Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

vitamin D Related Abstracts

26 Effects of Egg Yolk Peptide on the Retardation of Bone Growth Induced by Low-Calcium Diets

Authors: Hye Kyung Kim, Myung-Gyou Kim, Kang-Hyun Leem


Eggs have long been an important contributor to the nutritional quality of the human, and recognized as a very valuable source of proteins for human nutrition. Egg yolk is composed of various important chemical substances for human health. Growth means not only the increase of body weight but also the elongation of height and the enlargement of each organ's anatomical and morphological size. A calcium shortage causes the growth retardation on the body growth. In this study, we examined the therapeutic effects of egg yolk peptide (EYP) on the retardation of the longitudinal bone growth induced by low-calcium diet (0.05%) in adolescent rats. Low calcium diets were administrated for 15 days. During the last five days, calcium and/or vitamin D and/or EYP were administrated. The body weights, longitudinal bone growth rates, the heights of growth plates, and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 expressions were measured using histochemical analysis. Low calcium diets caused the significant reduction in body weight gains and the longitudinal bone growth. The heights of growth plates and the expressions of BMP-2 and IGF-1 showed the impairment of body growth as well. Calcium and/or vitamin D administration could not significantly increase the longitudinal bone growth. However, calcium, vitamin D, and EYP administration significantly increased the bone growth, the growth plate height, and BMP-2 and IGF-1 expressions. These results suggest that EYP enhances the longitudinal bone growth in the calcium and/or vitamin D deficiency and it could be a promising agent for the treatment of children suffering from malnutrition.

Keywords: egg yolk peptide, low-calcium diet, longitudinal bone growth, morphogenetic protein-2, insulin-like growth factor-1, vitamin D

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25 Vitamin D Deficiency is Associated with Increases IgE Receptors in Children with Asthma

Authors: R. Hemalatha, A. Vijayendra Chary


Background: Vitamin D is a potent modulator of the immune system and is involved in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to increased severity of asthma in children. Asthma has dramatically increased in past decades, particular in developing countries and affects up to 20% of the population. IgE and its receptors, CD23 (FcεRII) and CD 21, play an essential role in all allergic conditions. Methods: A case control study was conducted on asthma and age and sex matched control children. 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 was quantified by HPLC; CD23; and CD21 expression on B cells were performed by flow cytometry. Total Histamine, total IGE and IL-5 and IFN-γ cytokines were determined by ELISA in blood samples of bronchial asthma (n=45) and control children (n=45). Results: The mean ± SE of vitamin D was significantly (p<0.05) low in asthma children (13.6±0.54 ng/mL) than in controls (17.4 ± 0.37 ng/mL). The mean (%) ± SE of CD23 and CD21 expression on B cells were significantly (p<0.01) high in asthma (1.02±0.09; 1.67± 0.13), when compared to controls (0.24±0.01; 0.94±0.03) respectively. The mean± SE of Serum IgE and blood histamine levels in asthma children (354.52 ± 17.33 IU/mL; 53.27 ± 2.54 nM/mL) were increased (P<0.05) when compared to controls (183.12±17.62 IU/mL 39.34±4.16 nM/mL) respectively and IFN-γ (Th1 cytokine) was lower (P<0.01) (16.37±1.27 pg/mL) than in controls (43.34±6.21 pg/mL). Conclusion: Our study provides evidence that low vitamin D levels are associated with increased IgE receptors CD23 and CD21 on B cells. In addition, there was preferential activation of Th2 (IL-5) and suppression of Th1 (IFN-γ) cytokines in children with asthma.

Keywords: IgE, vitamin D, bronchial asthma, CD23

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24 Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Korean Breast Cancer Patients

Authors: Sung Yong Kim, Byung Joo Song


Background: Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels has been considered to be inversely related to breast cancer development, recurrence risk, and mortality. Mean vitamin D levels in Korean population is lower than western countries due to higher incidence of lactose intolerance and lower exposure to sunlight. The purpose of this study was to assess incidence of 25(OH)D deficiency at diagnosis and after adjuvant chemotherapy and to investigate the correlation serum 25(OH)D levels with clinicopathologic features. Methods: From December 2011 to October 2012, 280 breast cancer patients seen at a single tertiary cancer center were enrolled. Serum 25(OH)D was measured at the time of surgery and after completion of adjuvant chemotherapy. Statistical analyses used chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, t-test, and ANOVA. Results: Mean serum 25(OH)D was 18.5 ng/ml. The 25(OH)D levels were deficient (<20 ng/ml) in 190 patients (67.9%), insufficient (20-29 ng/ml) in 51 patients(18.2%), and sufficient (30-150 ng/ml) in 39 patients(13.9%). A notable decrease in 25(OH)D concentration was observed(p<0.001) after chemotherapy but was not related to chemotherapy regimens. It was found significant lower 25(OH)D levels at winter season(from October to March, p=0.030). Subjects with invasive carcinoma (IDC or ILC) had significantly lower circulating levels of 25(OH)D than those with ductal carcinoma in situ(DCIS) (p=0.010). Patients with larger tumor size tends to have lower serum 25(OH)D but there were no statistical significance. Conclusions: Most of the breast cancer patients showed deficient or insufficient serum 25(OH)D concentration. Incidence of vitamin D deficiency was higher in invasive carcinoma than DCIS. Serum 25(OH)D levels were decreased after chemotherapy. Consideration should be given to the supplement of vitamin D to those patients.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, vitamin D, breast neoplasms, Korean population

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23 Vitamin D Intoxication with Hypercalcemia Due to Overuse of Supplement

Authors: Sara Ataei, Mohammad Bagher Oghazian, Mania Radfar


We describe a patient with hypercalcemia associated with the injection of high doses vitamin D as supplement for a period of six months. A 76-year-old woman had been taking an intramuscular injection of vitamin D 300,000 IU every ten days for six months. She was hospitalized with symptoms of hypercalcemia: chronic constipation, unstable gait, a chronic generalized musculoskeletal pain and increased fatigue. On admission her 25 (OH) vitamin D and Calcium levels were 559 nmol/L and 13.85 mg/dL respectively, and Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) level was 7.1 pg/mL. Immediately she received diuresis therapy with saline and furosemide in conjunction with calcitonin and pamidronate. At discharge her serum calcium level was 11.5 mg/dL. To lower endogenous overproduction of calcitriol, prednisolone 20 mg/day for 10 days was administered at discharge time.

