Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

vitamin C Related Abstracts

21 The Antioxidant Effect of Vitamin C against Oxidative Stress Generate by Dietary Zn-Deficiency in Diabetic Rats

Authors: Zine Kechrid

Abstract:

This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant effect of vitamin C on oxidative stress induced by dietary Zn-deficiency in albino diabetic rats. Thirty two males alloxan-diabetic rats divided into two groups of 16 individuals each; the first group was fed a zinc adequate diet (54 mg zinc/kg). The second group had given low zinc diet (1 mg zinc/kg). Then, half of each group was treated with vitamin C (1 g/l) in drinking water. After four weeks, animals were sacrificed and different parameters were determined. The findings showed that dietary deficiency zinc intake significantly increased serum glucose. Zn-deficiency was also led to an increase in oxidative stress, which was indicated by an increase of MDA level and glutathione-S-transferase activity. Meanwhile it was result in a decrease of reduced glutathione (GSH) content, glutathione peroxidase GSH-Px and catalase activities in liver. However, the administration of vitamin C restored all the previous parameters approximately to their normal values. In conclusion, vitamin C probably played a key role strong as antioxidant factor against oxidative stress provoked by dietary zinc inadequate. Therefore, it might be contributed in reduction diabetes complications.

Keywords: Experimental diabetes, rats, Oxidative Stress, zinc, vitamin C

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20 Histological and Ultrastructural Study on the Effect

Authors: Olfat Mohamed Hussien Yousef

Abstract:

Tamoxifen (TM) is a synthetic non-steroidal antiestrogen. It is one of the most effective drugs for treatment of estrogen-dependent cancer by binding to estrogen receptors, suppressing of epithelial proliferation and as a chemotherapeutic agent. Recently, more attention has been paid to the protective effects of natural antioxidants against toxicities induced by anti-cancer drugs involving free radical-mediated oxidative stress and tissue injury. Vitamin C is a potent antioxidant that has the ability to scavenge factors causing free radical formation in animals receiving tamoxifen. The present study aims at pinpointing the TM-induced histopathological and ultrastructural changes in the kidneys and to assess the possible chemoprotective role of vitamin C against such TM-induced microscopic changes. Thirty adult male CD-1 mice, 25-30 g in weight and 3 months old, were divided into three groups. The first group served as control. The second group received the therapeutic dose of TM at daily oral dose of 40 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. The third group received the therapeutic dose of vitamin C at a daily dose of 500 mg/kg body weight simultaneously with the therapeutic dose of TM used in group two for 28 days. Animals were sacrificed and kidney samples were obtained and processed for histological and ultrastructural examination. Histological changes induced by TM included damage of the renal corpuscles including obliteration of the subcapsular space, congestion of the glomerular blood capillaries, segmental mesangial cell proliferation with matrix expansion, capsular adhesions with the glomerular tuft especially at the urinary pole of the corpuscles. Moreover, some proximal and distal tubules suffered various degrees of degeneration in some lining cells. Haemorrhage and inflammatory cell infiltration were also observed in the intertubular spaces. Ultrastructural observations revealed damage of the parietal epithelium of Bowman’s capsule, fusion and destruction of the foot processes of podocytes and great increase of mesangial cells and mesangial matrix. The cells of the proximal convoluted tubules displayed marked destruction of the microvilli constituting the brush borders and degeneration of the mitochondria; besides, abundant lysosomes, numerous vacuoles and pyknotic nuclei were observed. The distal convoluted tubules displayed marked distruction of both the basal infolding and the mitochondria in some areas. Histological and ultrastructural results revealed that treatment of male mice with TM simultaneously with vitamin C led to apparent repair of the injured renal tissue. This might suggest that vitamin C (an antioxidant agent) can minimize the toxic effects of TM (an antiestrogen).

Keywords: Histology, Ultrastructure, vitamin C, tamoxifen, mammalian kidney

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19 Determination of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) in Orange Juices Product

Authors: Wanida Wonsawat

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This research describes a voltammetric approach to determine amounts of vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) in orange juice sample, using three screen printed electrode. The anodic currents of vitamin C were proportional to vitamin C concentration in the range of 0 – 10.0 mM with the limit of detection of 1.36 mM. The method was successfully employed with 2 µL of the working solution dropped on the electrode surface. The proposed method was applied for the analysis of vitamin C in packed orange juice without sample purification or complexion of sample preparation step.

