Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

volatiles Related Abstracts

3 Volatile Profile of Monofloral Honeys Produced by Stingless Bees from the Brazilian Semiarid Region

Authors: Ana Caroliny Vieira da Costa, Marta Suely Madruga

Abstract:

In Brazil, there is a diverse fauna of social bees, known by Meliponinae or native stingless bees. These bees are important for providing a differentiated product, especially regarding unique sweetness, flavor, and aroma. However, information about the volatile fraction in honey produced by stingless native bees is still lacking. The aim of this work was to characterize the volatile compound profile of monofloral honey produced by jandaíra bees (Melipona subnitida Ducke) which used chanana (Turnera ulmifolia L.), malícia (Mimosa quadrivalvis) and algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC) as their floral sources; and by uruçu bees (Melipona scutellaris Latrelle), which used chanana (Turnera ulmifolia L.), malícia (Mimosa quadrivalvis) and angico (Anadenanthera colubrina) as their floral sources. The volatiles were extracted using HS-SPME-GC-MS technique. The condition for the extraction was: equilibration time of 15 minutes, extraction time of 45 min and extraction temperature of 45°C. Through the results obtained, it was observed that the floral source had a strong influence on the aroma profile of the honey under evaluation, since the chemical profiles were marked primarily by the classes of terpenes, norisoprenoids, and benzene derivatives. Furthermore, the results obtained suggest the existence of differentiator compounds and potential markers for the botanical sources evaluated, such as linalool, D-sylvestrene, rose oxide and benzenethanol. These reports represent a valuable contribution to certifying the authenticity of those honey and provides for the first time, information intended for the construction of chemical knowledge of the aroma and flavor that characterize these honey produced in Brazil.

Keywords: honey, Aroma, semiarid, stingless, volatiles

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2 Investigating Potential Pest Management Strategies for Citrus Gall Wasp in Australia

Authors: M. Yazdani, J. F. Carragher

Abstract:

Citrus gall wasp (CGW), Bruchophagus fellis (Hym: Eurytomidae), is an Australian native insect pest. CGW has now become a problem of national concern, threatening the viability of the entire Australian citrus industry. However, CGW appears to exhibit a preference for certain citrus species; growers report that grapefruit and lemons are most severely infested, with oranges and mandarins affected to a lesser extent. Given the specificity of the host plant-insect interactions, it is speculated that plant volatiles may play a significant role in host recognition. To address whether plant volatiles is involved in host plant preference by CGW we tested the behavioral response of CGW to plants in a wind tunnel. The result showed that CGW had significantly higher preference to grapefruit and lemon than other cultivars and the least preference was recorded to mandarin (Chi-square test, P<0.001). Because CGW exhibited a detectable choice further studies were undertaken to identify the components of the volatiles from each species. We trapped the volatile chemicals emitted by a 30 cm tip of each plant onto a solid Porapak matrix. Eluted extracts were then analysed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) and the presumptive identity of the major compounds from each species inferred from the MS library. Although the same major compounds existed in all of the cultivars, the relative ratios of them differed between species. Next, we will validate the identity of the key volatiles using authentic standards and establish their ability to elicit olfactory responses in CGW in wind tunnel and field experiments. Identification of semiochemicals involved in host location by CGW is of interest not only from an ecological perspective but also for the development of novel pest control strategies.

Keywords: IPM, semiochemicals, volatiles, Citrus gall wasp, Bruchophagus fellis

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1 Functional Characteristics of Chemosensory Proteins in the Sawyer Beetle Monochamus alternatus Hope

Authors: Saqib Ali, Man-Qun Wang

Abstract:

The Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is a major pest of pines and it is also the key vector of the exotic pinewood nematode in China. In the present study, we cloned, expressed, and purified a chemosensory protein (CSP) in M. alternatus. We surveyed its expression in various developmental stages of male and female adult tissues and determined its binding affinities for different pine volatiles using a competitive binding fluorescence assay. A CSP known as CSP5 in M. alternatus was obtained from an antennal cDNA library and expressed in Escherichia coli. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction results indicated that the CSP5 gene was mainly expressed in male and female antennae. Competitive binding assays were performed to test the binding affinity of recombinant CSP5 to 13 odour molecules of pine volatiles. The results showed that CSP5 showed very strong binding abilities to myrcene, (+)-β-pinene, and (−)-isolongifolene, whereas the volatiles 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, p-cymene, and (+)-limonene oxide have relatively weak binding affinity at pH 5.0. Three volatiles myrcene, (+)-β-pinene, and (−)-isolongifolene may play crucial roles in CSP5 binding with ligands, but this needs further study for confirmation. The sensitivity of insect to host plant volatiles can effectively be used to control and monitor the population through mass trapping as part of integrated pest management programs.

Keywords: qPCR, volatiles, olfactory-specific protein, competitive binding assay, expression characteristics

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