Keywords: hypercalcemia, vitamin D, vitamin D toxicity, parathyroid hormone

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22 Differences in Vitamin D Status in Caucasian and Asian Women Following Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) Exposure

Authors: O. Hakim, K. Hart, P. McCabe, J. Berry, L. E. Rhodes, N. Spyrou, A. Alfuraih, S. Lanham-New


It is known that skin pigmentation reduces the penetration of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and thus photosynthesis of 25(OH)D. However, the ethnic differences in 25(OH)D production remain to be fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the differences in vitamin D production between Asian and Caucasian postmenopausal women, in response to a defined, controlled UVB exposure. Seventeen women; nine white Caucasian (skin phototype II and III), eight South Asian women (skin phototype IV and V) participated in the study, acting as their controls. Three blood samples were taken for measurement of 25(OH)D during the run-in period (nine days, no sunbed exposure) after which all subjects underwent an identical UVR exposure protocol irrespective of skin colour (nine days, three sunbed sessions: 6, 8 and 8 minutes respectively with approximately 80% of body surface exposed). Skin tone was measured four times during the study. Both groups showed a gradual increase in 25(OH)D with final levels significantly higher than baseline (p<0.01). 25(OH)D concentration mean from a baseline of 43.58±19.65 to 57.80±17.11 nmol/l among Caucasian and from 27.03±23.92 to 44.73±17.74 nmol/l among Asian women. The baseline status of vitamin D was classified as deficient among the Asian women and insufficient among the Caucasian women. The percentage increase in vitamin D3 among Caucasians was 39.86% (21.02) and 207.78% (286.02) in Asian subjects respectively. This greater response to UVR exposure reflects the lower baseline levels of the Asian subjects. The mixed linear model analysis identified a significant effect of duration of UVR exposure on the production of 25(OH)D. However, the model shows no significant effect of ethnicity and skin tone on the production of 25(OH)D. These novel findings indicate that people of Asian ethnicity have the full capability to produce a similar amount of vitamin D compared to the Caucasian group; initial vitamin D concentration influences the amount of UVB needed to reach equal serum concentrations.

Keywords: Ethnicity, Ultraviolet radiation, vitamin D, Caucasian, South Asian, UVR

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21 Gender Difference in the Association between Different Components of the Metabolic Syndrome and Vitamin D Levels in Saudi Patients

Authors: Amal Baalash, Shazia Mukaddam, M. Adel El-Sayed


Background: Several studies have suggested non-skeletal effects of vitamin D and linked its deficiency with features of many chronic conditions. In this study, We aimed to investigate the relationship between vitamin D levels and different components of the metabolic syndrome in male and female Saudi patients. Methods: the study population consisted of 111 patients with metabolic syndrome (71 females and 40 males) aged 37-63 years enrolled from patients attending the internal medicine outpatient clinics of King Fahad Medical City. The parameters for diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) were measured, which included waist circumference, TG, HDL-C, Blood pressure and fasting blood glucose (FBS). The association between each parameter and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) was studied in both male and female patients separately. Results: in male patients, 25(OH) D levels were inversely associated with FBS and TG and positively associated with HDL-C and diastolic blood pressure, With highest association with the HDL-C levels. On the other hand 25(OH) D, Showed no significant association with any of the measured metabolic syndrome parameters in female patients. Conclusion: in Saudi patients with metabolic syndrome, the association between the parameters of metabolic syndrome and the levels of 25 (OH) D is more pronounced in males rather than females.

Keywords: Gender, metabolic syndrome, vitamin D, Saudi patients

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20 Vitamin D Status in Tunisian Obese Patients

Authors: O. Berriche, R. Ben Othmen, H. Sfar, H. Abdesslam, S. Bou Meftah, S. Bhouri, F. Mahjoub, C. Amrouche, H. Jamoussi


Introduction: Although current evidence emphasizes a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and an inverse association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentration and obesity, no studies have been conducted in Tunisian obese. The objectives of our study were to estimate the vitamin D deficiency in obese, identify risk factors for vitamin D deficiency, demonstrating a possible association between vitamin D levels and metabolic parameters. Methods: This was a descriptive study of 100 obese 18-65 year-old. Anthropometric measurements were determined. Fasting blood samples were assessed for the following essays : serum calcium, 25 OH vitamin D, inorganic phosphorus, fasting glucose, HDL, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride. Insulin resistance was evaluated by fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and HOMA-ß. Consumption of foods riche in vitamin D, sunscreen use, wearing protective clothes and exposed surface were assessed through applied questionnaires. Results: The deficit of vitamin D (< 30 ng/ml) among obese was 98,8%. Half of them had a rate < 10ng/ml. Environmental factors involved in vitamin D deficiency are : the veil (p = 0,001), wearing protective clothes (p = 0,04) and the exposed surface (p = 0,011) and dietary factors are represented by the daily caloric intake (p = 0,0001). The percent of fat mass was negatively related to vitamin D levels (p = 0,01) but not with BMI (p = 0,11) or waist circumference (p = 0,88). Similarly, lipid and glucose profile had no link with vitamin D. We found no relationship between Insulin resistance and vitamin D levels. Conclusion: At the end of our study, we have identified a very important vitamin D deficiency among obese. Dosage and systematic supplementation should be applied and for that physician awareness is needed.