Keywords: Voltammetry, juice, vitamin C, ascorbic acid

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18 Study on the Effects of Different Levels of Dietary Vitamin C on Some of Biochemical Parameters of Serum in Barbuas

Authors: M. Moradi, M. Chelemal Dezfoul Nejad, M. Mesbah, M. Javaheri

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This study was conducted in order to characterize the different levels of dietary vitamin C on some of biochemical parameters of Barbus grypus. For this purpose 300 Barbus grypus were divided into 15 groups. Five levels of vitamin C (0, 200, 400, 800, 1600 mg kg-1 diet) and their combination were used to prepare five experimental diets. The fish were fed 3% of their wet b.wt. per day for a 60 days period. Blood samples were obtained from six fish of each tank at the end of experiment. The results reveal that fish fed diets containing 1600 mg kg-1 vitamin C had a significant decrease in the mean amount of cholesterol, glucose and triglyceride (p<0.05). Also, there was no significant difference in the mean amount of total protein, albumin, BuN, phosphorus, sodium and potassium between the fish fed with the different diets designed for this experiment (p>0.05).

Keywords: diet, biochemical parameters, vitamin C, Barbus grypus

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17 Effect of High Dose of Vitamin C in Reduction Serum Uric Acid: a Comparative Study between Hyperuricemic and Gouty Patients in Jeddah

Authors: Firas S. Azzeh

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Background: Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin that is necessary for normal growth and development. Hyperuricemia is commonly detected in subjects with abnormal purine metabolism. Prolonged hyperuricemia is an important risk factor for damaged joint and often associated with gout. Objectives: To compare the effect of high dose of vitamin C supplements on uric acid treatment between hyperuricemic and gouty patients in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, as well as finding out the effect of vitamin C on serum creatinine level and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Subjects and Methods: This comparative study started on April 2013 and lasted tells March 2014. A convenience sample of 30 adults was recruited in this study from Doctor Abdulrahman Taha Bakhsh Hospital in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Eligible persons were assigned into two study groups; hyperuricemic (n=15) and gouty (n=15) groups. Subjects have been accepted for participating in the study after completing the consent form. Each participant consumed 500 mg/day vitamin C chew able tablets. All participants have been followed-up for 2 months. Twelve hours fasting blood samples have been collected 3 times from each participant during the study period; at the beginning before and retested after each month of the study period. Uric acid, serum creatinine and GFR were measured. Results: For gouty group, uric acid increased insignificantly after 2 months by about +0.3 mg/dl. On the other hand, hyperuricemic group showed decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in uric acid after 2 months of study period by about -0.78 mg/dl. Serum creatinine level insignificantly decreased for all participants during the study period, which leaded to insignificant increase in GFR for all participants. Conclusion: Supplementation with 500 mg/day vitamin C for 2 months significantly reduced serum uric acid for hyperuricemic patients and insignificantly increased serum uric acid for gouty patients. The ineffectiveness of vitamin C supplements on patients with established gout could be related to a number of potential reasons.

Keywords: creatinine, vitamin C, Hyperuricemia, gout, GFR

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16 Study on the Effect of Vitamin C on the Biochemical Parameters in Barbus grypus

Authors: Mojdeh Chelemal Dezfoul Nejad, Masomeh Moradi, Mehrzad Mesbah, Mehran Javaheri Babouli

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This study was conducted in order to characterize the different levels of dietary vitamin C on some of biochemical parameters of Barbuas grypus. For this purpose 300 Barbuas grypus were divided into 15 groups. five levels of vitamin C (0, 200 ,400,800,1600 mg kg-1 diet) and their combination were used to prepare five experimental diets. The fish were fed 3% of their wet b.wt. per day for a 60 days period. Blood samples were obtained from six fish of each tank at the end of experiment. The results reveal that fish fed diets containing 1600 mg kg^-1 vitamin C had the significant decreased in the mean amount of cholesterol, glucose and triglyceride (p<0.05). Also, there was no significant difference in the mean amount of total protein with the different diets designed for this experiment (p>0.05).

