Safe Waste Water Management in Urban Public Toilet and Improved Ground Water Table

Authors: Chandan Kumar


Background and Context: Population growth and rapid urbanization resulted nearly 2 Lacs migrants along with families moving to Delhi each year in search of jobs. Most of these poor migrant families end up living in slums and constitute an estimated population of 1.87 lacs every year. Further, more than half (52 per cent) of Delhi’s population resides in places such as unauthorized and resettled colonies. Slum population is fully dependent on public toilet to defecate. In Public toilets, manholes either connected with Sewer line or septic tank. Septic tank connected public toilet faces major challenges to dispose of waste water. They have to dispose of waste water in outside open drain and waste water struck out side of public toilet complex and near to the slum area. As a result, outbreak diseases such as Malaria, Dengue and Chikungunya in slum area due to stagnated waste water. Intervention and Innovation took place by Save the Children in 21 Public Toilet Complexes of South Delhi and North Delhi. These public toilet complexes were facing same waste water disposal problem. They were disposing of minimum 1800 liters waste water every day in open drain. Which caused stagnated water-borne diseases among the nearest community. Construction of Soak Well: Construction of soak well in urban context was an innovative approach to minimizing the problem of waste water management and increased water table of existing borewell in toilet complex. This technique made solution in Ground water recharging system, and additional water was utilized in vegetable gardening within the complex premises. Soak well had constructed with multiple filter media with inlet and safeguarding bed on surrounding surface. After construction, soak well started exhausting 2000 liters of waste water to raise ground water level through different filter media. Finally, we brought a change in the communities by constructing soak well and with zero maintenance system. These Public Toilet Complexes were empowered by safe disposing waste water mechanism and reduced stagnated water-borne diseases.

Keywords: Diseases, Waste water, ground water recharging system, soak well, toilet complex

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9 Production of Clean Reusable Distillery Waste Water Using Activated Carbon Prepared from Waste Orange Peels

Authors: Joseph Govha, Sharon Mudutu


The research details the treatment of distillery waste water by making use of activated carbon prepared from orange peels as an adsorbent. Adsorption was carried out at different conditions to determine the optimum conditions that work best for the removal of color in distillery waste water using orange peel activated carbon. Adsorption was carried out at different conditions by varying contact time, adsorbent dosage, pH, testing for color intensity and Biological Oxygen Demand. A maximum percentage color removal of 88% was obtained at pH 7 at an adsorbent dosage of 1g/20ml. Maximum adsorption capacity was obtained from the Langmuir isotherm at R2=0.98.

Keywords: Adsorption, Waste water, activated carbon, orange peel, distillery

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8 Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Padina boryana Alga Collected from a Contaminated Site at the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Huda Qari, I. A. Hassan


The brown alga Padina boryanawas was used for bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulation at the seashore of Jeddah city. PAHs were determined in the coastal water and algal tissues by GC-MS. Acenaphthene (Ace) and dibenzo (a,h) anthracene (dB(a,h)An) were the main PAHs in seawater (50.02 and 46.18) and algal tissues (64.67 and 72.45), respectively. The ratios of low molecular weight/high molecular weight hydrocarbons (1.76 – 1.44), fluoranthene/pyrene (1.57 – 1.52) and phenanthrene/anthracene (0.86 – 0.67) in seawater and algal tissues, respectively, indicated the origin of the PAHs to be mainly petrogenic. This study has demonstrated the utility of using Padina boryanawas as a biomonitor of PAH contamination and bioavailability in the coastal waters.

Keywords: Waste water, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, bioaccumulation, Padina boryanawas

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7 Assessment of Escherichia coli along Nakibiso Stream in Mbale Municipality, Uganda