Keywords: Obesity, Risk Factors, vitamin D, insulinresistance

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19 Serum Vitamin D and Carboxy-Terminal TelopeptideType I Collagen Levels: As Markers for Bone Health Affection in Patients Treated with Different Antiepileptic Drugs

Authors: Moetazza M. Al-Shafei, Hala Abdel Karim, Eitedal M. Daoud, Hassan Zaki Hassuna


Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder affecting all age groups. It is one of the world's most prevalent non-communicable diseases. Increased evidence suggesting that long term usage of anti-epileptic drugs can have adverse effects on bone mineralization and bone molding .Aiming to study these effects and to give guide lines to support bone health through early intervention. From Neurology Out-Patient Clinic kaser Elaini University Hospital, 60 Patients were enrolled, 40 patients on antiepileptic drugs for at least two years and 20 controls matched with age and sex, epileptic but before starting treatment both chosen under specific criteria. Patients were divided into four groups, three groups with monotherapy treated with either Phynetoin, Valporic acid or Carbamazipine and fourth group treated with both Valporic acid and Carbamazipine. Estimation of serum Carboxy-Terminal Telopeptide of Type I- Collagen(ICTP) bone resorption marker, serum 25(OH )vit D3, calcium ,magnesium and phosphorus were done .Results showed that all patients on AED had significant low levels of 25(OH) vit D3 (p<0.001) ,with significant elevation of ICTP (P<0.05) versus controls. In group treated with Phynotoin highly significant elevation of (ICTP) marker and decrease of both serum 25(OH) vit D3 (P<0, 0001) and serum calcium(P<0.05)versus control. Double drug group showed significant decrease of serum 25(OH) vit D3 (P<0.0001) and decrease in Phosphorus (P<0.05) versus controls. Serum magnesium showed no significant differences between studied groups. We concluded that Anti- epileptic drugs appears to be an aggravating factor on bone mineralization ,so therapeutically it can be worth wile to supplement calcium and vitamin D even before initiation of antiepileptic therapy. ICTP marker can be used to evaluate change in bone resorption before and during AED therapy.

Keywords: Antiepileptic Drugs, vitamin D, bone minerals, carboxy teminal telopeptidetype-1-collagen bone resorption marker

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18 Multiple Strategies in Prevention of Metabolic Syndrome Result from Vitamin D Deficiency in Children

Authors: Maryam Ghavam Sadri, Maryam Shahrooz


Background: Nowadays the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (Mets) has taken on a growing trend. Studies have shown the relationship between vitamin D deficiency (VDD) status and Mets in children. Also studies have recorded that exerting strategies for vitamin D status improvement can help prevent Mets in children. This study investigated multiple strategies of prevention of Mets resulting from VDD in children. Methods: This review study has been done by using keywords related to the topic and 54 articles were found (2000-2015) that 25 were selected according to the indicators of Mets, supplementation and fortification of foods with vitamin D and attention to children environment and life style. Results: Studies have suggested the correlation between serum levels of vitamin D with waist circumference (p < 0.0001), systolic blood pressure (p=0.01), HOMA-IR (p=0.001) and HDL cholesterol (p < 0.0001). An inverse correlation between serum 25 (OH) D and HOMA-IR (p = 0.006) and insulin (P = 0.002) has been proved in overweight group. Higher HOMASDS and triglycerides found in vitamin D deficient obese children compared to control group without VDD (p=0.04). After supplementation with vitamin D, serum TG concentration decreases significantly (p=0.04), and improves insulin resistance (p=0.02). The prevalence of VDD is associated with time of watching TV (P < 0.01), hours of physical activity per week (P = 0.01), skipping breakfast (P < 0.001) soda intake (P < 0.001), and milk intake per day (P < 0.01). Conclusion: According to the beneficial role of vitamin D in prevention of Mets and proven relationship between serum levels of vitamin D and Mets indicators, we can prevent childhood Mets through the application of appropriate strategies such as supplementation and food fortification with vitamin D and positive changes in children life style with especial attention to physical activity in exposure of sunlight and their environment condition.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, Children, vitamin D, prevention strategies

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17 Genetic Polymorphism in the Vitamin D Receptor Gene and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Serum Levels in East Indian Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Authors: Dipanshu Sur, Ratnabali Chakravorty


Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common metabolic abnormality such as changes in lipid profile, diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome occurring in young women of reproductive age. Low vitamin D levels were found to be associated with the development of obesity and insulin resistance in women with PCOS. Variants on vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have also been related to metabolic comorbidities in general population. Aim: The aim of this case-control study was to investigate whether the VDR gene polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to PCOS. Methods: Women with PCOS and a control group, all aged 16-40 years, were enrolled. Genotyping of VDR Fok-I (rs2228570), VDR Apa-I (rs7975232) as well as GC (rs2282679), DHCR7 (rs12785878) SNPs between groups were determined by using direct sequencing. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)] levels were measured by ELISA. Results: Mean serum 25(OH)D in the PCOS and control samples were 19.08±7 and 23.27±6.03 (p=0.048) which were significantly lower in PCOS patients compared with controls. CC genotype of the VDR Apa-I SNP was same frequent in PCOS (25.6%) and controls (25.6%) (OR: 0.9995; 95%CI: 0.528 to 1.8921; p= 0.9987). The CC genotype was also significantly associated with both lower E2 (p=0.031) and Androstenedione levels (p=0.062). We observed a significant association of GC polymorphism with 25(OH)D levels. PCOS women carrying the GG genotype (in GC genes) had significantly higher risk for vitamin D deficiency than women carrying the TT genotype. Conclusions: In conclusion, data from this study indicate that vitamin D levels are lower, and vitamin D deficiency more frequent, in PCOS than in controls. The present findings suggest that the Apa-I, Fok-I polymorphism of the VDR gene is associated with PCOS and seems to modulate ovarian steroid secretion. Further studies are needed to better clarify the biological mechanisms by which the polymorphism influences PCOS risk.