Keywords: biochemical parameters, vitamin C, Barbuas, grypus

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15 Effect of Long-Term Boron Exposure on Liver Structure of Adult Male Albino Rats and a Possible Role of Vitamin C

Authors: Ola Abdel-Tawab Hussein

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Background: Boron is a naturally occurring agent and an essential trace element of human, animals and higher plants. It is released in the form of boric acid (BA) that is water soluble and biolologically available. Its largest uses are in glass, detergents, agriculture, leather tanning industries, cosmetics, photographic materials, soaps and cleaners. Human consume daily few milligrams in the water, fruits and vegetables. High doses of boron had been recorded to be developmental and reproductive toxin in animals(Only few studies on human had investigated the health effects associated with exposure to boron. Vitamin C is a major water soluble non-enzymatic antioxidant, acts to overcome the oxidative stress. Aim of the work: However , the liver is exposed to toxic substances that are absorbed, degraded or conjugated there were little information exists about the effects of boron that it would specifically have in the liver tissue of experimental rats. So the present work aimed to study the effects of long-term boron ingestion on histological structural of the liver of adult male albino rats and to evaluate the protective role of vitamin C against induced changes. Material and Methods: 30 adult male albino rats were divided into 3 equal groups; Group I: control, Group II: recieved drinking water containing 55x10-6 gm boron/liter for 90 days and Group III: recieved vitamin C (200mg/Kg.B.W) orally concomitant with boron for the same period. liver specimens were processed for light and electron microscopic(TEM) study. Results: Examination of the liver sections of group II revealed foci of severe dilatation and congestion of central and portal veins with mononuclear cellular infiltration and hepatocellular vacuolation. Increased collagen deposition specially around the portal areas. Marked electrolucent areas in the cytoplasm, heterochromatic nuclei and destroyed organelles of the hepatocytes. Apoptotic cells were observed and decreased lipid content of ito cells. In Group III the co administration of vitamin C improved most of the structural changes of the hepatocytes, Ito cells, increased binucleated cells and decreased collagen fibers deposition. Conclusion: Thus, the long term exposure to boron, induced histological changes on the structure of liver. The co administration of vitamin C improved most of these structural changes.

Keywords: rats, Liver, Boron, vitamin C

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14 Protective Effects of Vitamin C and Vitamin E on Experimentally Induced Testicular Torsion and Detorsion in Rat Model

Authors: Anu Vinod Ranade

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Aim: To evaluate and compare the effects of Vitamin C and Vitamin E on experimentally induced testicular torsion and detorsion in rats. Methods: Forty Male Wistar Albino rats were divided into five groups. Animals in the Group I underwent Sham operation, Group II consisted of animals that were subjected to torsion for three hours followed by detorsion for 24 hours without any treatment. While Group III, IV and V were orally pretreated with Vitamin C (40mg/kg.bw), vitamin E (100mg/kg.bw) and a combination of Vitamin C and vitamin E respectively for a period of 30 days. The testes of the experimental groups were manually rotated to 720° clockwise for three hours and counter rotated for 24 hours to induce ischemia and reperfusion. Sequential biopsies were performed and the testes were collected at the end of 24 hours of detrosion for morphological evaluation. Result: There was a significant decrease in the standard tubular diameter and the epithelial height of the seminiferous tubules in the untreated group when compared to Sham controls. The standard tubular diameter and seminiferous epithelial height showed near normal values when animals were pretreated with Vitamin C and Vitamin E individually or in combination. Conclusion: The results showed that pretreatment of with antioxidants vitamin E and vitamin C when administered prior to testicular torsion in rats significantly reduced the torsion and detorsion induced histopathlogical injury.

Keywords: vitamin C, vitamin E, standard tubular diameter, standard epithelial height, testicular torsion

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13 Exogenous Ascorbic Acid Increases Resistance to Salt of Carthamus tinctorius

Authors: Banu Aytül Ekmekçi

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Salinity stress has negative effects on agricultural yield throughout the world, affecting production whether it is for subsistence or economic gain. This study investigates the inductive role of vitamin C and its application mode in mitigating the detrimental effects of irrigation with diluted (10, 20 and 30 %) NaCl + water on carthamus tinctorius plants. The results show that 10% of salt water exhibited insignificant changes, while the higher levels impaired growth by reducing seed germination, dry weights of shoot and root, water status and chlorophyll contents. However, irrigation with salt water enhanced carotenoids and antioxidant enzyme activities. The detrimental effects of salt water were ameliorated by application of 100 ppm ascorbic acid (vitamin C). The inductive role of vitamin was associated with the improvement of seed germination, growth, plant water status, carotenoids, endogenous ascorbic acid and antioxidant enzyme activities. Moreover, vitamin C alone or in combination with 30% NaCl water increased the intensity of protein bands as well as synthesized additional new proteins with molecular weights of 205, 87, 84, 65 and 45 kDa. This could increase tolerance mechanisms of treated plants towards water salinity.