Authors: Abdul Walusansa


The aim of this study was to assess the level of microbial pollution along Nakibiso stream. The study was carried out in polluted waters of Nakibiso stream, originating from Mbale municipality and running through ADRA Estates to Namatala Wetlands in Eastern Uganda. Four sites along the stream were selected basing on the activities of their vicinity. A total of 120 samples were collected in sterile bottles from the four sampling locations of the stream during the wet and dry seasons of the year 2011. The samples were taken to the National water and Sewerage Cooperation Laboratory for Analysis. Membrane filter technique was used to test for Erischerichia coli. Nitrogen, Phosphorus, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, total suspended solids, turbidity and temperature were also measured. Results for Nitrogen and Phosphorus for sites; 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 1.8, 8.8, 7.7 and 13.8 NH4-N mg/L; and 1.8, 2.1, 1.8 and 2.3 PO4-P mg/L respectively. Basing on these results, it was estimated that farmers use 115 and 24 Kg/acre of Nitrogen and Phosphorus respectively per month. Taking results for Nitrogen, the same amount of Nutrients in artificial fertilizers would cost $ 88. This shows that reuse of wastewater has a potential in terms of nutrients. The results for E. coli for sites 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 1.1 X 107, 9.1 X 105, 7.4 X 105, and 3.4 X 105 respectively. E. coli hence decreased downstream with statistically significant variations between sites 1 and 4. Site 1 had the highest mean E.coli counts. The bacterial contamination was significantly higher during the dry season when more water was needed for irrigation. Although the water had the potential for reuse in farming, bacterial contamination during both seasons was higher than 103 FC/100ml recommended by WHO for unrestricted Agriculture.

Keywords: Nitrogen, Waste water, Water reuse, Phosphorus, E. coli

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6 Preparation of Sorbent Materials for the Removal of Hardness and Organic Pollutants from Water and Wastewater

Authors: Thanaa Abdel Moghny, Mohamed Keshawy, Mahmoud Fathy, Abdul-Raheim M. Abdul-Raheim, Khalid I. Kabel, Ahmed F. El-Kafrawy, Mahmoud Ahmed Mousa, Ahmed E. Awadallah


Ecological pollution is of great concern for human health and the environment. Numerous organic and inorganic pollutants usually discharged into the water caused carcinogenic or toxic effect for human and different life form. In this respect, this work aims to treat water contaminated by organic and inorganic waste using sorbent based on polystyrene. Therefore, two different series of adsorbent material were prepared; the first one included the preparation of polymeric sorbent from the reaction of styrene acrylate ester and alkyl acrylate. The second series involved syntheses of composite ion exchange resins of waste polystyrene and   amorphous carbon thin film (WPS/ACTF) by solvent evaporation using micro emulsion polymerization. The produced ACTF/WPS nanocomposite was sulfonated to produce cation exchange resins ACTF/WPSS nanocomposite. The sorbents of the first series were characterized using FTIR, 1H NMR, and gel permeation chromatography. The thermal properties of the cross-linked sorbents were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis, and the morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The removal of organic pollutant was determined through absorption tests in a various organic solvent. The chemical and crystalline structure of nanocomposite of second series has been proven by studies of FTIR spectrum, X-rays, thermal analysis, SEM and TEM analysis to study morphology of resins and ACTF that assembled with polystyrene chain. It is found that the composite resins ACTF/WPSS are thermally stable and show higher chemical stability than ion exchange WPSS resins. The composite resin was evaluated for calcium hardness removal. The result is evident that the ACTF/WPSS composite has more prominent inorganic pollutant removal than WPSS resin. So, we recommend the using of nanocomposite resin as new potential applications for water treatment process.

Keywords: nanocomposite, Waste water, sorbent materials, waste polystyrene

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5 Box-Behnken Design for the Biosorption of Cationic Dye from Aqueous Solution Using a Zero-Valent Iron Nano Algal Composite

Authors: V. Sivasubramanian, M. Jerold


The advancement of adsorption is the development of nano-biocomposite for the sorption dyes and heavy metal ions. In fact, Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) is cost-effective reducing agent and a most reliable biosorbent for the dye biosorption. In this study, nano zero valent iron Sargassum swartzii (nZVI-SS) biocomposite, a novel marine algal based biosorbent, was used for the removal of simulated crystal violet (CV) in batch mode of operation. The Box-Behnen design (BBD) experimental results revealed the biosoprtion was maximum at pH 7.5, biosorbent dosage 0.1 g/L and initial CV concentration of 100 mg/L. Therefore, the result implies that nZVI-SS biocomposite is a cheap and most promising biosorbent for the removal of CV from wastewater.