Keywords: Polycystic ovary syndrome, Polymorphism, vitamin D, vitamin D receptor

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16 Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Depression in Persons with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: A Cross-Sectional and Prospective Study

Authors: Kalpana Poudel-Tandukar


Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection has been frequently associated with vitamin D deficiency and depression. Vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of depression in people without HIV. We assessed the cross-sectional and prospective associations between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and depression in a HIV-positive people. Methods: A survey was conducted among 316 HIV-positive people aged 20-60 years residing in Kathmandu, Nepal for a cross-sectional association at baseline, and among 184 participants without depressive symptoms at baseline who responded to both baseline (2010) and follow-up (2011) surveys for prospective association. The competitive protein-binding assay was used to measure 25(OH)D levels and the Beck Depression Inventory-Ia method was used to measure depression, with cut off score 20 or higher. Relationships were assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis with adjustment of potential confounders. Results: The proportion of participants with 25(OH)D level of <20ng/mL, 20-30ng/mL, and >30ng/mL were 83.2%, 15.5%, and 1.3%, respectively. Only four participants with 25(OH)D level of >30ng/mL were excluded in the further analysis. The mean 25(OH)D level in men and women were 15.0ng/mL and 14.4ng/mL, respectively. Twenty six percent of participants (men:23%; women:29%) were depressed. Participants with 25(OH)D level of < 20 ng/mL had a 1.4 fold higher odds of depression in a cross-sectional and 1.3 fold higher odds of depression after 18 months of baseline compared to those with 25(OH)D level of 20-30ng/mL (p=0.40 and p=0.78, respectively). Conclusion: Vitamin D may not have significant impact against depression among HIV-positive people with 25(OH)D level below normal ( > 30ng/mL).

Keywords: HIV, Depression, Nepal, vitamin D

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15 Vitamin D and Prevention of Rickets in Children

Authors: Mousa Saleh Daoud


Rickets is a condition that affects the development of bones in children. It causes soft bones, which can become bowed or curved, this bending and curvature is evident in the age of Walking. The most common cause of rickets is dietary deficiency of vitamin D or Lack of exposure to sunlight or both together. The link between vitamin D and rickets has been known for many years and is well understood by doctors and scientists. If a child does not get enough of the vitamin D, the bones cannot form hard outer shells. This is why they become soft and weak. This study was conducted on children who reviewed by our medical clinic between the years 2011-2013. The study included 400 children, aged between one and six years. 11 children had clear clinical manifestations of rickets of varying degrees and all of them due to lack of vitamin D except for one case of rickets resistant to vitamin D. 389 cases ranged between natural and deficiency in vitamin D without clinical manifestations of Rickets.

Keywords: Child, vitamin D, rickts, bone metabolic diseases

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14 Study on the Effect of Vitamin D on the Biochemical Parameters in Cyprinus carpio

Authors: Mojdeh Chelemal Dezfoul Nejad, Mehrzad Mesbah, Ali Mohammadzadeh Shobeagar


This study was conducted in order to characterize the different levels of dietary vitamin D on some of biochemical parameters of Cyprinus carpio. For this purpose, 180 pieces of Cyprinus carpio with an average weight of 20-25 grams were divided into four treatments and each treatment was divided into three replications and treatments were fed at three different doses (1000 IU, 3000 IU, 5000 IU) of vitamin D for 60 days. The fish were fed 3% of their wet b.wt. per day for a 60 days period. Blood samples were obtained from six fish of each tank at the end of experiment. Based on the results significant difference was observed on the mean amount of total protein, urea, glucose and cholesterol between treatments (p < 0.05). But, there was no significant difference in the mean amount of triglyceride and albumin with the different diets designed for this experiment (p > 0.05).

Keywords: Cyprinus carpio, Glucose, biochemical parameters, vitamin D

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13 Calcitriol Improves Plasma Lipoprotein Profile by Decreasing Plasma Total Cholesterol and Triglyceride in Hypercholesterolemic Golden Syrian Hamsters

Authors: Zhen-Yu Chen, Xiaobo Wang


Higher plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are independent risk factors of cardiovascular disease while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is protective. Vitamin D is well-known for its regulatory role in calcium homeostasis. Its potential important role in cardiovascular disease has recently attracted much attention. This study was conducted to investigate effects of different dosage of calcitriol on plasma lipoprotein profile and the underlying mechanism. Sixty male Syrian Golden hamsters were randomly divided into 6 groups: no-cholesterol control (NCD), high-cholesterol control (HCD), groups with calcitriol supplementation at 10/20/40/80ng/kg body weight (CA, CB, CC, CD), respectively. Calcitriol in medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) oil was delivered to four experimental groups via oral gavage every other day, while NCD and HCD received MCT oil in the equivalent amount. NCD hamsters were fed with non-cholesterol diet while other five groups were maintained on diet containing 0.2% cholesterol to induce a hypercholesterolemic condition. The treatment lasts for 6 weeks followed by sample collection after hamsters sacrificed. Four experimental groups experienced a reduction in average food intake around 11% compared to HCD with slight decrease in body weight (not exceeding 10%). This reduction reflects on the deceased relative weights of testis, epididymal and perirenal adipose tissue in a dose-dependent manner. Plasma calcitriol levels were measured and was corresponding to oral gavage. At the end of week 6, lipoprotein profiles were improved with calcitriol supplementation with TC, non-HDL-C and plasma triglyceride (TG) decreased in a dose-dependent manner (TC: r=0.373, p=0.009, non-HDL-C: r=0.479, p=0.001, TG: r=0.405, p=0.004). Since HDL-C of four experiment groups showed no significant difference compared to HCD, the ratio of nHDL-C to HDL-C and HDL-C to TC had been restored in a dose-dependent manner. For hamsters receiving the highest level of calcitriol (80ng/kg) showed a reduction of TC by 11.5%, nHDL-C by 24.1% and TG by 31.25%. Little difference was found among six groups on the acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation or contraction of thoracic aorta. To summarize, calcitriol supplementation in hamster at maximum 80ng/kg body weight for 6 weeks lead to an overall improvement in plasma lipoprotein profile with decreased TC and TG level. The molecular mechanism of its effects is under investigation.

