Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Walking Related Abstracts

13 The Global Children’s Challenge Program: Pedometer Step Count in an Australian School

Authors: D. Hilton

Abstract:

The importance and significance of this research is based upon the fundamental knowledge reported in the scientific literature that physical activity is inversely associated with obesity. In addition, it is recognized there is a global epidemic of sedentariness while at the same time it is known that morbidity and mortality are associated with physical inactivity and as a result of overweight or obesity. Hence this small study in school students is an important area of research in our community. An application submitted in 2005 for the inaugural Public Health Education Research Trust [PHERT] Post Graduate Research Scholarship scheme organized by the Public Health Association of Australia [PHAA] was awarded 3rd place within Australia. The author and title was: D. Hilton, Methods to increase physical activity in school aged children [literature review, a trial using pedometers and a policy paper]. Third place is a good result, however this did not secure funding for the project, as only first place received $5000 funding. Some years later within Australia, a program commenced called the Global Children's Challenge [GCC]. Given details of the 2005 award above were included an application submission prepared for Parkhill Primary School [PPS] which is located in Victoria, Australia was successful. As a result, an excited combined grade 3/ 4 class at the school [27 students] in 2012 became recipients of these free pedometers. Ambassadors for the program were Mrs Catherine Freeman [OAM], Olympic Gold Medalist – Sydney 2000 [400 meters], while another ambassador was Mr Colin Jackson [CBE] who is a Welsh former sprint and hurdling athlete. In terms of PPS and other schools involved in 2012, website details show that the event started on 19th Sep 2012 and students were to wear the pedometer every day for 50 days [at home and at school] aiming for the recommended 15,000 steps/day recording steps taken in a booklet provided. After the finish, an analysis of the average step count for this school showed that the average steps taken / day was 14, 003 [however only a small percentage of students returned the booklets and units] as unfortunately the dates for the program coincided with school holidays so some students either forgot or misplaced the units / booklets. Unfortunately funding for this program ceased in 2013, however the lasting impact of the trial on student’s knowledge and awareness remains and in fact becomes a good grounding for students in how to monitor basic daily physical activity using a method that is easy, fun, low cost and readily accessible.

Keywords: Exercise, Physical Activity, Walking, Australian school

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12 Effect of vr Based Wii Fit Training on Muscle Strength, Sensory Integration Ability and Walking Abilities in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Control Trial

Authors: Ying-Yi Laio, Yea-Ru Yang, Yih-Ru Wu, Ray-Yau Wang

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Background: Virtual reality (VR) systems are proved to increase motor performance in stroke and elderly. However, the effects have not been established in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Purpose: To examine the effects of VR based training in improving muscle strength, sensory integration ability and walking abilities in patients with PD by a randomized controlled trial. Method: Thirty six participants with diagnosis of PD were randomly assigned to one of the three groups (n=12 for each group). Participants received VR-based Wii Fit exercise (VRWii group) or traditional exercise (TE group) for 45 minutes, followed by treadmill training for another 15 minutes for 12 sessions in 6 weeks. Participants in the control group received no structured exercise program but fall-prevention education. Outcomes included lower extremity muscle strength, sensory integration ability, walking velocity, stride length, and functional gait assessment (FGA). All outcomes were assessed at baseline, after training and at 1-month follow-up. Results: Both VRWii and TE groups showed more improvement in level walking velocity, stride length, FGA, muscle strength and vestibular system integration than control group after training and at 1-month follow-up. The VRWii training, but not the TE training, resulted in more improvement in visual system integration than the control. Conclusions: VRWii training is as beneficial as traditional exercise in improving walking abilities, sensory integration ability and muscle strength in patients with PD, and such improvements persisted at least for 1 month. The VRWii training is then suggested to be implemented in patients with PD.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Walking, Parkinson’s disease, Sensory Integration, Muscle Strength

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11 Effect of 16 Weeks Walking with Different Dosages on Psychosocial Function Related Quality of Life among 60 to 75 Years Old Men

