Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 46

Waste Related Abstracts

46 A Review on the Usage of Ceramic Wastes in Concrete Production

Authors: O. Zimbili, W. Salim, M. Ndambuki

Abstract:

Construction and Demolition (C&D) wastes contribute the highest percentage of wastes worldwide (75%). Furthermore, ceramic materials contribute the highest percentage of wastes within the C&D wastes (54%). The current option for disposal of ceramic wastes is landfill. This is due to unavailability of standards, avoidance of risk, lack of knowledge and experience in using ceramic wastes in construction. The ability of ceramic wastes to act as a pozzolanic material in the production of cement has been effectively explored. The results proved that temperatures used in the manufacturing of these tiles (about 900 ⁰C) are sufficient to activate pozzolanic properties of clay. They also showed that, after optimization (11-14% substitution), the cement blend performs better, with no morphological differences between the cement blended with ceramic waste, and that blended with other pozzolanic materials. Sanitary ware and electrical insulator porcelain wastes are some wastes investigated for usage as aggregates in concrete production. When optimized, both produced good results, better than when natural aggregates are used. However, the research on ceramic wastes as partial substitute for fine aggregates or cement has not been overly exploited as the other areas. This review has been concluded with focus on investigating whether ceramic wall tile wastes used as partial substitute for cement and fine aggregates could prove to be beneficial since the two materials are the most high-priced during concrete production.

Keywords: Waste, morphological, blended, pozzolanic

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45 Application of Crude Palm Oil Liquid Sludge Sewage On Maize (Zea mays. L) as Re-Cycle Possibility to Fertilizer

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin, Henni Rosneti, Agusnimar

Abstract:

Crude palm oil liquid sludge sewage was treated to maize with 400 cc/plant could be increased mean relative growth rates, net assimilation rate, leaf area and dry weight of seed. There are indicated that 400 cc / plant treated to maize significantly increase the average of mean relative growth rates into 0.32 g.day-1. Net assimilation rates increase from 13.5 mg.m-2.day-1 into 34.5 mg.m-2.day-1, leaf area at 50 days after planting increase from 1419 cm-2 into 2458 cm-2 and dry weight of seed from 38 g per plant into 43 g per plant. Crude palm oil liquid sludge waste chemical analysis indicated that, there are no exceed threshold content of dangerous metals and biology effects. Cadmium content as heavy metal is lower than threshold of human healthy tolerance. Therefore, it has no syndrome effect to human health. Biological oxygen demands and chemical oxygen demands as indicators for micro-organism activities, there are under the threshold of human healthy tolerance.

Keywords: Waste, fertilizer, pollutant, maize, crude-palm-oil, liquid-sludge

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44 LCA and Multi-Criteria Analysis of Fly Ash Concrete Pavements

Authors: Marcela Ondova, Adriana Estokova

Abstract:

Rapid industrialization results in increased use of natural resources bring along serious ecological and environmental imbalance due to the dumping of industrial wastes. Principles of sustainable construction have to be accepted with regard to the consumption of natural resources and the production of harmful emissions. Cement is a great importance raw material in the building industry and today is its large amount used in the construction of concrete pavements. Concerning raw materials cost and producing CO2 emission the replacing of cement in concrete mixtures with more sustainable materials is necessary. To reduce this environmental impact people all over the world are looking for a solution. Over a period of last ten years, the image of fly ash has completely been changed from a polluting waste to resource material and it can solve the major problems of cement use. Fly ash concretes are proposed as a potential approach for achieving substantial reductions in cement. It is known that it improves the workability of concrete, extends the life cycle of concrete roads, and reduces energy use and greenhouse gas as well as amount of coal combustion products that must be disposed in landfills. Life cycle assessment also proved that a concrete pavement with fly ash cement replacement is considerably more environmentally friendly compared to standard concrete roads. In addition, fly ash is cheap raw material, and the costs saving are guaranteed. The strength properties, resistance to a frost or de-icing salts, which are important characteristics in the construction of concrete pavements, have reached the required standards as well. In terms of human health it can´t be stated that a concrete cover with fly ash could be dangerous compared with a cover without fly ash. Final Multi-criteria analysis also pointed that a concrete with fly ash is a clearly proper solution.

Keywords: Waste, fly ash, Life Cycle Assessment, Concrete Pavements

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43 New Evaluation Methodology for Solidification Product Durability Assessment

Authors: Bozena Dohnalkova, Jana Kosikova, Jakub Hodul, Rostislav Drochytka

Abstract:

This paper deals with a proposal of a new methodology for durability assessment of solidification product for its safe further use. The new methodology is based on a review of the current state of assessment of treated waste in Czech Republic and abroad. The aim of the paper is to propose an optimal evaluation methodology for verifying properties of solidification product to ensure its safe further use in building industry.