Keywords: cholesterol, vitamin D, calcitriol, hamster

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12 Associations of Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms with Coronary Artery Diseases

Authors: Elham Sharif, Nasser Rizk, Sirin Abu Aqel, Ofelia Masoud


Background: Previous studies have investigated the association of rs1544410, rs7975232 and rs731236 polymorphisms in vitamin D receptor gene and its impact on diseases such as cancer, diabetes and hypertension in different ethnic backgrounds. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between VDR polymorphisms using three SNP’s (rs1544410, rs7975232 and rs731236) and the severity of the significant lesion in coronary arteries among angiographically diagnosed CAD. Methods: A prospective-retrospective study was conducted on 192 CAD patients enrolled from the cardiology department-Heart Hospital HMC, grouped in 96 subjects with significant stenosis and 96 with non-significant stenosis with a mean age between 30 and 75 years old. Genotyping was performed for the following SNPs rs1544410, rs7975232 and rs731236 using TaqMan assay by the Real Time PCR, ABI 7500 in Health Sciences Labs at Qatar University Biomedical Research Center. Results: The results showed that both groups have matched age and gender distribution but patients with the significant stenosis have significantly higher; BMI (p=0.047); smoking status (p=0.039); FBS (p= 0.031); CK-MB (p=0.025) and Troponin (p=0.002) than the patients with non–significant lesion. Among the traditional risk factors, smoking increases the odds of the severe stenotic lesion in CAD patients by 1.984, with 95% CI between 1.024 – 7.063, with p= 0.042.HWE showed deviations of the rs1544410 and rs731236 among the study subjects. The most frequent genotype in distribution of rs7975232 is the AA among the significant stenosis patients, while the heterozygous AC was the frequent genotype in distribution among the non-significant stenosis group. The carriers of CC genotype in rs7975232 increased the risk of having significant coronary arteries stenotic lesion by 1.83 with 95% CI (1.020 – 3.280), p=0.043. No association was found between the rs7975232 with vitamin D and VDBP. Conclusion: There is a significant association between rs7975232 and the severity of CAD lesion. The carrier of CC genotype in rs7975232 increased the risk of having significant coronary arteries atherosclerotic lesion especially in patients with smoking history independent of vitamin D.

Keywords: Polymorphism, vitamin D, vitamin D receptor, coronary harat disease

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11 Comparison Serum Vitamin D by Geographic between the Highland and Lowland Schizophrenic Patient in the Sumatera Utara

Authors: Elmeida Effendy, Novita Linda Akbar, Mustafa M. Amin


Background: The most common of psychotic disorders is schizophrenia. Vitamin D is made from sunlight, and in the skin from UVB radiation from sunlight. If people with Vitamin D deficiency is common severe mental illness such as schizophrenia.Schizophrenia is a chronic mental illness characterised by positive symptoms and negatives symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions, flat affect and lack of motivation we can found. In patients with Schizophrenia maybe have several environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, such as season of birth, latitude, and climate has been linked to vitamin D deficiency. There is also relationship between the risk of schizophrenia and latitude, and with an increased incidence rate of schizophrenia seen at a higher latitude. Methods: This study was an analytical study, conducted in BLUD RS Jiwa Propinsi Sumatera Utara and RSUD Deli Serdang, the period in May 2016 and ended in June 2016 with a sample of the study 60 sample (20 patients live in the Highland and Lowland, 20 healthy controls). Inclusion criteria were schizophrenic patients both men and women, aged between 18 to 60 years old, acute phase no agitation or abstinence antipsychotic drugs for two weeks, live in the Highland and Lowland, and willing to participate this study. Exclusion criteria were history of other psychotic disorders, comorbidities with other common medical condition, a history of substance abuse. Sample inspection for serum vitamin D using ELFA method. Statistical analysis using numeric comparative T-independent test. Results: The results showed that average levels of vitamin D for a group of subjects living in areas of high land was 227.6 ng / mL with a standard deviation of 86.78 ng / mL, the lowest levels of vitamin D is 138 ng / mL and the highest 482 ng / mL. In the group of subjects who settled in the low lands seem mean vitamin D levels higher than the mountainous area with an average 237.8 ng / mL with a standard deviation of 100.16 ng / mL. Vitamin D levels are lowest and the highest 138-585 ng / mL. Conclusion and Suggestion: The results of the analysis using the Mann Whitney test showed that there were no significant differences between the mean for the levels of vitamin D based on residence subject with a value of p = 0.652.

Keywords: Schizophrenia, Latitude, vitamin D, Sumatera Utara

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10 The Effect of Vitamin D Deficiency on Endothelial Function in Atherosclerosis Patients Living in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Wedad Azhar


Vitamin D is an essential fat-soluble vitamin that is required for the maintenance of good health. It is obtained either through exposure to sunlight (ultraviolet B radiation) or through dietary sources. The role of vitamin D is beyond bone health. Indeed, it plays a critical role in the immune system and a broad range of organ functions such as the cardiovascular system. Moreover, vitamin D plays a critical role in the endothelial function, which is one of the main indicators of atherosclerosis. This study is investigating the correlation between vitamin D status and endothelial function in preventing and treating atherosclerosis especially in country that has ample of sunshine but yet, Saudis from suffering from this issue vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency. Ninety participants from both genders and aged 40 to 60will be involved. The participants will be categorised into three groups: the control group will be healthy persons, patients at risk of developing atherosclerosis, patients formally diagnosed atherosclerosis. Half of the participants in each group should already have been taking vitamin D supplementations. Fasting blood samples will be taken from the participants for biochemical assays. Endothelial function will be assist by flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery. Participants will be asked to complete a questionnaire on their social and economic status, education level, daily exposure to sunlight, smoking status, consumption of supplements and medication, and a food frequency of vitamin D intake. The data will be analysed using SPSS.

Keywords: Nutrition, Atherosclerosis, endothelial function, vitamin D

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9 Vitamin D Status in Relation to Body Mass Index: Population of Carpathian Region

Authors: Vladyslav Povoroznyuk, Ivan Pankiv


The present research has attempted to link a higher body weight with a lower vitamin D status. Objective: Vitamin D status of Carpathian region population in Ukraine was studied to examine whether serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] are associated with body mass index (BMI). Methods: Data collected from 302 adults (18–84 years) were analyzed. Variables measured included serum 25(OH)D, weight and height used to determine BMI status. Results: Mean 25(OH)D level was 23.2 ± 8.1 ng/mL for the group; 26.3 ± 8.4 ng/mL and 22.8 ± 9.1 ng/mL for males and females, respectively. Based on BMI, 3.6% were underweight, 21.2% had a normal weight, 46.4% were overweight and 28.8% obese. Only in 28 cases (9.3%), content of 25(ОН)D in the serum of blood was within the normal limits, and there were vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency observed in other cases (90.7%). Thus, severe vitamin D deficiency was revealed in 1.7% of the inspected. A significant interrelation between levels of 25(OH)D in blood and BMI was found among persons with BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2. Mean value of 25(OH)D levels among persons with obesity did not differ to a significant extent from indexes in persons with normal body weight. Conclusion: Status of vitamin D among the population of Carpathian region remains far from optimal and requires urgent measures in correction and prevention. Results confirmed a poor inverse relationship between vitamin D status and BMI. Intercommunication between maintenance of vitamin D and BMI requires further investigations.

