Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Waste Plastics Related Abstracts

4 Co-Liquefaction of Cellulosic Biomass and Waste Plastics

Authors: Katsumi Hirano, Yusuke Kakuta, Koji Yoshida, Shozo Itagaki, Masahiko Kajioka, Toshihiko Okada

Abstract:

A conversion technology of cellulosic biomass and waste plastics to liquid fuel at low pressure and low temperature has been investigated. This study aims at the production of the liquefied fuel (CPLF) of substituting diesel oil by mixing cellulosic biomass and waste plastics in the presence of solvent. Co-liquefaction of cellulosic biomass (Japan cedar) and polypropylene (PP) using wood tar or mineral oil as solvent at 673K with an autoclave was carried out. It was confirmed that the co-liquefaction gave CPLF in a high yield among the cases of wood or of polypropylene Which was ascribed the acceleration of decomposition of plastics by radicals derived from the decomposition of wood. The co-liquefaction was also conducted by a small twin screw extruder. It was found that CPLF was obtained in the co-liquefaction, And the acceleration of decomposition of plastics in the presence of cellulosic biomass. The engine test of CPLF showed that the engine performances, Compression ignition and combustion characteristics were almost similar to those of diesel fuel at any mixing ratio of CPLF and any load, Therefore, CPLF could be practically used as alternative fuel for diesel engines.

Keywords: Solvent, Cellulosic Biomass, Co-liquefaction, Waste Plastics

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3 Producing Carbon Nanoparticles from Agricultural and Municipal Wastes

Authors: Kanik Sharma

Abstract:

In the year of 2011, the global production of carbon nano-materials (CNMs) was around 3,500 tons, and it is projected to expand at a compound annual growth rate of 30.6%. Expanding markets for applications of CNMs, such as carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) and carbon nano-fibers (CNFs), place ever-increasing demands on lowering their production costs. Current technologies for CNM generation require intensive premium feedstock consumption and employ costly catalysts; they also require input of external energy. Industrial-scale CNM production is conventionally achieved through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods which consume a variety of expensive premium chemical feedstocks such as ethylene, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2); or by flame synthesis techniques, which also consume premium feedstock fuels. Additionally, CVD methods are energy-intensive. Renewable and replenishable feedstocks, such as those found in municipal, industrial, agricultural recycling streams have a more judicious reason for usage, in the light of current emerging needs for sustainability. Agricultural sugarcane bagasse and corn residues, scrap tire chips as well as post-consumer polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle shreddings when either thermally treated by sole pyrolysis or by sequential pyrolysis and partial oxidation result in the formation of gaseous carbon-bearing effluents which when channeled into a heated reactor, produce CNMs, including carbon nano-tubes, catalytically synthesized therein on stainless steel meshes. The structure of the nano-material synthesized depends on the type of feedstock available for pyrolysis, and can be determined by analysing the feedstock. These feedstocks could supersede the use of costly and often toxic or highly-flammable chemicals such as hydrocarbon gases, carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which are commonly used as feedstocks in current nano-manufacturing process for CNMs.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, pyrolysis, Waste Plastics, sugarcane bagasse

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2 Production of Hydrophilic PVC Surfaces with Microwave Treatment for its Separation from Mixed Plastics by Froth Floatation

Authors: Srinivasa Reddy Mallampati, Chi-Hyeon Lee, Nguyen Thanh Truc, Byeong-Kyu Lee

Abstract:

Organic polymeric materials (plastics) are widely used in our daily life and various industrial fields. The separation of waste plastics is important for its feedstock and mechanical recycling. One of the major problems in incineration for thermal recycling or heat melting for material recycling is the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) contained in waste plastics. This is due to the production of hydrogen chloride, chlorine gas, dioxins, and furans originated from PVC. Therefore, the separation of PVC from waste plastics is necessary before recycling. The separation of heavy polymers (PVC 1.42, PMMA 1.12, PC 1.22 and PET 1.27 g/cm3 ) from light ones (PE and PP 0.99 g/cm3) can be achieved on the basis of their density. However it is difficult to separate PVC from other heavy polymers basis of density. There are no simple and inexpensive techniques to separate PVC from others. If hydrophobic the PVC surface is selectively changed into hydrophilic, where other polymers still have hydrophobic surface, flotation process can separate PVC from others. In the present study, the selective surface hydrophilization of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by microwave treatment after alkaline/acid washing and with activated carbon was studied as the pre-treatment of its separation by the following froth flotation. In presence of activated carbon as absorbent, the microwave treatment could selectively increase the hydrophilicity of the PVC surface (i.e. PVC contact angle decreased about 19o) among other plastics mixture. At this stage, 100% PVC separation from other plastics could be achieved by the combination of the pre- microwave treatment with activated carbon and the following froth floatation. The hydrophilization of PVC by surface analysis would be due to the hydrophilic groups produced by microwave treatment with activated carbon. The effect of optimum condition and detailed mechanism onto separation efficiency in the froth floatation was also investigated.

Keywords: Microwave, Contact angle, Waste Plastics, additive, PVC, Hydrophilic, froth floatation

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1 A Novel Approach for Energy Utilisation in a Pyrolysis Plant

Authors: S. Murugan, Bohumil Horak

Abstract:

Pyrolysis is one of the possible technologies to derive energy from waste organic substances. In recent years, pilot level and demonstrated plants have been installed in few countries. The heat energy lost during the process is not effectively utilized resulting in less savings of energy and money. This paper proposes a novel approach to integrate a combined heat and power unit(CHP) and reduce the primary energy consumption in a tyre pyrolysis pilot plant. The proposal primarily uses the micro combined heat and power concept that will help to produce both heat and power in the process.

Keywords: biomass, pyrolysis, Waste Heat, Waste Plastics, waste tyres

Procedia PDF Downloads 207