Authors: Mohammad Ehsani, Elham Karimi, Hashem Koozechian

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Aim: The purpose of current semi-experimental study was a survey on effect of 16 week walking on psychosocial function related quality of life among 60 to 75 years old men. Methodology: For this reason, short from of health – related quality of life questionnaire (SF – 36) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) had been distributed to the subjects at 2 times of pre – test and posttest. Statistical sample of current study was 60 to 75 years old men who placed at Kahrizak house and assessed by considering physically and medical background. Also factors of entrance to the intervention like age range, have satisfaction and have intent to participating in walking program, lack of having diabetic, cardiovascular, Parkinsonism diseases and postural, neurological, musculoskeletal disorders, lack of having clinical background like visual disorders or disordering on equilibrium system, lack of motor limitation, foot print disorders, having surgery and mental health had been determined and assessed. Finally after primary studies, 80 persons selected and categorized accidentally to the 3 experimental group (1, 2, 3 sessions per week, 30 min walking with moderate intension at every sessions) and one control group (without physical activity in period of 16 weeks). Data analysed by employing ANOVA, Pearson coefficient and Scheffe Post – Hoc tests at the significance level of p < 0.05. Results: Results showed that psychosocial function of men with 60 to 75 years old increase by influence of 16 week walking and increase of exercise sessions lead to more effectiveness of walking. Also there was no significant difference between psychosocial function of subjects within 1 session and 3 sessions experimental groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: On the basis of results, we can say that doing regular walking with efficient and standard dosage for elderly people, can increase their quality of life. Furthermore, designing and action operation regular walking program for elderly men on the basis of special, logical and systematic pattern under the supervision of aware coaches have been recommended on the basis of results.

Keywords: Walking, Quality of Life, elders, psychosocial function

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10 Walkability with the Use of Mobile Apps

Authors: Dimitra Riza

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This paper examines different ways of exploring a city by using smart phones' applications while walking, and the way this new attitude will change our perception of the urban environment. By referring to various examples of such applications we will consider options and possibilities that open up with new technologies, their advantages and disadvantages, as well as ways of experiencing and interpreting the urban environment. The widespread use of smart phones gave access to information, maps, knowledge, etc. at all times and places. The city tourism marketing takes advantage of this event and promotes the city's attractions through technology. Mobile mediated walking tours, provide new possibilities and modify the way we used to explore cities, for instance by giving directions proper to find easily destinations, by displaying our exact location on the map, by creating our own tours through picking points of interest and interconnecting them to create a route. These apps act as interactive ones, as they filter the user's interests, movements, etc. Discovering a city on foot and visiting interesting sites and landmarks, became very easy, and has been revolutionized through the help of navigational and other applications. In contrast to the re-invention of the city as suggested by the Baudelaire's Flâneur in the 19th century, or to the construction of situations by the Situationists in 60s, the new technological means do not allow people to "get lost", as these follow and record our moves. In the case of strolling or drifting around the city, the option of "getting lost" is desired, as the goal is not the "wayfinding" or the destination, but it is the experience of walking itself. Getting lost is not always about dislocation, but it is about getting a feeling, free of the urban environment while experiencing it. So, on the one hand, walking is considered to be a physical and embodied experience, as the observer becomes an actor and participates with all his senses in the city activities. On the other hand, the use of a screen turns out to become a disembodied experience of the urban environment, as we perceive it in a fragmented and distanced way. Relations with the city are similar to Alberti’s isolated viewer, detached from any urban stage. The smartphone, even if we are present, acts as a mediator: we interact directly with it and indirectly with the environment. Contrary to the Flaneur and to the Situationists, who discovered the city with their own bodies, today the body itself is being detached from that experience. While contemporary cities turn out to become more walkable, the new technological applications tend to open out all possibilities in order to explore them by suggesting multiple routes. Exploration becomes easier, but Perception changes.