Keywords: Obesity, body mass index, vitamin D, Carpathian region

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8 Protective Effect of Vitamin D on Cardiac Apoptosis in Obese Rats

Authors: Kadeejah Alsolami, Zainab Alrefay, Husaam Awad


Obesity and vitamin D deficiency have both been related to cardiovascular disease. The present work aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of vitamin D on cardiac apoptosis in a rat model of dietary-induced obesity. Methods: 30 male Wistar rats included in this study. They were allocated into 4 groups: Control (n=5), animal were fed standard diet for 3 months: Control + vitamin D (VD) (n=5),animals were fed a standard diet with 400IU VD/kg for 3 months: hypercaloric diets group (n=10), animals were fed a high fat diet for 3 months: hypercaloric diet with VD group (n=10), animals were fed a high fat diet with 400IU VD/kg for 3 months. At the beginning of the experiment, the weight and length were measured to assess body mass index (BMI) and repeated every 45 days. Food intake and body weight were monitored throughout the study period. Then rats were sacrificed and heart tissues collected for Quantitative Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). qRT-PCR used to detect different genetic markers of apoptosis (anti-apoptotic gene (BCL2), a pro-apoptotic gene(BAX), pro-apoptotic genes (FAS, FAS-L), tumour necrosis factor (TNF), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). Results: FAS and FAS-L gene expression were significantly upregulated in rats fed with high fat diet. And FAS-L gene expression was significantly upregulated in all groups on comparison with control. Whereas Bax gene expression was significantly downregulated in rats fed with high-fat diet supplied with vitamin D. TNF was significantly upregulated in rats fed with high-fat diet treated with vitamin D. MAPK was significantly upregulated in rats fed with high fat diet group, and in rats fed with high-fat diet supplied with vitamin D. Conclusion: The cardiac apoptotic pathways were more activated in rats fed with high-fat than lean rats. And vitamin D protect the heart from the cardiac mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway.

Keywords: Obesity, apoptosis, heart, vitamin D

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7 Application of Host Factors as Biomarker in Early Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Authors: S. K. Sharma, Archana Singh, Ambrish Tiwari, Sudhasini Panda, Kalpana Luthra


Introduction: On the basis of available literature we know that various host factors play a role in outcome of Tuberculosis (TB) infection by modulating innate immunity. One such factor is Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase enzyme (iNOS) which help in the production of Nitric Oxide (NO), an antimicrobial agent. Expression of iNOS is in control of various host factors in which Vitamin D along with its nuclear receptor Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is one of them. Vitamin D along with its receptor also produces cathelicidin (antimicrobicidal agent). With this background, we attempted to investigate the levels of Vitamin D and NO along with their associated molecules in tuberculosis patients and household contacts as compared to healthy controls and assess the implication of these findings in susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB). Study subjects and methods: 100 active TB patients, 75 household contacts, and 70 healthy controls were taken. VDR and iNOS mRNA levels were studied using real-time PCR. Serum VDR, cathelicidin, iNOS levels were measured using ELISA. Serum Vitamin D levels were measured in serum samples using chemiluminescence based immunoassay. NO was measured using colorimetry based kit. Results: VDR and iNOS mRNA levels were found to be lower in active TB group compared to household contacts and healthy controls (P=0.0001 and 0.005 respectively). The serum levels of Vitamin D were also found to be lower in active TB group as compared to healthy controls (P =0.001). Levels of cathelicidin and NO was higher in patient group as compared to other groups (p=0.01 and 0.5 respectively). However, the expression of VDR and iNOS and levels of vitamin D was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in household contacts compared to both active TB and healthy control groups. Inference: Higher levels of Vitamin D along with VDR and iNOS expression in household contacts as compared to patients suggest that vitamin D might have a protective role against TB which prevents activation of the disease. From our data, we can conclude that decreased vitamin D levels could be implicated in disease progression and we can use cathelicidin and NO as a biomarker for early diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.

Keywords: Tuberculosis, vitamin D, VDR, iNOS

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6 Evaluation of Vitamin D Levels in Obese and Morbid Obese Children

