Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Waste Recycling Related Abstracts

7 The Composting Process from a Waste Management Method to a Remediation Procedure

Authors: G. Petruzzelli, F. Pedron, I. Rosellini, F. Gorini, B. Pezzarossa, M. Grifoni


Composting is a controlled technology to enhance the natural aerobic process of organic wastes degradation. The resulting product is a humified material that is principally recyclable for agricultural purpose. The composting process is one of the most important tools for waste management, by the European Community legislation. In recent years composting has been increasingly used as a remediation technology to remove biodegradable contaminants from soil, and to modulate heavy metals bioavailability in phytoremediation strategies. An optimization in the recovery of resources from wastes through composting could enhance soil fertility and promote its use in the remediation biotechnologies of contaminated soils.

Keywords: Agriculture, Waste Recycling, compost, biopile, soil clean-up

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6 Waste Minimization through Vermicompost: An Alternative Approach

Authors: Mary Fabiola


Vermicompost is the product or process of composting using various worms. Large-scale vermicomposting is practiced in Canada, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, and the United States. The vermicompost may be used for farming, landscaping, and creating compost tea or for sale. Some of these operations produce worms for bait and/or home vermicomposting. As a processing system, The vermicomposting of organic waste is very simple. Worms ingest the waste material-break it up in their rudimentary. Gizzards, consume the digestible/putrefiable portion and then excrete a stable, Humus-like material that can be immediately marketed. Vermitechnology can be a promising technique that has shown its potential in certain challenging areas like augmentation of food production, waste recycling, management of solid wastes etc. There is no doubt that in India, where on side pollution is increasing due to accumulation of organic wastes and on the other side there is shortage of organic manure, which could increase the fertility and productivity of the land and produce nutritive and safe food. So, the scope for vermicomposting is enormous.

Keywords: solid wastes, Pollution, Waste Recycling, vermicompost

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5 XRD and Image Analysis of Low Carbon Type Recycled Cement Using Waste Cementitious Powder

Authors: Hyeonuk Shin, Hun Song, Yongsik Chu, Jongkyu Lee, Dongcheon Park


Although much current research has been devoted to reusing concrete in the form of recycled aggregate, insufficient attention has been given to researching the utilization of waste concrete powder, which constitutes 20 % or more of waste concrete and therefore the majority of waste cementitious powder is currently being discarded or buried in landfills. This study consists of foundational research for the purpose of reusing waste cementitious powder in the form of recycled cement that can answer the need for low carbon green growth. Progressing beyond the conventional practice of using the waste cementitious powder as inert filler material, this study contributes to the aim of manufacturing high value added materials that exploits the chemical properties of the waste cementitious powder, by presenting a pre-treatment method for the material and an optimal method of proportioning the mix of materials to develop a low carbon type of recycled cement.

Keywords: Waste Recycling, Low carbon type cement, Waste cementitious powder

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4 Recycling of Sewage Sludge Ash (SSA) as Construction Material

Authors: Z. Chen, C. S. Poon


In Hong Kong, about 1,000 tonnes of sewage sludge were produced every day in 2014 representing a major fraction of the total solid municipal waste. Traditionally, sewage sludge is disposed of at landfills. This disposal method causes environmental issues and uses up precious space in landfills which are becoming saturated one by one. To tackle the disposal problem, Hong Kong government has just built a sewage sludge incinerator. Through incineration the volume of waste can be reduced up to 90% by converting sewage sludge into ash. Whilst sewage sludge ash (SSA) still needs to be disposed of at landfills, research has been conducted at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University on using SSA to substitute cement for the production of construction materials. Results demonstrated that SSA contained many open and isolated pores and thus can reduce the cement dilution effect resulting in only slight decrease in the flexural and compressive strengths of cement mortar. The incorporation of SSA in cement mortar can be up to 20% of the binder, without too much worry about adverse effect on strength development of mortar. There was some enhancement in strength using ground SSA in comparison to the original SSA. The original SSA shortened the relative initial setting time of cement paste but ground SSA caused slight delay in the setting of cement paste. The research also found that increasing the percentage of SSA lead to decreasing workability of cement mortar with the same water/binder ratio, and ground SSA was beneficial to workability although grinding increased the surface area of SSA. This paper summarizes the major findings of the research.