Keywords: Experience, Walking, body, Mobile Apps

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9 Metabolic Cost and Perceived Exertion during Progressive and Randomized Walking Protocols

Authors: Simeon E. H. Davies

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This study investigated whether selected metabolic responses and the perception of effort varied during four different walk protocols where speed increased progressively 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 km/hr (progressive treadmill walk (PTW); and progressive land walk (PLW); or where the participant adjusted to random changes of speed e.g. 6, 3, 7, 4, and 5 km/hr during a randomized treadmill walk (RTW); and a randomized land walk (RLW). Mean stature and mass of the seven participants was 1.75m and 70kg respectively, with a mean body fat of 15%. Metabolic measures including heart rate, relative oxygen uptake, ventilation, increased in a linear fashion up to 6 km/hr, however at 7 km/hr there was a significant increase in metabolic response notably during the PLW, and to a similar, although lesser extent in RLW, probably as a consequence of the loss of kinetic energy when turning at each cone in order to maintain the speed during each shuttle. Respiration frequency appeared to be a more sensitive indicator of physical exertion, exhibiting a rapid elevation at 5 km/hr. The perception of effort during each mode and at each speed was largely congruent during each walk protocol.

Keywords: Metabolic, Walking, exertion, progressive, random

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8 Effectiveness of a Malaysian Workplace Intervention Study on Physical Activity Levels

Authors: M. Z. Bin Mohd Ghazali, N. C. Wilson, A. F. Bin Ahmad Fuad, M. A. H. B. Musa, M. U. Mohamad Sani, F. Zulkifli, M. S. Zainal Abidin

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Physical activity levels are low in Malaysia and this study was undertaken to determine if a four week work-based intervention program would be effective in changing physical activity levels. The study was conducted in a Malaysian Government Department and had three stages: baseline data collection, four-week intervention and two-month post intervention data collection. During the intervention and two-month post intervention phases, physical activity levels (determined by a pedometer) and basic health profiles (BMI, abdominal obesity, blood pressure) were measured. Staff (58 males, 47 females) with an average age of 33 years completed baseline data collection. Pedometer steps averaged 7,102 steps/day at baseline, although male step counts were significantly higher than females (7,861 vs. 6114). Health profiles were poor: over 50% were overweight/obese (males 66%, females 40%); hypertension (males 23%, females 6%); excess waist circumference (males 52%, females 17%). While 86 staff participated in the intervention, only 49 regularly reported their steps. There was a significant increase (17%) in average daily steps from 8,965 (week 1) to 10,436 (week 4). Unfortunately, participation in the intervention program was avoided by the less healthy staff. Two months after the intervention there was no significant difference in average steps/day, despite the fact that 89% of staff reporting they planned to make long-term changes to their lifestyle. An unexpected average increase of 2kg in body weight occurred in participants, although this was less than the 5.6kg in non-participants. A number of recommendations are made for future interventions, including the conclusion that pedometers were a useful tool and popular with participants.

Keywords: Health, Walking, Intervention, pedometers

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7 A Preliminary Outcome of the Effect of an Accumulating 10,000 Daily Steps on Blood Pressure and Diabetes in Overweight Thai Participants

Authors: Kornanong Yuenyongchaiwat, Duangnate Pepatsitipong, Panthip Sangprasert

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High blood pressure and diabetes have been suggested as being non-communicable disease (NCDs), and there is one of the components of the definition of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 12-week pedometer based community walking intervention on change in resting blood pressure and blood glucose in participants with overweight in the community setting. Method: Participants were recruited both males and females who had a sedentary lifestyle aged 35-59 years (mean aged 49.67 years). A longitudinal quasi-experimental study was designed with 35 overweight participants who had body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2. These volunteers were assigned to the 12-week pedometer-based walking program (an accumulated at least 10,000 steps a day). Blood pressure and blood glucose were measured initially before and after 12-week intervention. Results: Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly lower in 30 individuals who had accumulated 10,000 steps d-1 in the intervention group at 12 week follow-up (-13.74 mmHg and 5.3 bpm, respectively). In addition, reduction in blood glucose (-14.89 mmol) in the intervention participants was statistically significant (p < .001). A regression analysis indicated that reductions in systolic blood pressure were significantly related to the increase in steps per day. Conclusion: The accumulation of least 10,000 steps d-1 resulted in decreased resting systolic blood pressure and blood glucose in overweight participants. This has also shown that an increase in physical activity in overweight participants with sedentary lifestyle by accumulating at least 10,000 steps a day can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (e.g., hypertension and diabetes).