Keywords: Durability, Waste, Stabilization, Solidification

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42 Modeling of Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Concrete for Filling Trenches in Radioactive Waste Management

Authors: Ilija Plecas, Dalibor Arbutina

Abstract:

The leaching rate of 60Co from spent mix bead (anion and cation) exchange resins in a cement-bentonite matrix has been studied. Transport phenomena involved in the leaching of a radioactive material from a cement-bentonite matrix are investigated using three methods based on theoretical equations. These are: the diffusion equation for a plane source, an equation for diffusion coupled to a first order equation and an empirical method employing a polynomial equation. The results presented in this paper are from a 25-year mortar and concrete testing project that will influence the design choices for radioactive waste packaging for a future Serbian radioactive waste disposal center.

Keywords: Waste, Concrete, Radioactivity, Leaching, cement, Permeability, immobilization

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41 Consequential Effects of Coal Utilization on Urban Water Supply Sources – a Study of Ajali River in Enugu State Nigeria

Authors: Enebe Christian Chukwudi

Abstract:

Water bodies around the world notably underground water, ground water, rivers, streams, and seas, face degradation of their water quality as a result of activities associated with coal utilization including coal mining, coal processing, coal burning, waste storage and thermal pollution from coal plants which tend to contaminate these water bodies. This contamination results from heavy metals, presence of sulphate and iron, dissolved solids, mercury and other toxins contained in coal ash, sludge, and coal waste. These wastes sometimes find their way to sources of urban water supply and contaminate them. A major problem encountered in the supply of potable water to Enugu municipality is the contamination of Ajali River, the source of water supply to Enugu municipal by coal waste. Hydro geochemical analysis of Ajali water samples indicate high sulphate and iron content, high total dissolved solids(TDS), low pH (acidity values) and significant hardness in addition to presence of heavy metals, mercury, and other toxins. This is indicative of the following remedial measures: I. Proper disposal of mine wastes at designated disposal sites that are suitably prepared. II. Proper water treatment and III. Reduction of coal related contaminants taking advantage of clean coal technology.

Keywords: Waste, treatment, Utilization, Water Quality, Coal, Sources, Contamination, effects

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40 Comparison Study on Characterization of Various Fly Ashes for Heavy Metal Adsorption

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin, N. Baran Acarali, N. Tugrul

Abstract:

Fly ash is a waste material of coal firing thermal plants that is released from thermal power plants. It was defined as very fine particles that are drifted upward which are taken up by the flue gases. The emerging amount of fly ash in the world is approximately 600 million tons per year. In our country, it is expected that will be occurred 50 million tons of waste ash per year until 2020. The fly ashes can be evaluated by using as adsorbent material. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of use of various fly ashes (Tuncbilek, Catalagzi, Orhaneli) like low-cost adsorbents for heavy metal adsorption. First of all, fly ashes were characterized. For this purpose; analyses such as XRD, XRF, SEM and FT-IR were performed.

Keywords: Waste, fly ash, heavy metal, adsorbent

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39 Renewable Energy from Local Waste for Producing of Processed Agricultural Products

Authors: Ruedee Niyomrath, Somboon Sarasit, Chaisri Tharaswatpipat

Abstract:

This research aims to study the potential of local waste material in quantity and quality. The potential for such local forms of waste material used as renewable energy for the production of processed agricultural products. The results of this study are useful to producers of agricultural products to use fuel that in local, reduce production costs, and conservation. The results showed that Samut Songkhram is a small province located in the central Thailand, sea area, and subdivided into 3 districts. This province has a population of 80 percent of farmers and agriculture with 50 percent of the area planted to coconut growing. Productivity of coconut help create value for the primacy of the province. Waste materials from coconut have quantity and quality potentials for processing biomass into charcoal as the renewable energy for the production of processed agricultural products.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Waste, producing of product, processed agricultural products

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38 Physical and Mechanical Performance of Mortars with Ashes from Straw and Bagasse Sugarcane

Authors: Holmer Savastano Jr., Débora C. G. Oliveira, Julio D. Salles, Bruna A. Moriy, João A. Rossignolo

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to identify the optimal level of partial replacement of Portland cement by the ashes originating from burning straw and bagasse from sugar cane (ASB). Order to this end, were made five series of flat plates and cylindrical bodies: control and others with the partial replacement in 20, 30, 40, and 50% of ASB in relation to the mass of the Ordinary Portland cement, and conducted a mechanical testing of simple axial compression (cylindrical bodies) and the four-point bending (flat plates) and determined water absorption (WA), bulk density (BD) and apparent void volume (AVV) on both types of specimens. Based on the data obtained, it may be noted that the control treatment containing only Portland cement, obtained the best results. However, the cylindrical bodies with 20% ashes showed better results compared to the other treatments. And in the formulations plates, the treatment which showed the best results was 30% cement replacement by ashes.