Keywords: Waste Recycling, construction material, cement replacement, sewage sludge ash

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3 The Effect of Parameter Controls for Manure Composting in Waste Recycling Process

Authors: Junyoung Kim, Shangwha Cha, Soomee Kang, Jake S. Byun


This study shows the effect of parameter controls for livestock manure composting in waste recycling process for the development of a new design of a microorganism-oriented- composting system. Based on the preliminary studies, only the temperature control by changing mechanical mixing can reduce microorganisms’ biodegradability from 3 to 6 months to 15 days, saving the consumption of energy and manual labor. The final degree of fermentation in just 5 days of composting increased to ‘3’ comparing the compost standard level ‘4’ in Korea, others standards were all satisfied. This result shows that the controlling the optimum microorganism parameter using an ICT device connected to mixing condition can increase the effectiveness of fermentation system and reduce odor to nearly zero, and lead to upgrade the composting method than the conventional

Keywords: Waste Recycling, manure composting, odor removal, parameter control

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
2 Design Transformation to Reduce Cost in Irrigation Using Value Engineering

Authors: A. R. Khan, F. S. Al-Anzi, M. Sarfraz, A. Elmi


Researchers are responding to the environmental challenges of Kuwait in localized, innovative, effective and economic ways. One of the vital and significant examples of the natural challenges is lack or water and desertification. In this research, the project team focuses on redesigning a prototype, using Value Engineering Methodology, which would provide similar functionalities to the well-known technology of Waterboxx kits while reducing the capital and operational costs and simplifying the process of manufacturing and usability by regular farmers. The design employs used tires and recycled plastic sheets as raw materials. Hence, this approach is going to help not just fighting desertification but also helping in getting rid of ever growing huge tire dumpsters in Kuwait, as well as helping in avoiding hazards of tire fires yielding in a safer and friendlier environment. Several alternatives for implementing the prototype have been considered. The best alternative in terms of value has been selected after thorough Function Analysis System Technique (FAST) exercise has been developed. A prototype has been fabricated and tested in a controlled simulated lab environment that is being followed by real environment field testing. Water and soil analysis conducted on the site of the experiment to cross compare between the composition of the soil before and after the experiment to insure that the prototype being tested is actually going to be environment safe. Experimentation shows that the design was equally as effective as, and may exceed, the original design with significant savings in cost. An estimated total cost reduction using the VE approach of 43.84% over the original design. This cost reduction does not consider the intangible costs of environmental issue of waste recycling which many further intensify the total savings of using the alternative VE design. This case study shows that Value Engineering Methodology can be an important tool in innovating new designs for reducing costs.

Keywords: Functional Analysis, Waste Recycling, Desertification, Value Engineering, scrap tires, water irrigation rationing

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
1 Production of Bricks Using Mill Waste and Tyre Crumbs at a Low Temperature by Alkali-Activation

Authors: Arul Arulrajah, Zipeng Zhang, Yat C. Wong


Since automobiles became widely popular around the early 20th century, end-of-life tyres have been one of the major types of waste humans encounter. Every minute, there are considerable quantities of tyres being disposed of around the world. Most end-of-life tyres are simply landfilled or simply stockpiled, other than recycling. To address the potential issues caused by tyre waste, incorporating it into construction materials can be a possibility. This research investigated the viability of manufacturing bricks using mill waste and tyre crumb by alkali-activation at a relatively low temperature. The mill waste was extracted from a brick factory located in Melbourne, Australia, and the tyre crumbs were supplied by a local recycling company. As the main precursor, the mill waste was activated by the alkaline solution, which was comprised of sodium hydroxide (8m) and sodium silicate (liquid). The introduction ratio of alkaline solution (relative to the solid weight) and the weight ratio between sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate was fixed at 20 wt.% and 1:1, respectively. The tyre crumb was introduced to substitute part of the mill waste at four ratios by weight, namely 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The mixture of mill waste and tyre crumbs were firstly dry-mixed for 2 min to ensure the homogeneity, followed by a 2.5-min wet mixing after adding the solution. The ready mixture subsequently was press-moulded into blocks with the size of 109 mm in length, 112.5 mm in width and 76 mm in height. The blocks were cured at 50°C with 95% relative humidity for 2 days, followed by a 110°C oven-curing for 1 day. All the samples were then placed under the ambient environment until the age of 7 and 28 days for testing. A series of tests were conducted to evaluate the linear shrinkage, compressive strength and water absorption of the samples. In addition, the microstructure of the samples was examined via the scanning electron microscope (SEM) test. The results showed the highest compressive strength was 17.6 MPa, found in the 28-day-old group using 5 wt.% tyre crumbs. Such strength has been able to satisfy the requirement of ASTM C67. However, the increasing addition of tyre crumb weakened the compressive strength of samples. Apart from the strength, the linear shrinkage and water absorption of all the groups can meet the requirements of the standard. It is worth noting that the use of tyre crumbs tended to decrease the shrinkage and even caused expansion when the tyre content was over 15 wt.%. The research also found that there was a significant reduction in compressive strength for the samples after water absorption tests. In conclusion, the tyre crumbs have the potential to be used as a filler material in brick manufacturing, but more research needs to be done to tackle the durability problem in the future.

Keywords: Waste Recycling, bricks, mill waste, tyre crumbs

Procedia PDF Downloads 6