Authors: Orkide Donma, Mustafa M. Donma


Obesity may lead to growing serious health problems throughout the world. Vitamin D appears to play a role in cardiovascular and metabolic health. Vitamin D deficiency may add to derangements in human metabolic systems, particularly those of children. Childhood obesity is associated with an increased risk of chronic and sophisticated diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate associations as well as possible differences related to parameters affected by obesity and their relations with vitamin D status in obese (OB) and morbid obese (MO) children. This study included a total of 78 children. Of them, 41 and 37 were OB and MO, respectively. WHO BMI-for age percentiles were used for the classification of obesity. The values above 99 percentile were defined as MO. Those between 95 and 99 percentiles were included into OB group. Anthropometric measurements were recorded. Basal metabolic rates (BMRs) were measured. Vitamin D status is determined by the measurement of 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol [25- hydroxyvitamin D3, 25(OH)D] using high-performance liquid chromatography. Vitamin D status was evaluated as deficient, insufficient and sufficient. Values < 20.0 ng/ml, values between 20-30 ng/ml and values > 30.0 ng/ml were defined as vitamin D deficient, insufficient and sufficient, respectively. Optimal 25(OH)D level was defined as ≥ 30 ng/ml. SPSSx statistical package program was used for the evaluation of the data. The statistical significance degree was accepted as p < 0.05. Mean ages did not differ between the groups. Significantly increased body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (C) and neck C as well as significantly decreased fasting blood glucose (FBG) and vitamin D values were observed in MO group (p < 0.05). In OB group, 37.5% of the children were vitamin D deficient, and in MO group the corresponding value was 53.6%. No difference between the groups in terms of lipid profile, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and insulin values was noted. There was a severe statistical significance between FBG values of the groups (p < 0.001). Important correlations between BMI, waist C, hip C, neck C and both SBP as well as DBP were found in OB group. In MO group, correlations only with SBP were obtained. In a similar manner, in OB group, correlations were detected between SBP-BMR and DBP-BMR. However, in MO children, BMR correlated only with SBP. The associations of vitamin D with anthropometric indices as well as some lipid parameters were defined. In OB group BMI, waist C, hip C and triglycerides (TRG) were negatively correlated with vitamin D concentrations whereas none of them were detected in MO group. Vitamin D deficiency may contribute to the complications associated with childhood obesity. Loss of correlations between obesity indices-DBP, vitamin D-TRG, as well as relatively lower FBG values, observed in MO group point out that the emergence of MetS components starts during obesity state just before the transition to morbid obesity. Aside from its deficiency state, associations of vitamin D with anthropometric measurements, blood pressures and TRG should also be evaluated before the development of morbid obesity.

Keywords: Obesity, Children, vitamin D, morbid obesity

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5 Obesity-Associated Vitamin D Insufficiency Among Women

Authors: Archana Surendran, Kalpana C. A.


Vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent in women. Vitamin D bioavailability could be reduced in obesity due to increased sequestration by white adipose tissue. Increased sun exposure due to more frequent outdoor physical activity as well as a diet rich in vitamin D could be the common cause of both higher levels of 25(OH)D and a more favorable lipid profile. The study was conducted with the aim to assess the obesity status among selected working women in Coimbatore, determine their lifestyle and physical activity pattern, study their dietary intake, estimate the vitamin D and lipid profile of selected women and associate the relationship between Vitamin D and obesity among the selected women. A total of 100 working women (non pregnant, non lactating) working in IT sector, hotels and teaching staff were selected for the study. Anthropometric measurements and dietary recall were conducted for all. The women were further categorized as obese and non-obese based on their BMI. Fifteen obese and 15 non-obese women were selected and their fasting blood glucose level, serum Vitamin D and lipid profile were measured. Association between serum vitamin D, lipid profile, anthropometric measurements, food intake and sun exposure was correlated. Fifty six percent of women in the age group between 25-39 years and 44 percent of women in the age group between 40-45 years were obese. Waist and hip circumference of women in the age group between 40-45 years (89.7 and 107.4 cm) were higher than that of obese women in the age group between 25-39 years (88.6 and 102.8 cm). There were no women with sufficient vitamin D levels. In the age group between 40-45 years (obese women), serum Vitamin D was inversely proportional to waist-hip ratio and LDL cholesterol. There was an inverse relationship between body fat percentage and Total cholesterol with serum vitamin D among the women of the age group between 25-39 years. Consumption of milk and milk products were low among women. Intake of calcium was deficit among the women in both the age groups and showed a negative correlation. Sun exposure was less for all the women. Findings from the study revealed that obese women with a higher consumption of fat and less intake of calcium-rich foods have low serum Vitamin D levels than the non-obese women. Thus, it can be concluded that there is an association between Vitamin D status and obesity among adult women.

Keywords: Obesity, Women, vitamin D, sun exposure

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4 The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials

Authors: Seyed Mehdi Ahmadi, Amin Salehi-Abargouei, Simin Shahvazi, Sepideh Soltani, Russell J. De Souza


Background and Objectives: Vitamin D has received attention for its potential to disrupt cancer processes such as attenuating cell proliferation and exacerbating differentiation and apoptosis. However, whether there exists a role for vitamin D in the treatment of prostate cancer specifically remains controversial. We systematically review the literature to assess whether supplementation with vitamin D influences PSA response and overall survival in patients with prostate cancer. Methods: We searched PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science and Google scholar from inception through up to 10 September 2017 for both before-and-after and randomized trials that evaluated the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the prostate specific antigen (PSA) response rate in participants with prostate cancer. The DerSimonian and Laird, inverse-weighted random-effects model was used to pool effect estimates from the studies. Heterogeneity and potential publication bias were evaluated. Subgroup analyses were also performed. Results: Twenty-two studies (16 before-after and 6 randomized controlled trials) were found and included in meta-analysis. The analysis on controlled clinical trials revealed that PSA change from baseline [weighted mean difference (WMD) = -1.66 ng/ml, 95%CI: -0.69, 0.36, P= 0.543)], PSA response (RR=1.18, 95%CI: 0.97, 1.45, P=0.104) and mortality rate (risk ratio (RR) = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.81-1.36; P=0.713) was not significantly different between vitamin D supplementation and placebo groups. Single arm trials revealed that vitamin D supplementation had had a modest effect on PSA response rate: 19% of those enrolled had at least a 50% reduction in PSA by the end of treatment (95% CI: 7% to 31%; p=0.002). Conclusion: We found that vitamin D modestly increases the PSA response rate in single arm studies. No effect on serum PSA levels, PSA response and mortality was seen in randomized controlled clinical trials. It does not seem patients with prostate cancer benefit from vitamin D supplementation.

