Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

wall thickness Related Abstracts

4 Assessment of Residual Stress on HDPE Pipe Wall Thickness

Authors: M. Aberkane, D. Sersab


Residual stresses, in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipes, result from a nonhomogeneous cooling rate that occurs between the inner and outer surfaces during the extrusion process in manufacture. Most known methods of measurements to determine the magnitude and profile of the residual stresses in the pipe wall thickness are layer removal and ring slitting method. The combined layer removal and ring slitting methods described in this paper involves measurement of the circumferential residual stresses with minimal local disturbance. The existing methods used for pipe geometry (ring slitting method) gives a single residual stress value at the bore. The layer removal method which is used more in flat plate specimen is implemented with ring slitting method. The method permits stress measurements to be made directly at different depth in the pipe wall and a well-defined residual stress profile was consequently obtained.

Keywords: Residual Stress, HDPE, layer removal, ring splitting, wall thickness

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3 Evaluation of Forming Properties on AA 5052 Aluminium Alloy by Incremental Forming

Authors: A. Anbu Raj, V. Mugendiren


Sheet metal forming is a vital manufacturing process used in automobile, aerospace, agricultural industries, etc. Incremental forming is a promising process providing a short and inexpensive way of forming complex three-dimensional parts without using die. The aim of this research is to study the forming behaviour of AA 5052, Aluminium Alloy, using incremental forming and also to study the FLD of cone shape AA 5052 Aluminium Alloy at room temperature and various annealing temperature. Initially the surface roughness and wall thickness through incremental forming on AA 5052 Aluminium Alloy sheet at room temperature is optimized by controlling the effects of forming parameters. The central composite design (CCD) was utilized to plan the experiment. The step depth, feed rate, and spindle speed were considered as input parameters in this study. The surface roughness and wall thickness were used as output response. The process performances such as average thickness and surface roughness were evaluated. The optimized results are taken for minimum surface roughness and maximum wall thickness. The optimal results are determined based on response surface methodology and the analysis of variance. Formability Limit Diagram is constructed on AA 5052 Aluminium Alloy at room temperature and various annealing temperature by using optimized process parameters from the response surface methodology. The cone has higher formability than the square pyramid and higher wall thickness distribution. Finally the FLD on cone shape and square pyramid shape at room temperature and the various annealing temperature is compared experimentally and simulated with Abaqus software.

Keywords: Optimization, response surface methodology, incremental forming, surface roughness, wall thickness

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2 Experimental and Analytical Studies for the Effect of Thickness and Axial Load on Load-Bearing Capacity of Fire-Damaged Concrete Walls

Authors: Yeo Kyeong Lee, Ji Yeon Kang, Hee Sun Kim, Yeong Soo Shin, Eun Mi Ryu


The objective of this paper is an investigation of the effects of the thickness and axial loading during a fire test on the load-bearing capacity of a fire-damaged normal-strength concrete wall. Two factors are attributed to the temperature distributions in the concrete members and are mainly obtained through numerous experiments. Toward this goal, three wall specimens of different thicknesses are heated for 2 h according to the ISO-standard heating curve, and the temperature distributions through the thicknesses are measured using thermocouples. In addition, two wall specimens are heated for 2 h while simultaneously being subjected to a constant axial loading at their top sections. The test results show that the temperature distribution during the fire test depends on wall thickness and axial load during the fire test. After the fire tests, the specimens are cured for one month, followed by the loading testing. The heated specimens are compared with three unheated specimens to investigate the residual load-bearing capacities. The fire-damaged walls show a minor difference of the load-bearing capacity regarding the axial loading, whereas a significant difference became evident regarding the wall thickness. To validate the experiment results, finite element models are generated for which the material properties that are obtained for the experiment are subject to elevated temperatures, and the analytical results show sound agreements with the experiment results. The analytical method based on validated thought experimental results is applied to generate the fire-damaged walls with 2,800 mm high considering the buckling effect: typical story height of residual buildings in Korea. The models for structural analyses generated to deformation shape after thermal analysis. The load-bearing capacity of the fire-damaged walls with pin supports at both ends does not significantly depend on the wall thickness, the reason for it is restraint of pinned ends. The difference of the load-bearing capacity of fire-damaged walls as axial load during the fire is within approximately 5 %.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, wall thickness, residual strength, slenderness ratio, fire test, normal-strength concrete wall, axial-load ratio

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1 Growth Model and Properties of a 3D Carbon Aerogel

Authors: J. Marx, D. Smazna, R. Adelung, B. Fiedler


Aerographite is a 3D interconnected carbon foam. Its tetrapodal morphology is based on the zinc oxide (ZnO) template structure, which is replicated in the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) into a hollow carbon structure. This replication process is analyzed in ex-situ studies via interrupted synthesis and the observation of the reaction progress by using scanning electron (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy techniques. Based on the epitaxial growth process, with a layer-by-layer growth behaviour of the wall thickness or number of layers and the catalytical graphitization of the deposited amorphous carbon into graphitic carbon by zinc, a growth model is created. The properties of aerographite, such as the electrical conductivity is dependent on the graphitization and number of layer (wall thickness). Wall thicknesses between 3 nm and 22 nm are achieved by a controlled stepwise reduction of the synthesis time on the basis of the developed growth model, and by a further thermal treatment at 1800 °C the graphitization of the presented carbon foam is modified. The variation of the wall thickness leads to an optimum defect density (ID/IG ratio) and the graphitization to an improvement in the electrical conductivity. Furthermore, a metallic conducting behaviour of untreated and 1800 °C treated aerographite can be observed. Due to these structural and defective modifications, a fundamental structural-property equation for the description of their influences on the electrical conductivity is developed.

Keywords: Electrical Conductivity, wall thickness, electron microscopy (SEM/TEM), graphitization

Procedia PDF Downloads 37