Keywords: Physical Activity, Diabetes, Walking, Hypertension, blood glucose, Blood Pressure

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6 Effect of Tai-Chi and Cyclic Meditation on Hemodynamic Responses of the Prefrontal Cortex: A Functional near Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Singh Deepeshwar, N. K. Manjunath, M. Avinash

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Meditation is a self-regulated conscious process associated with improved awareness, perception, attention and overall performance. Different traditional origin of meditation technique may have different effects on autonomic activity and brain functions. Based on this quest, the present study evaluated the effect of Tai-Chi Chuan (TCC, a Chines movement based meditation technique) and Cyclic Meditation (CM, an Indian traditional based stimulation and relaxation meditation technique) on the hemodynamic responses of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and autonomic functions (such as R-R interval of heart rate variability and respiration). These two meditation practices were compared with simple walking. Employing 64 channel near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), we measured hemoglobin concentration change (i.e., Oxyhemoglobin [ΔHbO], Deoxyhemoglobin [ΔHbR] and Total hemoglobin change [ΔTHC]) in the bilateral PFC before and after TCC, CM and Walking in young college students (n=25; average mean age ± SD; 23.4 ± 3.1 years). We observed the left PFC activity predominantly modulates sympathetic activity effects during the Tai-Chi whereas CM showed changes on right PFC with vagal dominance. However, the changes in oxyhemoglobin and total blood volume change after Tai-Chi was significant higher (p < 0.05, spam t-maps) on the left hemisphere, whereas after CM, there was a significant increase in oxyhemoglobin (p < 0.01) with a decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (p < 0.05) on right PFC. The normal walking showed decrease in Oxyhemoglobin with an increase in deoxyhemoglobin on left PFC. The autonomic functions result showed a significant increase in RR- interval (p < 0.05) along with significant reductions in HR (p < 0.05) in CM, whereas Tai-chi session showed significant increase in HR (p < 0.05) when compared to walking session. Within a group analysis showed a significant reduction in RR-I and significant increase in HR both in Tai-chi and walking sessions. The CM showed there were a significant improvement in the RR - interval of HRV (p < 0.01) with the reduction of heart rate and breath rate (p < 0.05). The result suggested that Tai-Chi and CM both have a positive effect on left and right prefrontal cortex and increase sympathovagal balance (alertful rest) in autonomic nervous system activity.

Keywords: Brain, Walking, Meditation, Yoga, hemodynamic responses, Tai-Chi Chuan (TCC), heart rate variability (HRV)

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5 Walkability and Urban Centers: The Valuation of Public Open Spaces from a Sustainable Alternative

Authors: Ursula D'Almeida, Danielly Aliprandi

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A car-based development is observed in our cities, what leads to social and environmental impacts, such as air pollution, excessive noises and the substitution of public open spaces for roads and parking lots. Concerning the efforts to promote a sustainable development, a key issue is the reduction of fossil fuels consumption. An alternative to the pollutant gases emission, especially from urban transportation, is the incentive for active transport. The promoting of non-motorized travels and locomotion ways that only depend on human propulsion meets the sustainable mobility notion. Walking is one of the healthiest, cleanest, most natural and economical means to move around. Also, it integrates part of public transportation travels. Since walking demands physical effort, it is sensitive to environmental conditions. In urban space, not always we come across pedestrian friendly road structures. Based on the theory of walkability, the present paper aims to discuss the walking conditions in city centers by analyzing the distribution of urban services and uses, and this also regarding sidewalks quality. The case study presented is the urban center in the medium-sized Brazilian city Campos dos Goytacazes, in Rio de Janeiro State. The study also brings contributions to the recovering of underused public open spaces, especially by encouraging their use and appropriation through valuing non-motorized travels conditions.