Keywords: enzyme, stress, Salinity, NaCl, antioxidant, vitamin C

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12 Vitamin C Supplementation Modulates Zinc Levels and Antioxidant Values in Blood and Tissues of Diabetic Rats Fed Zinc-Deficient Diet

Authors: W. Fatmi, F. Kriba, Z. Kechrid

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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin C on blood biochemical parameters, tissue zinc, and antioxidants enzymes in diabetic rats fed a zinc-deficient diet. For that purpose, Alloxan-induced diabetic rats were divided into four groups. The first group was fed a zinc-sufficient diet while the second group was fed a zinc-deficient diet. The third and fourth groups received zinc-sufficient or zinc-deficient diets plus oral vitamin C (1mg/l) for 27 days. Body weight and food intake were recorded regularly during 27 days. On day 28, animals were killed and glucose, total lipids, triglycerides, protein, urea, serum zinc , tissues zinc concentrations, liver glycogen, GSH, TBARS concentrations and serum GOT, GPT, ALP and LDH, liver GSH-Px, GST and Catalase activities were determined. Body weight gain and food intake of zinc deficient diabetic animals at the end of experimental period was significantly lower than that of zinc adequate diabetic animals. Dietary zinc intake significantly increased glucose, lipids, triglycerides, urea, and liver TBARS levels of zinc deficient diabetic rats. In contrast, serum zinc, tissues zinc, protein, liver glycogen and GSH levels were decreased. The consumption of zinc deficient diet led also to an increase in serum GOT, GPT and liver GST accompanied with a decrease in serum ALP, LDH and liver GSH-Px, CAT activities. Meanwhile, vitamin C treatment was ameliorated all the previous parameters approximately to their normal levels. Vitamin C supplementation presumably acting as an antioxidant, and it probably led to an improvement of insulin activity, which significantly reduced the severity of zinc deficiency in diabetes.

Keywords: Experimental diabetes, liver enzymes, antioxidant, vitamin C, zinc deficiency

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11 Effects of Vitamin C and Spondias mombin Supplementation on Hematology, Growth, Egg Production Traits, and Eggshell Quality in Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in a Hot-Humid Tropics

Authors: B. O. Oyebanji, I. O. Dudusola, C. T. Ademola, S. A. Olaniyan

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A 56 day study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary inclusion of Spondias mombin on hematological, growth, egg parameters and egg shell quality of Japanese quails, Cortunix cortunix japonica. One hundred birds were used for this study, and they were allocated randomly into 5 groups and replicated twice. Group 1 animals served as control without inclusion of extract, groups 2, 3, and 4 had 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg inclusion of SM, group 5 had 600 mg/kg of vitamin C respectively. The birds were weighed weekly to determine weight change, the blood parameters analyzed at the completion of the experiment were PCV, Hb, RBC WBC, differential WBC count, MCH, MCH, and MCV were afterwards calculated from these parameters. 5 eggs were collected from each group and egg weight, eggshell weight, eggshell diameter, yolk weight, albumen weight, yolk diameter, yolk height, albumen percentage, yolk percentage and shell percentage were determined. There was no significant difference among the group for the hematological parameters measured and calculated. The egg weight and albumen weight of quails on 800 mg/kg was highest of all the groups, all other egg parameters measured showed no significant difference. The birds supplemented with Vitamin C had the highest weight gain (40.8±2.5 g) and the lowest feed conversion ratio (2.25). There was no mortality recorded in all the groups except in the SM800 group with 10% mortality. It can be concluded from this experiment that Vitamin C supplementation has positive effect on quail production in humid tropics and the inclusion of Spondias mombin leaf extract has a dose-dependent toxicity in quails.

Keywords: Hematology, vitamin C, quails, Spondias mombin

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10 Vitamin C Status and Nitric Oxide in Buffalo Ovarian Follicular Fluid in Relation to Seasonal Heat Stress and Phase of Estrous Cycle

Authors: H. F. Hozyen, A. M. Abo-El Maaty

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Heat stress is a recognized problem causing huge economic losses to the buffalo breeders as well as dairy industry. The aim of the present work was to study the pattern of vitamin C and nitric oxide in follicular fluid of buffalo during different seasons of the year considering phase of estrous cycle. This study was conducted on 208 cyclic buffaloes slaughtered at Al-Qaliobia governorate, Egypt, over one year. The obtained results revealed that vitamin C in follicular fluid was significantly lower in summer than winter and spring. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) was significantly higher in summer and autumn than winter and spring. Both vitamin C and NO did not differ significantly between follicular and luteal phases. In conclusion, the present study revealed that alterations in concentrations of follicular fluid vitamin C and NO that occur in summer could be related to low summer fertility in buffalo.