Keywords: Waste water, Algae, biosorption, dye, zero-valent

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4 Effect of Distillery Spentwash Application on Soil Properties and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) and Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) G)

Authors: N. N. Lingaraju, A. Sathish, K. N. Geetha, C. A. Srinivasamurthy, S. Bhaskar


Studies on spent wash utilization as a nutrient source through 'Effect of distillery spentwash application on soil properties and yield of maize (Zea may L.) and finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) G)' was carried out in Malavalli Taluk, Mandya District, Karnataka State, India. The study was conducted in fourteen different locations of Malavalli (12) and Maddur taluk (2) involving maize and finger millet as a test crop. The spentwash was characterized for various parameters like pH, EC, total NPK, Na, Ca, Mg, SO₄, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and Cl content. It was observed from the results that the pH was slightly alkaline (7.45), EC was excess (23.3 dS m⁻¹), total NPK was 0.12, 0.02, and 1.31 percent respectively, Na, Ca, Mg and SO₄ concentration was 664, 1305, 745 and 618 (mg L⁻¹) respectively, total solid content was quite high (6.7%), Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, values were 23.5, 5.70, 3.64, 4.0 mg L⁻¹, respectively. The crops were grown by adopting different crop management practices after application of spentwash at 100 m³ ha⁻¹ to the identified farmer fields. Soil samples were drawn at three stages i.e., before sowing of crop, during crop growth stage and after harvest of the crop at 2 depths (0-30 and 30-60 cm) and analyzed for pH, EC, available K and Na parameters by adopting standard procedures. The soil analysis showed slightly acidic reaction (5.93), normal EC (0.43 dS m⁻¹), medium available potassium (267 kg ha⁻¹) before application of spentwash. Application of spentwash has enhanced pH level of soil towards neutral (6.97), EC 0.25 dS m⁻¹, available K2O to 376 kg ha⁻¹ and sodium content of 0.73 C mol (P+) kg⁻¹ during the crop growth stage. After harvest of the crops soil analysis data indicated a decrease in pH to 6.28, EC of 0.22 dS m⁻¹, available K₂O to 316 kg ha⁻¹ and Na 0.52 C mol (P⁺) kg⁻¹ compared with crop growth stage. The study showed that, there will be enhancement of potassium levels if the spentwash is applied once to dryland. The yields of both the crops were quantified and found to be in the range of 35.65 to 65.55 q ha⁻¹ and increased yield to the extent of 13.36-22.36 percent as compared to control field (11.36-22.33 q ha⁻¹) in maize crop. Also, finger millet yield was increased with the spentwash application to the extent of 14.21-20.49 percent (9.5-17.73 q ha⁻¹) higher over farmers practice (8.15-14.15 q ha⁻¹).

Keywords: Waste water, maize, distillery spentwash, finger millet

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
3 Impact of Wastewater from Outfalls of River Ganga on Germination Percentage and Growth Parameters of Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L.) with Antioxidant Activity Study

Authors: Sayanti Kar, Amitava Ghosh, Pritam Aitch, Gupinath Bhandari


An extensive seasonal analysis of wastewater had been done from outfalls of river Ganga in Howrah, Hooghly, 24 PGS (N) District, West Bengal, India during 2017. The morphological parameters of Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) were estimated under wastewater treatment. An approach to study the activity within the range of low molecular weight peptide 3-0.5 kDa were taken through its extraction and purification by ion exchange resin column, cation, and anion exchanger. HPLC analysis had been done for both in wastewater treated and untreated plants. The antioxidant activity by using DPPH and germination percentage in control and treated plants were also determined in relation to wastewater effect. The inhibition of growth and its parameters were maximum in pre-monsoon in comparing to post-monsoon and monsoon season. The study also helped to explore the effect of wastewater on the peptidome of Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.). Some of these low molecular weight peptide(s) (3-0.5 kDa) also inhibited during wastewater treatment. Expression of particular peptide(s) or absence of some peptide(s) in chromatogram indicated the adverse effects on plants which may be the indication of stressful condition. Pre monsoon waste water was found to create more impact than other two.