Keywords: Waste, modulus of rupture, simple axial compression, bagasse sugarcane

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37 Effect of Waste Dumping on Groundwater Quality at Guntun Layi Funtua, Katsina State

Authors: Isiya Aminu Dabai, Adebola Kayode, Adeosun Kayode Daniel

Abstract:

Rural water supply relies mainly on groundwater exploitation, because it is more accessible, reliable, cheaper to develop and maintain, also with good quality compared to the surface water. Despite these advantages, groundwater has come under pollution threats like waste dumps, mineral exploitation, industrialization etc. This study investigates the effects of an open dumping to the surrounding groundwater. Ten hand dug well water samples were collected from the surroundings and tested. The average result shows that temperature, colour and turbidity to be 8.50 c, 6.1 TCU and 3.1 NTU respectively and pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, chloride content and hardness to be 7.2, 4.78, 1.8, 5.7, and 3.4 respectively while in the bacteriological test well no. 1, 2, 3, and 5 shows the presence of coliforms and E. Coli bacteria.

Keywords: Waste, Pollution, Quality, Groundwater, dump site, unsafe

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36 Bioremediation of Disposed X-Ray Film for Nanoparticles Production

Authors: Essam A. Makky, Siti H. Mohd Rasdi, J. B. Al-Dabbagh, G. F. Najmuldeen

Abstract:

The synthesis of silver nano particles (SNPs) extensively studied by using chemical and physical methods. Here, the biological methods were used and give benefits in research field in the aspect of very low cost (from waste to wealth) and safe time as well. The study aims to isolate and exploit the microbial power in the production of industrially important by-products in nano-size with high economic value, to extract highly valuable materials from hazardous waste, to quantify nano particle size, and characterization of SNPs by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. Disposal X-ray films were used as substrate because it consumes about 1000 tons of total silver chemically produced worldwide annually. This silver is being wasted when these films are used and disposed. Different bacterial isolates were obtained from various sources. Silver was extracted as nano particles by microbial power degradation from disposal X-ray film as the sole carbon source for ten days incubation period in darkness. The protein content was done and all the samples were analyzed using XRD, to characterize of silver (Ag) nano particles size in the form of silver nitrite. Bacterial isolates CL4C showed the average size of SNPs about 19.53 nm, GL7 showed average size about 52.35 nm and JF Outer 2A (PDA) showed 13.52 nm. All bacterial isolates partially identified using Gram’s reaction and the results obtained exhibited that belonging to Bacillus sp.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Bioremediation, Nanotechnology, Waste, XRD, disposal X-ray film

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35 Energy Conversion from Waste Paper Industry Using Fluidized Bed Combustion

Authors: M. Dyah Ayu Yuli, S. Faisal Dhio, P. Johandi, P. Muhammad Sofyan

Abstract:

Pulp and paper mills generate various quantities of energy-rich biomass as wastes, depending on technological level, pulp and paper grades and wood quality. These wastes are produced in all stages of the process: wood preparation, pulp and paper manufacture, chemical recovery, recycled paper processing, waste water treatment. Energy recovery from wastes of different origin has become a generally accepted alternative to their disposal. Pulp and paper industry expresses an interest in adapting and integrating advanced biomass energy conversion technologies into its mill operations using Fluidized Bed Combustion. Industrial adoption of these new technologies has the potential for higher efficiency, lower capital cost, and safer operation than conventional operations that burn fossil fuels for energy. Incineration with energy recovery has the advantage of hygienic disposal, volume reduction, and the recovery of thermal energy by means of steam or super heated water that can be used for heating and power generation.

Keywords: biomass, Waste, fluidized bed combustion, pulp and paper mills

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34 Analysis of Solid Waste Management Practices and the Implications for Human Health and the Environment: A Case Study of Kayamandi Informal Settlement

Authors: Peter Iyobosa Asemota

Abstract:

This study on solid waste management practices addressed aspects of environmental and health impacts resulting from poor management of solid waste. The study was occasioned by the observed rate and volume of illegal and indiscriminate dumping of solid waste materials especially in informal settlements. The main focus of this study was to establish the impact of waste management practices on human health and the environment. The study, therefore, presents a critical analysis of the state of solid waste management in the study area and the implications for human health and the environment. The study was carried out in Kayamandi informal settlement within Stellenbosch municipality. The sustainable management of solid waste is very important in order to minimize the environmental and public health risks associated with improper solid waste management. There is no denying the fact that the problems of waste management will become critical as time goes on because of improper and inefficient waste management practices. Towns and cities exhibit the burdens of waste management which is a characteristics feature of most African cities. The study critically assess the implementation of waste management practices by the residents of the informal settlement; identify the factors affecting management issues in the operation of solid waste management system by the municipality; identify factors militating against the implementation of waste management policies and legislation. Furthermore, a waste assessment study was carried out to assess the generation; composition of the waste stream and also determine the attitudes and behavior of the residents with regard to waste management practices. Findings from the study revealed that Kayamandi is not different from other informal settlements with regards to waste management. People are of the opinion that solid waste management is the sole responsibility of municipal authorities and as such, the government should be responsible for bearing the cost of solid waste management.

Keywords: Waste, Environment, Policy, Waste Collection, Integrated Solid Waste Management, sanitary landfill, waste composition, waste stream, waste categories

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33 Development of a Dairy Drink Made of Cocoa, Coffee and Orange By-Products with Antioxidant Activity

Authors: Gianella Franco, Karen Suarez, María Quijano, Patricia Manzano

Abstract:

Agro-industries generate large amounts of waste, which are mostly untapped. This research was carried out to use cocoa, coffee and orange industrial by-products to develop a dairy drink. The product was prepared by making a 10% aqueous extract of the mixture of cocoa and coffee beans shells and orange peel. Extreme Vertices Mixture Design was applied to vary the proportions of the ingredients of the aqueous extract, getting 13 formulations. Each formulation was mixed with skim milk and pasteurized. The attributes of taste, smell, color and appearance were evaluated by a semi-trained panel by multiple comparisons test, comparing the formulations against a standard marked as "R", which consisted of a coffee commercial drink. The formulations with the highest scores were selected to maximize the Total Polyphenol Content (TPC) through a process of linear optimization resulting in the formulation 80.5%: 18.37%: 1.13% of cocoa bean shell, coffee bean shell and orange peel, respectively. The Total Polyphenol Content was 4.99 ± 0.34 mg GAE/g of drink, DPPH radical scavenging activity (%) was 80.14 ± 0.05 and caffeine concentration of 114.78 mg / L, while the coffee commercial drink presented 3.93 ± 0.84 mg GAE / g drink, 55.54 ± 0.03 % and 47.44 mg / L of TPC, DPPH radical scavenging activity and caffeine content, respectively. The results show that it is possible to prepare an antioxidant - rich drink with good sensorial attributes made of industrial by-products.

Keywords: Food Science, Waste, polyphenols, DPPH

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32 The Use of Geographic Information System in Spatial Location of Waste Collection Points and the Attendant Impacts in Bida Urban Centre, Nigeria

Authors: Tabiti S. Tabiti, Daramola Japheth, Daramola Elizabeth Lara, Hussaini Yusuf Atulukwu

Abstract:

Bida urban centre is faced with solid waste management problems which are evident in the processes of waste generation, onsite storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and disposal of solid waste. As a result of this the urban centre is defaced with litters of garbage and offensive odours due to indiscriminate dumping of refuse within the neighborhood. The partial removal of the fuel subsidy by the Federal Government in January 2012 leads to the formation of Subsidy Reinvestment Programmes (SURE-P), the Federal Government’s share is 41 per cent of the savings while the States and Local Government shared the remaining 59 percent. The SURE-P Committee in carrying out the mandate entrusted upon it by the President by identifying few critical infrastructure and social Safety nets that will ameliorate the sufferings of Nigerians. Waste disposal programme as an aspect of Solid waste management is one of the areas of focus for Niger State SURE-programmes incorporated under Niger State Environmental Protection Agency. The emergence of this programme as related to waste management in Bida has left behind a huge refuse spots along major corridors leading to a serious state of mess. Major roads within the LGA is now turned to dumping site, thereby obstructing traffic movements, while the aesthetic nature of the town became something else with offensive odours all over. This paper however wishes to underscore the use of geographical Information System in identifying solid waste sports towards effective solid waste management in the Bida urban centre. The paper examined the spatial location of dumping points and its impact on the environment. Hand held Global Position System was use to pick the dumping points location; where a total number of 91 dumping points collected were uploaded to ArcGis 10.2 for analysis. Interview method was used to derive information from households living near the dumping site. It was discovered that the people now have to cope with offensive odours, rodents invasion, dog and cats coming around the house as a result of inadequate and in prompt collection of waste around the neighborhood. The researchers hereby recommend that more points needs to be created with prompt collections of waste within the neighborhood by the necessary SURE - P agencies.