Keywords: Nitric Oxide, Heat Stress, vitamin C, buffalo, follicular fluid

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9 Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) Fruit Quality: Phytochemical Attributes of Some Apricot Cultivars as Affected by Genotype and Ripening

Authors: Jamal Ayour, Mohamed Benichou

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Fruit quality is one of the main concerns of consumers, producers, and distributors. The evolution of apricot fruits undergoes a strong acceleration during maturation, and the rapidity of post-harvest evolution of the ripe fruit is particularly selective in the apricot. The objective of this study is to identify new cultivars with an interesting quality as well as a better yield allowing a more prolonged production over time. The evaluation of the fruit quality of new apricot cultivars from the Marrakech region was carried out by analyzing their physical and biochemical attributes during ripening. The results obtained clearly show a great diversity of the physicochemical attributes of the selected clones. Also, some genotypes of apricots showed contents of sugars, organic acids (vitamin C) and β carotene significantly higher than those of the most famous varieties of Morocco: Canino, Delpatriarca, and Maoui. Principal component analysis (PCA), taking into account the maturity stage and the diversity of cultivars, made it possible to define three groups with similar physicochemical attributes. The results of this study are of great use, particularly for the selection of genotypes with a better quality of fruit, both for consumption or industrial processing and with important contents of physicochemical attributes.

Keywords: Quality, Carotenoids, Acidity, Color, Sugar, apricot, vitamin C

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8 Efficacy of Vitamins A, C and E on the Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens Subjected to Heat Stress

Authors: Desierin Rodrin, Magdalena Alcantara, Cristina Olo

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The increase in environmental temperatures brought about by climate change impacts negatively the growth performance of broilers that may be solved by manipulating the diet of the animals. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different vitamin supplements on the growth performance of broiler chickens subjected to ambient (31°C) and heat stress (34°C) temperatures. The treatments were: I- Control (no vitamin supplement), II- Vitamin A (4.5 mg/kg of feed), III- Vitamin C (250 mg/kg of feed), IV- Vitamin E (250 mg/kg of feed), V- Vitamin C and E (250 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), VI- Vitamin A and E (4.5 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), VII- Vitamin A and C (4.5 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), and VIII- Vitamin A, C and E (4.5 mg/kg of feed, 250 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed). The birds (n=240) were distributed randomly into eight treatments replicated three times, with each replicates having five birds. Ambient temperature was maintained using a 25 watts bulb for every 20 birds, while heat stress condition was sustained at 34°C for about 9 hours daily by using a 50 watts bulb per 5 birds. The interaction of vitamin supplements and temperatures did not significantly (P>0.05) affected body weight, average daily gain, feed consumption and feed conversion efficiency throughout the growing period. Similarly, supplementation of different vitamins did not improve (P>0.05) the overall production performance of birds throughout the rearing period. Birds raised in heat stress (34°C) condition had significantly lower ((P<0.05) body weight, average daily gain, and feed consumption compared to birds raised in ambient temperature at weeks 3, 4 and 5 of rearing. Supplementation of vitamins A, C, and E in the diet of broilers did not alleviate the effect of heat stress in the growth performance of broilers.

Keywords: Heat Stress, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin A, vitamin supplementation, broiler growth performance

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7 Effects of Temperature and Enzyme Concentration on Quality of Pineapple and Pawpaw Blended Juice

Authors: Nneka N. Uchegbu, Ndidi F. Amulu, Patrick E. Amulu, Calistus N. Ude

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The effects of temperature and enzyme concentration on the quality of mixed pineapple and pawpaw blended fruits juice were studied. Extracts of the two fruit juices were separately treated at 70  for 15 min each so as to inactivate micro-organisms. They were analyzed and blended in different proportions of 70% pawpaw and 30% pineapple, 60% pawpaw and 40% pineapple, 50% pineapple and 50% pawpaw, 40% pawpaw and 60% pineapple. The characterization of the fresh pawpaw and pineapple juice before blending showed that the juices have good quality. The high water content of the product may have affected the viscosity, vitamin C content and total soluble solid of the blended juice to be low. The effects of the process parameters on the quality showed that better quality of the blended juice can be obtained within the optimum temperature range of (50-70 °C) and enzyme concentration range (0.12-0.18 w/v). The ratio of mix 60% pineapple juice: 40% pawpaw juice has better quality. This showed that pawpaw and pineapple juices can blend effectively to produce a quality juice.