Keywords: Mortality, vitamin D, prostatic neoplasms, PSA response

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3 Importance of Macromineral Ratios and Products in Association with Vitamin D in Pediatric Obesity Including Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Orkide Donma, Mustafa M. Donma


Metabolisms of macrominerals, those of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, are closely associated with the metabolism of vitamin D. Particularly magnesium, the second most abundant intracellular cation, is related to biochemical and metabolic processes in the body, such as those of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. The status of each mineral was investigated in obesity to some extent. Their products and ratios may possibly give much more detailed information about the matter. The aim of this study is to investigate possible relations between each macromineral and some obesity-related parameters. This study was performed on 235 children, whose ages were between 06-18 years. Aside from anthropometric measurements, hematological analyses were performed. TANITA body composition monitor using bioelectrical impedance analysis technology was used to establish some obesity-related parameters including basal metabolic rate (BMR), total fat, mineral and muscle masses. World Health Organization body mass index (BMI) percentiles for age and sex were used to constitute the groups. The values above 99th percentile were defined as morbid obesity. Those between 95th and 99th percentiles were included into the obese group. The overweight group comprised of children whose percentiles were between 95 and 85. Children between the 85th and 15th percentiles were defined as normal. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) components (waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, triacylglycerol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure) were determined. High performance liquid chromatography was used to determine Vitamin D status by measuring 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol (25-hydroxy vitamin D3, 25(OH)D). Vitamin D values above 30.0 ng/ml were accepted as sufficient. SPSS statistical package program was used for the evaluation of data. The statistical significance degree was accepted as p < 0.05. The important points were the correlations found between vitamin D and magnesium as well as phosphorus (p < 0.05) that existed in the group with normal BMI values. These correlations were lost in the other groups. The ratio of phosphorus to magnesium was even much more highly correlated with vitamin D (p < 0.001). The negative correlation between magnesium and total fat mass (p < 0.01) was confined to the MetS group showing the inverse relationship between magnesium levels and obesity degree. In this group, calcium*magnesium product exhibited the highest correlation with total fat mass (p < 0.001) among all groups. Only in the MetS group was a negative correlation found between BMR and calcium*magnesium product (p < 0.05). In conclusion, magnesium is located at the center of attraction concerning its relationships with vitamin D, fat mass and MetS. The ratios and products derived from macrominerals including magnesium have pointed out stronger associations other than each element alone. Final considerations have shown that unique correlations of magnesium as well as calcium*magnesium product with total fat mass have drawn attention particularly in the MetS group, possibly due to the derangements in some basic elements of carbohydrate as well as lipid metabolism.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, macrominerals, pediatric obesity, vitamin D

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2 Serum 25-Dihydroxy Vitamin D3 Level Estimation and Insulin Resistance in Women of 18-40 Years Age Group with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Authors: Thakur Pushpawati, Singh Vinita, Agrawal Sarita, Mohapatra Eli


Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disease of endocrine and frequently encountered in women in their reproductive period, and it is characterized by clinical features of anovulation, clinical and biochemical features of hyperandrogenism, and PCOS morphology on ultrasonographic examination. In Indian scenario, only a few studies are available on the correlation of serum 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 level and insulin level. The present study is a prospective case-control study and aims to estimate the concentration of serum 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and insulin resistance and determine the association of serum 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 with insulin resistance in PCOS women of 18-40 years age group. In this study, the primary objective is to estimate the concentration of 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3, insulin, glycaemic status, calcium and phosphorus levels in 18-40 year age women with polycystic ovary syndrome and to compare these parameters with age and BMI matched healthy control of same age group women. The secondary objective is to determine the association between 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 concentration and insulin resistance among PCOS cases in 18-40 years age group women. This study was carried on at outpatient Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Aiims Raipur. It took one year from the date of approval. In case, 32 women were diagnosed (Diagnosed PCOS cases as per Rotterdoms criteria among women of 18-40 years of age), as control group 32 women of 18-40 years of age were diagnosed As a result, serum insulin level was elevated among PCOS women along with 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 deficiency.Conclude up, PCOS is more common in the age group of 20-40 years. There is a strong correlation between vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance among PCOS patients.

Keywords: insulin resistance, PCOS, vitamin D, reproductive age group

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1 Association of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor with Iron as well as Vitamin D, Folate and Cobalamin in Pediatric Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Orkide Donma, Mustafa M. Donma


The impact of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on cognition and functions of the brain is being investigated. Iron deficiency and deficiencies of B9 (folate) as well as B12 (cobalamin) vitamins are best-known nutritional anemias. They are associated with cognitive disorders and learning difficulties. The antidepressant effects of vitamin D are known and the deficiency state affects mental functions negatively. The aim of this study is to investigate possible correlations of MetS with serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), iron, folate, cobalamin and vitamin D in pediatric patients. 30 children, whose age- and sex-dependent body mass index (BMI) percentiles vary between 85 and 15, 60 morbid obese children with above 99th percentiles constituted the study population. Anthropometric measurements were taken. BMI values were calculated. Age- and sex-dependent BMI percentile values were obtained using the appropriate tables prepared by the World Health Organization (WHO). Obesity classification was performed according to WHO criteria. Those with MetS were evaluated according to MetS criteria. Serum BDNF was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum folate was analyzed by an immunoassay analyzer. Serum cobalamin concentrations were measured using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Vitamin D status was determined by the measurement of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25-hydroxy vitamin D3, 25(OH)D] using high performance liquid chromatography. Statistical evaluations were performed using SPSS for Windows, version 16. The p values less than 0.05 were accepted as statistically significant. Although statistically insignificant, lower folate and cobalamin values were found in MO children compared to those observed for children with normal BMI. For iron and BDNF values, no alterations were detected among the groups. Significantly decreased vitamin D concentrations were noted in MO children with MetS in comparison with those in children with normal BMI (p ≤ 0.05). The positive correlation observed between iron and BDNF in normal-BMI group was not found in two MO groups. In THE MetS group, the partial correlation among iron, BDNF, folate, cobalamin, vitamin D controlling for waist circumference and BMI was r = -0.501; p ≤ 0.05. None was calculated in MO and normal BMI groups. In conclusion, vitamin D should also be considered during the assessment of pediatric MetS. Waist circumference and BMI should collectively be evaluated during the evaluation of MetS in children. Within this context, BDNF appears to be a key biochemical parameter during the examination of obesity degree in terms of mental functions, cognition and learning capacity. The association observed between iron and BDNF in children with normal BMI was not detected in MO groups possibly due to development of inflammation and other obesity-related pathologies. It was suggested that this finding may contribute to mental function impairments commonly observed among obese children.

Keywords: Iron, vitamin D, vitamin B12, vitamin B9, brain-derived neurotrophic factor

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