Keywords: Waste, Neighborhood, dumping site, refuse

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31 Proposal of Solidification/Stabilisation Process of Chosen Hazardous Waste by Cementation

Authors: Bozena Dohnalkova

Abstract:

This paper presents a part of the project solving which is dedicated to the identification of the hazardous waste with the most critical production within the Czech Republic with the aim to study and find the optimal composition of the cement matrix that will ensure maximum content disposal of chosen hazardous waste. In the first stage of project solving – which represents this paper – a specific hazardous waste was chosen, its properties were identified and suitable solidification agents were chosen. Consequently solidification formulas and testing methodology was proposed.

Keywords: Waste, Solidification, cementation, binder

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30 Strategic Development of Urban Environmental Management Base on Good Governance - Case study of (Waste Management of Tehran)

Authors: A. Farhad Sadri, B. Ali Farhadi, C. Nasim Shalamzari

Abstract:

Waste management is a principle of urban and environmental governance. Waste management in Tehran metropolitan requires good strategies for better governance. Using of good urban governance principles together with eight main indexes can be an appropriate base for this aim. One of the reasonable tools in this field is usage of SWOT methods which provides possibility of comparing the opportunities, threats, weaknesses, and strengths by using IFE and EFE matrixes. The results of the above matrixes, respectively 2.533 and 2.403, show that management system of Tehran metropolitan wastes has performed weak regarding to internal factors and has not have good performance regarding using the opportunities and dealing with threats. In this research, prioritizing and describing the real value of each 24 strategies in waste management in Tehran metropolitan have been surveyed considering good governance derived from Quantitative Strategic Planning Management (QSPM) by using Kolomogrof-Smirnoff by 1.549 and significance level of 0.073 in order to define normalization of final values and all of the strategies utilities and Variance Analysis of ANOVA has been calculated for all SWOT strategies. Duncan’s test results regarding four WT, ST, WO, and SO strategies show no significant difference. In addition to mean comparison by Duncan method in this research, LSD (Lowest Significant Difference test) has been used by probability of 5% and finally, 7 strategies and final model of Tehran metropolitan waste management strategy have been defined. Increasing the confidence of people with transparency of budget, developing and improving the legal structure (rule-oriented and law governance, more responsibility about requirements of private sectors, increasing recycling rates and real effective participation of people and NGOs to improve waste management (contribution) and etc, are main available strategies which have been achieved based on good urban governance management principles.

Keywords: Environmental Management, Waste, Strategy, swot, urban good governance

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29 An Assessment of Drainage Network System in Nigeria Urban Areas using Geographical Information Systems: A Case Study of Bida, Niger State

Authors: Daramola Japheth, Daramola Elizabeth Lara, Yusuf Hussaini Atulukwu, Tabitit S. Tabiti

Abstract:

In view of the recent limitations faced by the township concerning poorly constructed and in some cases non - existence of drainage facilities that resulted into incessant flooding in some parts of the community poses threat to life,property and the environment. The research seeks to address this issue by showing the spatial distribution of drainage network in Bida Urban using Geographic information System techniques. Relevant features were extracted from existing Bida based Map using un-screen digitization and x, y, z, data of existing drainages were acquired using handheld Global Positioning System (GPS). These data were uploaded into ArcGIS 9.2, software, and stored in the relational database structure that was used to produce the spatial data drainage network of the township. The result revealed that about 40 % of the drainages are blocked with sand and refuse, 35 % water-logged as a result of building across erosion channels and dilapidated bridges as a result of lack of drainage along major roads. The study thus concluded that drainage network systems in Bida community are not in good working condition and urgent measures must be initiated in order to avoid future disasters especially with the raining season setting in. Based on the above findings, the study therefore recommends that people within the locality should avoid dumping municipal waste within the drainage path while sand blocked or weed blocked drains should be clear by the authority concerned. In the same vein the authority should ensured that contract of drainage construction be awarded to professionals and all the natural drainages caused by erosion should be addressed to avoid future disasters.

Keywords: Waste, Spatial, Digitization, relational database, drainage network

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28 Hazardous Waste Management at Chemistry Section in Dubai Police Forensic Lab

Authors: Adnan Lanjawi

Abstract:

This paper is carried out to investigate the management of hazardous waste in the chemistry section which belongs to Dubai Police forensic laboratory. The chemicals are the main contributor toward the accumulation of hazardous waste in the section. This is due to the requirement to use it in analysis, such as of explosives, drugs, inorganic and fire debris cases. This leads to negative effects on the environment and to the employees’ health and safety. The research investigates the quantity of chemicals there, the labels, the storage room and equipment used. The target is to reduce the need for disposal by looking at alternative options, such as elimination, substitution and recycling. The data was collected by interviewing the top managers there who have been working in the lab more than 20 years. Also, data was collected by observing employees and how they carry out experiments. Therefore, a survey was made to assess their knowledge about the hazardous waste. The management of hazardous chemicals in the chemistry section needs to be improved. The main findings illustrate that about 110 bottles of reference substances were going to be disposed of in 2014. These bottles were bought for about 100,000 UAE Dirhams (£17,600). This means that the management of substances purchase is not organised. There is no categorisation programme in place, which makes the waste control very difficult. In addition, the findings show that chemical are segregated according to alphabetical order, whereas the efficient way is to separate them according to their nature and property. In addition, the research suggested technology and experiments to follow to reduce the need for using solvents and chemicals in the sample preparation.

