Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Waste Materials Related Abstracts

7 Application of Metroxylon Sagu Waste in Textile Process

Authors: Nazlina Shaari

Abstract:

Sustainability is economic, social and environmental systems that make up the community in providing a healthy, productive, meaningful life for all community residents, present and future. The environmental profile of goods and services that satisfy our individual and societal needs were shaped by design activities. The integration of environmental aspect of product design, especially in textiles present much confusion surrounds the incorporation of environmental objectives into the design process. This paper explores the effective use of waste materials that can contribute to the development of more environmentally responsible practice in textile sector. It introduces key elements of the ecological approach and innovative ideas from waste to wealth. The paper focuses on the potential methods of utilizing sago residue as a natural colour enhancer in natural dyeing process. It will discover the potential of waste materials to be fully utilized to attempt to make the production of that textile more environmentally friendly.

Keywords: Sustainability, Textiles, Waste Materials, environmentally friendly

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6 Biodegradation of Cellulosic Materials by Marine Fungi Isolated from South Corniche of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Fuad Ameen, Mohamed Moslem, Sarfaraz Hadi

Abstract:

Twenty-eight fungal isolates belonging to 12 genera were derived from debris, sediment and water samples collected from Avicennia marina stands 25km south of Jeddah city on the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. Eight of these isolates were found to be able to grow in association cellulosic waste materials under in vitro conditions in the absence of any carbon source. Isolates were further tested for their potential to degrade paper and clothes wastes by co-cultivation under aeration on a rotary shaker. These fungi accumulated significantly higher biomass, produced ligninolytic and cellulase enzymes, and liberated larger volumes of CO2. These observations indicated that the selected isolates were able to break down and consume the waste materials.

Keywords: biodegradation, Waste Materials, Enzyme Activity, mangrove

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5 Gypsum Composites with CDW as Raw Material

Authors: R. Santos Jiménez, A. San-Antonio-González, M. Del Río Merino, M. González Cortina, C. Viñas Arrebola

Abstract:

On average, Europe generates around 890 million tons of construction and demolition waste (CDW) per year and only 50% of these CDW are recycled. This is far from the objectives determined in the European Directive for 2020 and aware of this situation, the European Countries are implementing national policies to prevent the waste that can be avoidable and to promote measures to increase recycling and recovering. In Spain, one of these measures has been the development of a CDW recycling guide for the manufacture of mortar, concrete, bricks and lightweight aggregates. However, there is still not enough information on the possibility of incorporating CDW materials in the manufacture of gypsum products. In view of the foregoing, the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid is creating a database with information on the possibility of incorporating CDW materials in the manufacture of gypsum products. The objective of this study is to improve this database by analysing the feasibility of incorporating two different CDW in a gypsum matrix: ceramic waste bricks (perforated brick and double hollow brick), and extruded polystyrene (XPS) waste. Results show that it is possible to incorporate up to 25% of ceramic waste and 4% of XPS waste over the weight of gypsum in a gypsum matrix. Furhtermore, with the addition of ceramic waste an 8% of surface hardness increase and a 25% of capillary water absorption reduction can be obtained. On the other hand, with the addition of XPS, a 26% reduction of density and a 37% improvement of thermal conductivity can be obtained.

Keywords: Construction Materials, Waste Materials, gypsum, Ceramic Waste, XPS, CDW

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4 Assessing the Potential of a Waste Material for Cement Replacement and the Effect of Its Fineness in Soft Soil Stabilisation

Authors: Hassnen M. Jafer, W. Atherton, F. Ruddock

Abstract:

This paper represents the results of experimental work to investigate the suitability of a waste material (WM) for soft soil stabilisation. In addition, the effect of particle size distribution (PSD) of the waste material on its performance as a soil stabiliser was investigated. The WM used in this study is produced from the incineration processes in domestic energy power plant and it is available in two different grades of fineness (coarse waste material (CWM) and fine waste material (FWM)). An intermediate plasticity silty clayey soil with medium organic matter content has been used in this study. The suitability of the CWM and FWM to improve the physical and engineering properties of the selected soil was evaluated dependant on the results obtained from the consistency limits, compaction characteristics (optimum moisture content (OMC) and maximum dry density (MDD)); along with the unconfined compressive strength test (UCS). Different percentages of CWM were added to the soft soil (3, 6, 9, 12 and 15%) to produce various admixtures. Then the UCS test was carried out on specimens under different curing periods (zero, 7, 14, and 28 days) to find the optimum percentage of CWM. The optimum and other two percentages (either side of the optimum content) were used for FWM to evaluate the effect of the fineness of the WM on UCS of the stabilised soil. Results indicated that both types of the WM used in this study improved the physical properties of the soft soil where the index of plasticity (IP) was decreased significantly. IP was decreased from 21 to 13.64 and 13.10 with 12% of CWM and 15% of FWM respectively. The results of the unconfined compressive strength test indicated that 12% of CWM was the optimum and this percentage developed the UCS value from 202kPa to 500kPa for 28 days cured samples, which is equal, approximately 2.5 times the UCS value for untreated soil. Moreover, this percentage provided 1.4 times the value of UCS for stabilized soil-CWA by using FWM which recorded just under 700kPa after 28 days curing.