Keywords: Walking, Sustainable Mobility, active transport, historical center

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4 Electromyography Analysis during Walking and Seated Stepping in the Elderly

Authors: P. Y. Chiang, Y. H. Chen, Y. J. Lin, C. C. Chang, W. C. Hsu

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The number of the elderly in the world population and the rate of falls in this increasing numbers of older people are increasing. Decreasing muscle strength and an increasing risk of falling are associated with the ageing process. Because the effects of seated stepping training on the walking performance in the elderly remain unclear, the main purpose of the proposed study is to perform electromyography analysis during walking and seated stepping in the elderly. Four surface EMG electrodes were sticked on the surface of lower limbs muscles, including vastus lateralis (VL), and gastrocnemius (GT) of both sides. Before test, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the respective muscle was obtained using manual muscle testing. The analog raw data of EMG signals were digitized with a sampling frequency of 2000 Hz. The signals were fully rectified and the linear envelope were calculated. Stepping motion cycle was separated into two phases by stepping timing (ST) and pedal return timing (PRT). ST refer to the time when the pedal marker reached the highest height, representing the contra-lateral leg was going to release the pedal. PRT refer to the time when the pedal marker reached the lowest height, representing the contra-lateral leg was going to step the pedal. We assumed that ST acted the same role in initial contact during walking, and PRT for toe-off. The period from ST to next PRT was called pushing phase (PP), during which the leg would start to step with resistance, and we compare this phase with the stance phase in level walking. The period from PRT to next ST was called returning phase (RP), during which leg would not have any resistance in this phase, and we compare this phase with the swing phase in level walking. VL and Gastro muscular activation had similar patterns in both side. The ability may transfer to those needed during loading response, mid-stance and terminal swing phase. User needed to make more effort in stepping compared with walking with similar timing; thus the strengthening of the VL and Gastro may be helpful to improve the walking endurance and efficiency for the elderly.

Keywords: Walking, Elderly, electromyography, seated stepping

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3 Adjustment of the Whole-Body Center of Mass during Trunk-Flexed Walking across Uneven Ground

Authors: Soran Aminiaghdam, Christian Rode, Reinhard Blickhan, Astrid Zech

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Despite considerable studies on the impact of imposed trunk posture on human walking, less is known about such locomotion while negotiating changes in ground level. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of the VBCOM in response to a two-fold expected perturbation, namely alterations in body posture and in ground level. To this end, the kinematic data and ground reaction forces of twelve able participants were collected. We analyzed the vertical position of the body center of mass (VBCOM) from the ground determined by the body segmental analysis method relative to the laboratory coordinate system at touchdown and toe-off instants during walking across uneven ground — characterized by perturbation contact (a 10-cm visible drop) and pre- and post-perturbation contacts — in comparison to unperturbed level contact while maintaining three postures (regular erect, ~30° and ~50° of trunk flexion from the vertical). The VBCOM was normalized to the distance between the greater trochanter marker and the lateral malleoli marker at the instant of TD. Moreover, we calculated the backward rotation during step-down as the difference of the maximum of the trunk angle in the pre-perturbation contact and the minimal trunk angle in the perturbation contact. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs revealed contact-specific effects of posture on the VBCOM at touchdown (F = 5.96, p = 0.00). As indicated by the analysis of simple main effects, during unperturbed level and pre-perturbation contacts, no between-posture differences for the VBCOM at touchdown were found. In the perturbation contact, trunk-flexed gaits showed a significant increase of VBCOM as compared to the pre-perturbation contact. In the post-perturbation contact, the VBCOM demonstrated a significant decrease in all gait postures relative to the preceding corresponding contacts with no between-posture differences. Main effects of posture revealed that the VBCOM at toe-off significantly decreased in trunk-flexed gaits relative to the regular erect gait. For the main effect of contact, the VBCOM at toe-off demonstrated changes across perturbation and post-perturbation contacts as compared to the unperturbed level contact. Furthermore, participants exhibited a backward trunk rotation during step-down possibly to control the angular momentum of their whole body. A more pronounced backward trunk rotation (2- to 3-fold compared with level contacts) in trunk-flexed walking contributed to the observed elevated VBCOM during the step-down which may have facilitated drop negotiation. These results may shed light on the interaction between posture and locomotion in able gait, and specifically on the behavior of the body center of mass during perturbed locomotion.