Keywords: Control, Waste, Laboratories, Hazard

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27 The Potential of Fly Ash Wastes to Improve Nutrient Levels in Agricultural Soils: A Material Flow Analysis Case Study from Riau District, Indonesia

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin

Abstract:

Fly ash sewage of pulp and paper industries when processed with suitable process and true management may possibly be used fertilizer agriculture purposes. The objective of works is to evaluate re-cycling possibility of fly ash waste to be applied as a fertilizer for agriculture use. Fly ash sewage was applied to maize with 28 g/plant could be increased significantly the average of dry weigh from dry weigh of seed increase from 6.7 g/plant into 10.3 g/plant, and net assimilation rates could be increased from 14.5 mg.m-2.day-1 into 35.4 mg.m-2 day-1. Therefore, production per hectare was reached 3.2 ton/ha. The chemical analyses of fly ash waste indicated that, there are no exceed threshold content of dangerous metals and biology effects. Mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, and molybdenum contents as heavy metal are lower than the threshold of human healthy tolerance. Therefore, it has no syndrome effect to human health. This experiment indicated that fly ash sewage in lower doses until 28 g/plant could be applied as substitution fertilizer for agriculture use and it could be eliminate the environment pollution.

Keywords: Waste, fertilizer, maize, fly-ash, sludge-sewage pollutant

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26 Process of Research, Development and Application of New Pelletizer

Authors: Juraj Beniak, Peter Križan, Miloš Matúš, Ľubomír Šooš

Abstract:

The success of introducing a new product on the market is the new principle of production, or progressive design, improved efficiency or high quality of manufactured products. Proportionally with the growth of interest in press-biofuels - pellets or briquettes, is also growing interest in the new design better, more efficiently machines produce pellets, briquettes or granules completely new shapes. Our department has for years dedicated to the development of new highly productive designs pressing machines and new optimized press-biofuels. In this field, we have more than 40 national and international patents. The aim of paper is description of the introduction of a new principle pelleting mill and the description of his process of research, development, manufacturing and testing to deployment into production.

Keywords: Design, Waste, patent, compacting process, pellets mill, new conception, press-biofuels

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25 Pre-Eliminary Design Adjustable Workstation for Piston Assembly Line Considering Anthropometric for Indonesian People

Authors: T. Yuri M. Zagloel, Inaki M. Hakim, Syarafi A. M.

Abstract:

Manufacturing process has been considered as one of the most important activity in business process. It correlates with productivity and quality of the product so industries could fulfill customer’s demand. With the increasing demand from customer, industries must improve their manufacturing ability such as shorten lead time and reduce wastes on their process. Lean manufacturing has been considered as one of the tools to waste elimination in manufacturing or service industri. Workforce development is one practice in lean manufacturing that can reduce waste generated from operator such as waste of unnecessary motion. Anthropometric approach is proposed to determine the recommended measurement in operator’s work area. The method will get some dimensions from Indonesia people that related to piston workstation. The result from this research can be obtained new design for the workarea considering ergonomic aspect.

Keywords: Waste, ergonomic, anthropometric, adjustable

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24 Evaluate the Kinetic Parameters and Characterize for Waste Prosopis juliflora Pods

Authors: Jean C. G. Silva, Kaline N. Ferreira, Rennio F. Sena, Flavio L. H. Silva

Abstract:

The Prosopis juliflora (called algaroba in Northeastern Region of Brazil) is a species of medium to large size that can reach 18 meters high, being typical of arid and semi-arid regions by to requirement less water to survive; this is a fundamental attribute from its adaptation. It's considered of multiple uses, because the trunk, the fruit, and the algaroba pods are utilized for several purposes, among them, the production of wood from lumber mill, charcoal, alcohol, animal and human consumption, being hence, a culture of economic and social value. The use of waste Prosopis juliflora can be carried out for like pyrolysis and gasification processes, in order to energy production in those regions where it is grown. Thus this study aims to characterize the residue of the algaroba pods and evaluate the kinetic parameters, activation energy (Ea) and pre-exponential factor (k0), the devolatilization process through the data obtained from TG/DTG curves with different levels of heating rates. At work was used the heating rates of 5 K.min-1, 10 K.min-1, 15 K.min-1, 20 K.min-1 and 30 K.min-1, in inert nitrogen atmosphere (99.997%) under a flow of 40 ml.min-1. The kinetic parameters were obtained using the methods of Friedman and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall.

