Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Waste treatment Related Abstracts

4 Comparative Analysis of Three Types of Recycled Aggregates and its Use in Masonry Mortar Fabrication

Authors: Antonio Rodríguez Sánchez, Mariano Gonzalez Cortina, Pablo Saiz Martinez, Francisco Fernandez Martinez

Abstract:

Construction sector incessant activity of the last years preceding the crisis has originated a high waste generation and an increased use of raw materials. The main aim of this research is to compare three types of recycled aggregates and the feasibility to incorporate them into masonry mortar fabrication. The tests were developed using two types of binders: CEM II/B-L 32.5 N and CEM IV/B (V) 32.5 N. 50%, 75% and 100% of natural sand were replaced with three types of recycled aggregates. Cement-to-aggregate by dry weight proportions were 1:3 and 1:4. Physical and chemical characterization of recycled aggregates showed continues particle size distribution curve, lower density and higher absorption, which was the reason to use additive to obtain required mortar consistency. Main crystalline phases determined in the X-Ray diffraction test were calcite, quartz, and gypsum. Performed tests show that cement-based mortars fabricated with CEM IV/B (V) 32. 5 N can incorporate recycled aggregates coming from ceramic, concrete and mixed recycling processes, using 1:3 and 1:4 cement-to-aggregate proportions, complying with the limits established by the Spanish standards. It was concluded that recycled mortar coming from concrete recycling process is the one which presents better characteristics.

Keywords: Waste treatment, Mechanical Properties, Construction and demolition waste, recycled aggregate, masonry mortar

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3 A Sustainable Approach for Waste Management: Automotive Waste Transformation into High Value Titanium Nitride Ceramic

Authors: Farshid Pahlevani, Veena Sahajwalla, Mohannad Mayyas

Abstract:

Automotive shredder residue (ASR) is an industrial waste, generated during the recycling process of End-of-life vehicles. The large increasing production volumes of ASR and its hazardous content have raised concerns worldwide, leading some countries to impose more restrictions on ASR waste disposal and encouraging researchers to find efficient solutions for ASR processing. Although a great deal of research work has been carried out, all proposed solutions, to our knowledge, remain commercially and technically unproven. While the volume of waste materials continues to increase, the production of materials from new sustainable sources has become of great importance. Advanced ceramic materials such as nitrides, carbides and borides are widely used in a variety of applications. Among these ceramics, a great deal of attention has been recently paid to Titanium nitride (TiN) owing to its unique characteristics. In our study, we propose a new sustainable approach for ASR management where TiN nanoparticles with ideal particle size ranging from 200 to 315 nm can be synthesized as a by-product. In this approach, TiN is thermally synthesized by nitriding pressed mixture of automotive shredder residue (ASR) incorporated with titanium oxide (TiO2). Results indicated that TiO2 influences and catalyses degradation reactions of ASR and helps to achieve fast and full decomposition. In addition, the process resulted in titanium nitride (TiN) ceramic with several unique structures (porous nanostructured, polycrystalline, micro-spherical and nano-sized structures) that were simply obtained by tuning the ratio of TiO2 to ASR, and a product with appreciable TiN content of around 85% was achieved after only one hour nitridation at 1550 °C.

Keywords: Waste treatment, Thermal Conversion, automotive shredder residue, nano-ceramics, titanium nitride

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2 Reducing Environmental Impact of Olive Oil Production in Sakaka City Using Combined Chemical, Physical, and Biological Treatment

Authors: Abdullah Alhajoj, Bassam Alowaiesh

Abstract:

This work aims to reduce the risks of discharging olive mill waste directly to the environment without treatment in Sakaka City, KSA. The organic loads expressed by chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) of the produced wastewater (OMWW) as well as the solid waste (OMW) were evaluated. The wastes emitted from the three-phase centrifuge decanters was found to be higher than that emitted from the two-phase centrifuge decanters. The olive mill wastewater (OMWW) was treated using advanced oxidation combined with filtration treatment. The results indicated that the concentration of COD, BOD, TSS, oil and grease and phenol was reduced by using complex sand filtration from 72150, 21660 10256, 36430, and 1470 mg/l to 980, 421, 58, 68, and 0.35 mg/l for three-phase OMWW and from 150562, 17955, 15325, 19658 and 2153 mg/l to 1050, 501, 29, 0.75, and 0.29 mg/l, respectively. While, by using modified trickling filter (packed with the neck of waste plastic bottles the concentration of the previously mentioned parameters was reduced to 1190, 570, 55, 0.85, and 0.3 mg/l, respectively. This work supports the application of such treatment technique for reducing the environmental threats of olive mill waste effluents in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Waste treatment, Filtration, two-phase, olive oil, advanced oxidation, three-phase, olive mill, waste plastic bottles

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1 A Preliminary End-Point Approach for Calculating Odorous Emissions in Life Cycle Assessment

Authors: A. M. Ferrari, M. Pini, G. M. Cappucci, C. Losi, P. Neri

Abstract:

Waste treatment and many production processes cause significant emissions of odors, thus typically leading to intense debate. The introduction of odorimetric units and their units of measurement, i.e., U.O. / m3, with the European regulation UE 13725 of 2003 designates the dynamic olfactometry as the official method for odorimetric analysis. Italy has filled the pre-existing legislative gap on the regulation of odorous emissions only recently, by introducing the Legislative Decree n°183 in 2017. The concentration of the odor to which a perceptive response occurs to 50% of the panel corresponds to the odorimetric unit of the sample under examination (1 U.O. / m3) and is equal to the threshold of perceptibility of the substance (O.T.). In particular, the treatment of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) by Mechanical-Biological Treatment (MBT) plants produces odorous emissions, typically generated by aerobic procedures, potentially leading to significant environmental burdens. The quantification of odorous emissions represents a challenge within a LCA study since primary data are often missing. The aim of this study is to present the preliminary findings of an ongoing study whose aim is to identify and quantify odor emissions from the Tre Monti MBT plant, located in Imola (Bologna, Italy). Particularly, the issues faced with odor emissions in the present work are: i) the identification of the components of the gaseous mixture, whose total quantification in terms of odorimetric units is known, ii) the distribution of the total odorimetric units among the single substances identified and iii) the quantification of the mass emitted for each substance. The environmental analysis was carried out on the basis of the amount of emitted substance. The calculation method IMPact Assessment of Chemical Toxics (IMPACT) 2002+ has been modified since the original one does not take into account indoor emissions. Characterization factors were obtained by adopting a preliminary method in order to calculate indoor human effects. The impact and damage assessments were performed without the identification of new categories, thus in accordance with the categories of the selected calculation method. The results show that the damage associated to odorous emissions is the 0.24% of the total damage, and the most affected damage category is Human Health, mainly as a consequence of ammonia emission (86.06%). In conclusion, this preliminary approach allowed identifying and quantifying the substances responsible for the odour impact, in order to attribute them the relative damage on human health as well as ecosystem quality.

Keywords: Waste treatment, Life Cycle Assessment, municipal solid waste, odorous emissions

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