Keywords: Walking, posture, perturbation, center of mass, uneven ground

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2 Factors That Influence Choice of Walking Mode in Work Trips: Case Study of Rasht, Iran

Authors: Nima Safaei, Arezoo Masoud, Babak Safaei

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In recent years, there has been a growing emphasis on the role of urban planning in walking capability and the effects of individual and socioeconomic factors on the physical activity levels of city dwellers. Although considerable number of studies are conducted about walkability and for identifying the effective factors in walking mode choice in developed countries, to our best knowledge, literature lacks in the study of factors affecting choice of walking mode in developing countries. Due to the high importance of health aspects of human societies and in order to make insights and incentives for reducing traffic during rush hours, many researchers and policy makers in the field of transportation planning have devoted much attention to walkability studies; they have tried to improve the effective factors in the choice of walking mode in city neighborhoods. In this study, effective factors in walkability that have proven to have significant impact on the choice of walking mode, are studied at the same time in work trips. The data for the study is collected from the employees in their workplaces by well-instructed people using questionnaires; the statistical population of the study consists of 117 employed people who commute daily from work to home in Rasht city of Iran during the beginning of spring 2015. Results of the study which are found through the linear regression modeling, show that people who do not have freedom of choice for choosing their living locations and need to be present at their workplaces in certain hours have lower levels of walking. Additionally, unlike some of the previous studies which were conducted in developed countries, coincidental effects of Body Mass Index (BMI) and the income level of employees, do not have a significant effect on the walking level in work travels.

Keywords: Transportation, Walking, Linear Regression, BMI, work trips

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1 Effect of Two Types of Shoe Insole on the Dynamics of Lower Extremities Joints in Individuals with Leg Length Discrepancy during Stance Phase of Walking

Authors: Mansour Eslami, Fereshte Habibi

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Limb length discrepancy (LLD), or anisomeric, is defined as a condition in which paired limbs are noticeably unequal. Individuals with LLD during walking use compensatory mechanisms to dynamically lengthen the short limb and shorten the long limb to minimize the displacement of the body center of mass and consequently reduce body energy expenditure. Due to the compensatory movements created, LLD greater than 1 cm increases the odds of creating lumbar problems and hip and knee osteoarthritis. Insoles are non-surgical therapies that are recommended to improve the walking pattern, pain and create greater symmetry between the two lower limbs. However, it is not yet clear what effect insoles have on the variables related to injuries during walking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of internal and external heel lift insoles on pelvic kinematic in sagittal and frontal planes and lower extremity joint moments in individuals with mild leg length discrepancy during the stance phase of walking. Biomechanical data of twenty-eight men with structural leg length discrepancy of 10-25 mm were collected while they walked under three conditions: shoes without insole (SH), with internal heel lift insoles (IHLI) in shoes, and with external heal lift insole (EHLI). The tests were performed for both short and long legs. The pelvic kinematic and joint moment were measured with a motion capture system and force plate. Five walking trials were performed for each condition. The average value of five successful trials was used for further statistical analysis. Repeated measures ANCOVA with Bonferroni post hoc test were used for between-group comparisons (p ≤ 0.05). In both internal and external heel lift insoles (IHLI, EHLI), there was a significant decrease in the peak values of lateral and anterior pelvic tilts of the long leg, hip, and knee moments of a long leg and ankle moment of short leg (p ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, significant increases in peak values of lateral and anterior pelvic tilt of short leg in IHLI and EHLI were observed as compared to Shoe (SH) condition (p ≤ 0.01). In addition, a significant difference was observed between the IHLI and EHLI conditions in peak anterior pelvic tilt of long leg and plantar flexor moment of short leg (p=0.04; p= 0.04 respectively). Our findings indicate that both IHLI and EHLI can play an important role in controlling excessive pelvic movements in the sagittal and frontal planes in individuals with mild LLD during walking. Furthermore, the EHLI may have a better effect in preventing musculoskeletal injuries compared to the IHLI.

Keywords: Walking, kinematic, leg length discrepancy, shoe insole

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