Keywords: Waste Materials, unconfined compressive strength, soft soil stabilisation, fineness

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3 Mechanical Activation of a Waste Material Used as Cement Replacement in Soft Soil Stabilisation

Authors: Hassnen M. Jafer, W. Atherton, F. Ruddock, E. Loffil

Abstract:

Waste materials or sometimes called by-product materials have been increasingly used as construction material to reduce the usage of cement in different construction projects. In the field of soil stabilisation, waste materials such as pulverised fuel ash (PFA), biomass fly ash (BFA), sewage sludge ash (SSA), etc., have been used since 1960s in last century. In this study, a particular type of a waste material (WM) was used in soft soil stabilisation as a cement replacement, as well as, the effect of mechanical activation, using grinding, on the performance of this WM was also investigated. The WM used in this study is a by-product resulted from the incineration processes between 1000 and 1200oc in domestic power generation plant using a fluidized bed combustion system. The stabilised soil in this study was an intermediate plasticity silty clayey soil with medium organic matter content. The experimental works were conducted first to find the optimum content of WM by carrying out Atterberg limits and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests on soil samples contained (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15%) of WM by the dry weight of soil. The UCS test was carried out on specimens provided to different curing periods (zero, 7, 14, and 28 days). Moreover, the optimum percentage of the WM was subject to different periods of grinding (10, 20, 30, 40mins) using mortar and pestle grinder to find the effect of grinding and its optimum time by conducting UCS test. The results indicated that the WM used in this study improved the physical properties of the soft soil where the index of plasticity (IP) was decreased significantly from 21 to 13.10 with 15% of WM. Meanwhile, the results of UCS test indicated that 12% of WM was the optimum and this percentage developed the UCS value from 202kPa to 700kPa for 28 days cured samples. Along with the time of grinding, the results revealed that 10 minutes of grinding was the best for mechanical activation for the WM used in this study.

Keywords: Waste Materials, Grinding, soft soil stabilisation, and unconfined compressive strength

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2 Green Concrete for Sustainable Indonesia Structures: Lightweight Concrete Using Oil Palm Shell as Coarse Aggregate with Superplasticizer and Fly Ash

Authors: Feny Acelia Silaban

Abstract:

The development of Indonesia’s infrastructure in many islands is significantly increased through the years. Based on this condition, concrete materials which are extracted from natural resources are over exploited and slowly becoming rare, thus the demand for alternative materials becomes so urgently crucial. Oil Palm is one of the biggest commodities in Indonesia with the total amount of 31 million tons in the last 2014. The production of palm oil also generates lots of solid wastes in the form of Oil Palm Shell (OPS). Constructing more environmentally sustainable structures can be achieved by producing lightweight concrete using the Oil Palm Shell (OPS). This paper investigated the effects of OPS and combination of Superplasticizer and fly ash proportion of lightweight concrete mix design to the compressive strength, flexure strength, modulus of elasticity, shrinkage behavior, and water absorption. The Oil Palm Shell had undergone special treatment by washing it with hot water and soap to reduce the oil content. This experiment used four different proportions of Superplasticizer with fly ash and 30 % OPS proportion from the weight of total compositions mixture by the result of trial mix. The experiment result showed that using OPS coarse aggregates and Superplasticizer with fly ash, the average of 28-day compressive strength reached 30-35 MPa. The highest 28-day compressive strength comes from 1.2 % Superplasticizer with 5 % fly ash proportion samples with the strength by 33 MPa. The sample with proportion of 1 % Superplasticizer and 7.5 % fly ash has the highest shrinkage value compared to other proportions. The characteristic of OPS as coarse aggregates is in a standard range of natural coarse aggregates. In general, this lightweight concrete using OPS coarse aggregate and Superplasticizer has high potential to be green-structural lightweight concrete alternative in Indonesia.

Keywords: Waste Materials, lightweight concrete, superplasticizer, oil palm shell

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1 The Utilisation of Two Types of Fly Ashes Used as Cement Replacement in Soft Soil Stabilisation

Authors: Hassnen M. Jafer, W. Atherton, F. Ruddock, E. Loffill

Abstract:

This study represents the results of an experimental work using two types of fly ashes as a cement replacement in soft soil stabilisation. The fly ashes (FA1 and FA2) used in this study are by-products resulting from an incineration processes between 800 and 1200 ˚C. The stabilised soil in this study was an intermediate plasticity silty clayey soil with medium organic matter content. The experimental works were initially conducted on soil treated with different percentages of FA1 (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15%) to identify the optimum FA1 content. Then FA1 was chemically activated by FA2 which has high alkalinity by blending the optimum content of FA1 with different portions of FA2. The improvement levels were evaluated dependent on the results obtained from consistency limits and compaction tests along with the results of unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests which were conducted on specimens of soil treated with FA1 and FA2 and exposed to different periods of curing (zero, 7, 14, and 28 days). The results indicated that the FA1 and FA2 used in this study effectively improved the physical and geotechnical properties of the soft soil where the index of plasticity (IP) was decreased significantly from 21 to 13.17 with 12% of FA1; however, there was a slight increase in IP with the use of FA2. Meanwhile, 12% of FA1 was identified as the optimum percentage improving the UCS of stabilised soil significantly. Furthermore, FA2 was found effective as a chemical activator to FA1 where the UCS was improved significantly after using FA2.

Keywords: Waste Materials, unconfined compressive strength, soft soil stabilisation, fly ashes

Procedia PDF Downloads 110