Keywords: Waste, Activation Energy, devolatilization, kinetic parameters

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23 Optimization of Maritime Platform Transport Problem of Solid, Special and Dangerous Waste

Authors: Jorge A. Ruiz-Vanoye, Ocotlán Díaz-Parra, Alejandro Fuentes-Penna, Beatriz Bernabe-Loranca, Patricia Ambrocio-Cruz, José J. Hernández-Flores

Abstract:

The Maritime Platform Transport Problem of Solid, Special and Dangerous Waste consist of to minimize the monetary value of carry different types of waste from one location to another location using ships. We offer a novel mathematical, the characterization of the problem and the use CPLEX to find the optimal values to solve the Solid, Special and Hazardous Waste Transportation Problem of offshore platforms instances of Mexican state-owned petroleum company (PEMEX). The set of instances used are WTPLib real instances and the tool CPLEX solver to solve the MPTPSSDW problem.

Keywords: Waste, Solid Waste, oil platform, transport problem

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22 Lactobacillus sp. Isolates Slaughterhouse Waste as Probiotics for Broilers

Authors: Nourmalita Safitri Ningsih, Ridwan, Iqri Puspa Yunanda

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to utilize the waste from slaughterhouses for chicken feed ingredients is probiotic. Livestock waste produced by livestock activities such as feces, urine, food remains, as well as water from livestock and cage cleaning. The process starts with the isolation of bacteria. Rumen fluid is taken at Slaughterhouse Giwangan, Yogyakarta. Isolation of Lactobacillus ruminus is done by using de Mann Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) medium. In the sample showed a rod-shaped bacteria are streaked onto an agar plates. After it was incubated at 37ºC for 48 hours, after which it is observed. The observation of these lactic acid bacteria it will show a clear zone at about the colony. These bacterial colonies are white, round, small, shiny on the agar plate mikroenkapsul In the manufacturing process carried out by the method of freeze dried using skim milk in addition capsulated material. Then the results of these capsulated bacteria are mixed with feed for livestock. The results from the mixing of capsulated bacteria in feed are to increase the quality of animal feed so as to provide a good effect on livestock. Scanning electron microscope testing we have done show the results of bacteria have been shrouded in skim milk. It can protect the bacteria so it is more durable in use. The observation of the bacteria showed a sheath on Lactobacillus sp. Preservation of bacteria in this way makes the bacteria more durable for use. As well as skim milk can protect bacteria that are resistant to the outside environment. Results of probiotics in chicken feed showed significant weight gain in chickens. Calculation Anova (P <0.005) shows the average chicken given probiotics her weight increased.

Keywords: Waste, Probiotics, Bacteria, Chicken, Lactobacillus sp

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21 Oxidation of Lignin for Production of Chemicals

Authors: Abayneh Getachew Demesa

Abstract:

Interest in renewable feedstock for the chemical industry has increased considerably over the last decades, mainly due to environmental concerns and foreseeable shortage of fossil raw materials. Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant source of bio-based raw material that is readily available and can be utilized as an alternative source for chemical production. Lignin accrues in enormous amounts as a by-product of the pulping process in the pulp and paper industry. It is estimated that 70 million tons of lignin are annually processed worldwide from the pulp and paper industry alone. Despite its attractive chemical composition, lignin is still insufficiently exploited and mainly regarded as bio-waste. Therefore, an environmentally benign process that can completely and competitively convert lignin into different value-added chemicals is needed to launch its commercial success on industrial scale. Partial wet oxidation by molecular oxygen has received increased attention as a potential process for production of chemicals from biomass wastes. In this paper, the production of chemicals by oxidation of lignin is investigated. The factors influencing the different types of products formed during the oxidation of lignin and their yields and compositions are discussed.

Keywords: biomass, Waste, Chemicals, Lignin

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20 Analysing Waste Management Options in the Printing Industry: Case of a South African Company

Authors: Stanley Fore

Abstract:

The case study company is one of the leading newsprint companies in South Africa. The company has achieved this status through operational expansion, diversification and investing in cutting-edge technology. They have a reputation for the highest quality and personalised service that transcends borders and industries. The company offers a wide variety of small and large scales printing services. The company is faced with the challenge of significant waste production during normal operations. The company generates 1200 kg of plastic waste and 60 – 70 tonnes of paper waste per month. The company operates a waste management process currently, whereby waste paper is sold, at low cost, to recycling firms for further processing. Having considered the quantity of waste being generated, the company has embarked on a venture to find a more profitable solution to its current waste production. As waste management and recycling is not the company’s core business, the aim of the venture is to implement a secondary profitable waste process business. The venture will be expedited as a strategic project. This research aims to estimate the financial feasibility of a selected solution as well as the impact of non-financial considerations thereof. The financial feasibility is analysed using metrics such as Payback period; internal rate of return and net present value.

