Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

vulnerable Related Abstracts

6 Mobile Schooling for the Most Vulnerable Children on the Street: An Innovation

Authors: Md. Shakhawat Ullah Chowdhury

Abstract:

Mobile school is an innovative methodology in non-formal education to increase access to education for children during conflict through theatre for education for appropriate basic education to children during conflict. The continuous exposure to harsh environments and the nature of the lifestyles of children in conflict make them vulnerable. However, the mobile school initiative takes into consideration the mobile lifestyle of children in conflict. Schools are provided considering the pocket area of the street children with portable chalkboards, tin of books and materials as communities move. Teaching is multi-grade to ensure all children in the community benefit. The established mobile schools, while focused on basic literacy and numeracy skills according to traditions of the communities. The school teachers are selected by the community and trained by a theatre activist. These teachers continue to live and move with the community and provide continuous education for children in conflict. The model proposed a holistic team work to deliver education focused services to the street children’s pocket area where the team is mobile. The team consists of three members –an educator (theatre worker), a psychological counsellor and paramedics. The mobile team is responsible to educate street children and also play dramas which specially produce on the basis of national curriculum and awareness issues for street children. Children enjoy play and learn about life skills and basic literacy and numeracy skills which may be a pillar of humanitarian aid during conflict.

Keywords: vulnerable, children in conflict, mobile schooling, child-friendly

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5 Women’s Rights in Conflict with People’s Cultural Autonomy: Problems of Cultural Accommodation

Authors: Nazia Khan

Abstract:

The paper explores the cultural rights accommodation by the state which has left many unresolved problems. The cultural rights sometimes violate the basic individual rights of the members inside the community like women. The paper further explicates certain cultural norms and practices which violates the rights of women inside the community in the name of culture.

Keywords: Culture, Women, Communities, rights, vulnerable, accomadation

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4 Socio-Economic Setting and Implications to Climate Change Impacts in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Authors: Kenneth Nhundu, Leocadia Zhou, Farhad Aghdasi, Voster Muchenje

Abstract:

Climate change poses increased risks to rural communities that rely on natural resources, such as forests, cropland and rangeland, waterways, and open spaces Because of their connection to the land and the potential for climate change to impact natural resources and disrupt ecosystems and seasons, rural livelihoods and well-being are disproportionately vulnerable to climate change. Climate change has the potential to affect the environment in a number of ways that place increased stress on everyone, but disproportionately on the most vulnerable populations, including the young, the old, those with chronic illness, and the poor. The communities in the study area are predominantly rural, resource-based and are generally surrounded by public or private lands that are dominated by natural resources, including forests, rangelands, and agriculture. The livelihoods of these communities are tied to natural resources. Therefore, targeted strategies to cope will be required. This paper assessed the household socio-economic characteristics and their implications to household vulnerability to climate change impacts in the rural Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The results indicate that the rural communities are climate-vulnerable populations as they have a large proportion of people who are less economically or physically capable of adapting to climate change. The study therefore recommends that at each level, the needs, knowledge, and voices of vulnerable populations, including indigenous peoples and resource-based communities, deserve consideration and incorporation so that climate change policy (1) ensures that all people are supported and able to act, (2) provides as robust a strategy as possible to address a rapidly changing environment, and (3) enhances equity and justice.

Keywords: Climate Change, vulnerable, socio-economic, livelihoods

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3 Experimental Investigation to Produce an Optimum Mix Ratio of Micro-Concrete

Authors: Shofiq Ahmed, Rakibul Hassan, Raquib Ahsan

Abstract:

Concrete is one of the basic elements of RCC structure and also the most crucial one. In recent years, a lot of researches have been conducted to develop special types of concrete for special purposes. Micro-concrete is one of them which has high compressive strength and is mainly used for retrofitting. Micro-concrete is a cementitious based composition formulated for use in repairs of areas where the concrete is damaged & the area is confined in movement making the placement of conventional concrete difficult. According to recent statistics, a large number of structures in the major cities of Bangladesh are vulnerable to collapse. Retrofitting may thus be required for a sustainable solution, and for this purpose, the utilization of micro-concrete can be considered as the most effective solution. For that reason, the aim of this study was to produce micro-concrete using indigenous materials in low cost. Following this aim, the experimental data were observed for five mix ratios with varied amount of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, water, and admixture. The investigation criteria were a compressive strength, tensile strength, slump and the cost of different mix ratios. Finally, for a mix ratio of 1:1:1.5, the compressive strength was achieved as 7820 psi indicating highest strength among all the samples with the reasonable tensile strength of 1215 psi. The slump of 6.9 inches was also found for this specimen indicating it’s high flowability and making it’s convenient to use as micro-concrete. Moreover, comparing with the cost of foreign products of micro-concrete, it was observed that foreign products were almost four to five times costlier than this local product.

Keywords: Indigenous, retrofitting, vulnerable, micro-concrete

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2 Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination for the Sustainable Management of Vulnerable Mangrove Ecosystem, the Sundarbans

Authors: S. Begum, T. Biswas, M. A. Islam

Abstract:

The present research investigates the distribution and contamination of heavy metals in core sediments collected from three locations of the Sundarbans mangrove forest. In this research, quality of the analysis is evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials IAEA-SL-1 (lake sediment), IAEA-Soil-7, and NIST-1633b (coal fly ash). Total concentrations of 28 heavy metals (Na, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Ga, As, Sb, Cs, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Yb, Hf, Ta, Th, and U) have determined in core sediments of the Sundarbans mangrove by neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. When compared with upper continental crustal (UCC) values, it is observed that mean concentrations of K, Ti, Zn, Cs, La, Ce, Sm, Hf, and Th show elevated values in the research area is high. In this research, the assessments of metal contamination levels using different environmental contamination indices (EF, Igeo, CF) indicate that Ti, Sb, Cs, REEs, and Th have minor enrichment of the sediments of the Sundarbans. The modified degree of contamination (mCd) of studied samples of the Sundarbans ecosystem show low contamination. The pollution load index (PLI) values for the cores suggested that sampling points are moderately polluted. The possible sources of the deterioration of the sediment quality can be attributed to the different chemical carrying cargo accidents, port activities, ship breaking, agricultural and aquaculture run-off of the area. Pearson correlation matrix (PCM) established relationships among elements. The PCM indicates that most of the metal's distributions have been controlled by the same factors such as Fe-oxy-hydroxides and clay minerals, and also they have a similar origin. The poor correlations of Ca with most of the elements in the sediment cores indicate that calcium carbonate has a less significant role in this mangrove sediment. Finally, the data from this research will be used as a benchmark for future research and help to quantify levels of metal pollutions, as well as to manage future ecological risks of the vulnerable mangrove ecosystem, the Sundarbans.

Keywords: Contamination, trace element, vulnerable, sundarbans, core sediment

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1 Public Libraries as Social Spaces for Vulnerable Populations

Authors: Natalie Malone

Abstract:

This study explores the role of a public library in the creation of social spaces for vulnerable populations. The data stems from a longitudinal ethnographic study of the Anderson Library community, which included field notes, artifacts, and interview data. Thematic analysis revealed multiple meanings and thematic relationships within and among the data sources -interviews, field notes, and artifacts. Initial analysis suggests the Anderson Library serves as a space for vulnerable populations, with the sub-themes of fostering interpersonal communication to create a social space for children and fostering interpersonal communication to create a social space for parents and adults. These findings are important as they illustrate the potential of public libraries to serve as community empowering institutions.

Keywords: Space, capital, vulnerable, immigrant families, public libraries

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