Keywords: Waste water, bitter gourd (Momordica charantia l.), low molecular weight peptide, river ganga

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2 Growing Sorghum Varieties with Potential of Fodder and Biofuel Crops, with Potential of Two Harvest in One Year

Authors: Farah Jafarpisheh, John Hutson, Howard Fallowfield


Growing Sorghum varieties, with the potential of the animal food source, by using the treated wastewater from High Rate Algae Ponds (HRAPs) is an attractive subject. For the first time, in South Australia, Sorghum Earthnote variety one (SE1) has been grown using the wastewater from HRAPs. In this study, after the first harvest, the roots left in the soil. After a short period of time, sorghum started to regrow again, which can increase the value of planting sorghum by using the wastewater. This study demonstrates the higher amount of green biomass with the potential of animal food source after the second harvest. Different parameters, including height(mm), number of leaves and tiller, Brix percentage, fresh and dry leaf weight(g), total top fresh weight(g), stem and seed dry and fresh weight(g) have been measured in the field after first and second harvest. The results demonstrated the higher height, number of tiller, and diameter after the second harvest. Number of leaves and leaves fresh weight and total top weight increased by 6 and 10 times, respectively. Brix percentage increased by 2 times. In the first harvest, no seeds harvested, while in the second harvest, 134 g seeds harvested. This sorghum variety (SE1) showed the acceptable green biomass, especially after the second harvest. This property will add to the value of sorghum in this condition, as it will not need extra fertilizer and labor work for seed planting.

Keywords: Energy, Waste water, sorghum, high rate algae ponds, HRAPs

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1 Determination of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Activity in Water Samples by iSolo Alpha/Beta Counting System

Authors: Thiwanka Weerakkody, Lakmali Handagiripathira, Poshitha Dabare, Thisari Guruge


The determination of gross alpha and beta activity in water is important in a wide array of environmental studies and these parameters are considered in international legislations on the quality of water. This technique is commonly applied as screening method in radioecology, environmental monitoring, industrial applications, etc. Measuring of Gross Alpha and Beta emitters by using iSolo alpha beta counting system is an adequate nuclear technique to assess radioactivity levels in natural and waste water samples due to its simplicity and low cost compared with the other methods. Twelve water samples (Six samples of commercially available bottled drinking water and six samples of industrial waste water) were measured by standard method EPA 900.0 consisting of the gas-less, firm wear based, single sample, manual iSolo alpha beta counter (Model: SOLO300G) with solid state silicon PIPS detector. Am-241 and Sr90/ Y90 calibration standards were used to calibrate the detector. The minimum detectable activities are 2.32mBq/L and 406mBq/L, for alpha and beta activity, respectively. Each of the 2L water samples was evaporated (at low heat) to a small volume and transferred into 50mm stainless steel counting planchet evenly (for homogenization) and heated by IR lamp and the constant weighted residue was obtained. Then the samples were counted for gross alpha and beta. Sample density on the planchet area was maintained below 5mg/cm. Large quantities of solid wastes sludges and waste water are generated every year due to various industries. This water can be reused for different applications. Therefore implementation of water treatment plants and measuring water quality parameters in industrial waste water discharge is very important before releasing them into the environment. This waste may contain different types of pollutants, including radioactive substances. All these measured waste water samples having gross alpha and beta activities, lower than the maximum tolerance limits for industrial waste water discharge of industrial waste in to inland surface water, that is 10-9µCi/mL and 10-8µCi/mL for gross alpha and beta respectively (National Environmental Act, No. 47 of 1980). This is according to extraordinary gazette of the democratic socialist republic of Sri Lanka in February 2008. The measured water samples were below the recommended radioactivity levels and do not pose any radiological hazard when releasing the environment. Drinking water is an essential requirement of life. All the drinking water samples were below the permissible levels of 0.5Bq/L for gross alpha activity and 1Bq/L for gross beta activity. The values have been proposed by World Health Organization in 2011; therefore the water is acceptable for consumption of humans without any further clarification with respect to their radioactivity. As these screening levels are very low, the individual dose criterion (IDC) would usually not be exceeded (0.1mSv y⁻¹). IDC is a criterion for evaluating health risks from long term exposure to radionuclides in drinking water. Recommended level of 0.1mSv/y expressed a very low level of health risk. This monitoring work will be continued further for environmental protection purposes.

Keywords: Waste water, drinking water, gross alpha, gross beta

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