Keywords: Management, Waste, printing industry, up-cycling

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19 Evaluation of Energy Supply and Demand Side Management for Residential Buildings in Ekiti State, Nigeria

Authors: Oluwatosin Samuel Adeoye

Abstract:

Ekiti State is an agrarian state located in south western part of Nigeria. The injected power to the Ado-Ekiti and the entire state are 25MW and 37.6 MW respectively. The estimated power demand for Ado Ekiti and Ekiti state were 29.01MW and 224.116MW respectively. The distributed power to the consumers is characterized with shortcomings which include: in-adequate supply, poor voltage regulation, improper usage, illiteracy and wastage. The power generation in Nigeria is presently 1680.60MW which does not match the estimated power demand of 15,000MW with a population of over 170 million citizens. This paper evaluates the energy utilization in Ado Ekiti metropolis, the wastage and its economic implication as well as effective means of its management. The use of direct interviews, administration of questionnaires, measurements of current and voltage with clamp multimeter, and simple mathematical approach were used for the purpose of evaluation. Recommendations were made with the view of reducing energy waste from mean value of 10.84% to 2% in order to reduce the cost implication such that the huge financial waste can be injected to other parts of the economy as well as the management of energy in Ekiti state.

Keywords: Energy, Management, Waste, Consumers, Power supply, Demand

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18 The Impact of Legislation on Waste and Losses in the Food Processing Sector in the UK/EU

Authors: David Lloyd, David Owen, Martin Jardine

Abstract:

Introduction: European weight regulations with respect to food products require a full understanding of regulation guidelines to assure regulatory compliance. It is suggested that the complexity of regulation leads to practices which result to over filling of food packages by food processors. Purpose: To establish current practices by food processors and the financial, sustainable and societal impacts on the food supply chain of ineffective food production practices. Methods: An analysis of food packing controls with 10 companies of varying food categories and quantitative based research of a further 15 food processes on the confidence in weight control analysis of finished food packs within their organisation. Results: A process floor analysis of manufacturing operations focussing on 10 products found over fill of packages ranging from 4.8% to 20.2%. Standard deviation figures for all products showed a potential for reducing average weight of the pack whilst still retain the legal status of the product. In 20% of cases, an automatic weight analysis machine was in situ however weight packs were still significantly overweight. Collateral impacts noted included the effect of overfill on raw material purchase and added food miles often on a global basis with one raw material alone creating 10,000 extra food miles due to the poor weight control of the processing unit. A case study of a meat and bakery product will be discussed with the impact of poor controls resulting from complex legislation. The case studies will highlight extra energy costs in production and the impact of the extra weight on fuel usage. If successful a risk assessment model used primarily on food safety but adapted to identify waste /sustainability risks will be discussed within the presentation.

Keywords: Waste, Legislation, profile, overfill

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17 Valorization of Gypsum as Industrial Waste

Authors: Hasna Soli

Abstract:

The main objective of this work is the extraction of sulfur from gypsum here is industrial waste. Indeed the sulfuric acid production, passing through the following process; melting sulfur, filtration of the liquid sulfur, sulfur combustion to produce SO₂, conversion of SO₂ to SO₃ and SO₃ absorption in water to produce H₂SO₄ product as waste CaSO₄ the anhydrous calcium sulfate. The main objectives of this work are improving the industrial practices and to find other ways to manage these solid wastes. It should also assess the consequences of treatment in terms of training and become byproducts. Firstly there will be a characterization of this type of waste by an X-ray diffraction; to obtain phase solid compositions and chemical analysis; gravimetrically and atomic absorption spectrometry or by ICP. The samples are mineralized in suitable acidic or basic solutions. The elements analyzed are CaO, Sulfide (SO₃), Al₂O₃, Fe₂O₃, MgO, SiO₂. Then an analysis by EDS energy dispersive spectrometry using an Oxford EDX probe and differential thermal and gravimetric analyzes. Gypsum’s valuation will be performed. Indeed, the CaSO₄ will be reused to produce sulfuric acid, which will be reintroduced into the production line. The second approach explored in this work is the thermal utilization of solid waste to remove sulfur as a dilute sulfuric acid solution.

Keywords: Waste, Environment, gypsum, sulfur

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