Keywords: viscosity, vitamin C, pineapple, clarification, pawpaw

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6 Counteract Heat Stress on Broiler Chicks by Adding Anti-Heat Stress Vitamins (Vitamin C and E) with Organic Zinc

Authors: Omnia Y. Shawky, Asmaa M. Megahed, Alaa E. ElKomy, A. E. Abd-El-Hamid, Y. A. Attia

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This study was carried out to elevate the broilers physiological response against heat stress and reduce this impact by adding vitamin C (VC), vitamin E (VE) alone/or with organic zinc (Zn) to chicks’ rations. A total of 192, 26-day-old Arbor Acers male chicks were randomly divided into equal 8 groups (4 replicates for each). All experimental groups were treated as follow: Group 2 was served as a heat stress control that reared at 37ºC with relative humidity 53 ± 8% for 6 hours/day for three successive days/week and fed the basal diet only. Groups 3-8 were heat stressed in a like manner to group 2 and fed basal diet inclusion 200mg VC (group 3), 200mg VE (group 4), 200mg VC+200mg VE (group 5), 200mg VC+30mg Zn (group 6), 200mg VE+30mg Zn (group 7) and 200mg VC+200mg VE+30mg Zn (group 8) /kg feed, while Group 1 was served as a positive control that reared on a neutral temperature (NT) (approximately 21ºC) and fed the basal diet only. Respiration rate and rectal temperature were boosted of HS chicks (80.8 breath/min and 41.97ºC) compared to NT group (60.12 breath/min and 40.9ºC), while, adding VC alone and with VE or Zn resulted in decrease these measurements. Heat stress had a significantly negative effect on chicks body weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio compared to the NT group, this harmful effect could be overcome by adding VC and VE individually or with Zn. Chicks exposed to heat stress showed slightly increase hemoglobin concentration compared to NT group, while, adding VC, VE individually or with Zn alleviated this effect. Plasma glucose concentration was significantly increased in HS group than the NT group, but adding VC, VE individually or with Zn resulted in a reduction plasma glucose level, which it was still higher than the NT group. Heat stress caused an increase in plasma total lipids and cholesterol concentration compared to the NT group and inclusion VC or VE alone or with Zn was not able to reduce this effect. The increased liver enzymes activities (AST and ALT) that observed in HS group compared to NT group were removed by adding VC and VE individually or with Zn. As well, exposure of broiler chicks to heat stress resulted in a slightly decrease in plasma total antioxidant capacity level (TAC) superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes activities, while inclusion VC and VE individually or with Zn in chicks rations caused an increased in these measurements. Broiler chicks that exposed to HS revealed a significant increase in heat shock protein (Hsp 70) compared to the NT group, while, adding VC or VE individually or with Zn resulted in a significant decrease in Hsp70 than the HS group and VE alone or with VC had the greatest effect. In conclusion, it could be overcome the harmful and the negative effect of heat stress on broiler chicks’ productive performance and physiological status by inclusion VC (200mg) or VE (200mg) individual or in a combination with organic zinc (30 mg) in chicks’ rations.

Keywords: Heat Stress, broiler, vitamin C, vitamin E, organic zinc

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5 Determination of Vitamin C Red Guava (Psidium guajava Linn) Fruit Juice, with Variation of Beverage Packaging by Titrimetic Method Using 2,6- Dichlorophenol Indophenol

Authors: Novriyanti Lubis, Riska Prasetiawati, Wulan Septiani

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The quantitative analysis of vitamin C content from variations beverage packaging containing red guava (Psidium Guajava Linn) fruit juice had been done. In this study, four samples were obtained from the shopping center in Garut and Bandung City. Samples were tested quantitatively by 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol titration method. The results showed different concentration of 4 samples consist of tetra pack packaging, tin, glass, and plastic bottles, such as; 17.99 mg/100 gr, 31.46 mg/100 gr, 13.00 mg/100 gr, and 12.01 mg/100 gr, respectively. These results indicated that the packaging variations affected the level of vitamin C content which was characterized by decreased levels of vitamin C. It means the levels of vitamin C from this research were not in accordance with nutritional value information on the packaging. Tetra pack packaging was the most stable compared to other packaging even though it had a shorter expired date than with other.

Keywords: vitamin C, variations beverage packaging, red guava, titration 2

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4 Effect of Convective Dryness Combined with Osmotic Dehydration, Blanching, Microwave and Ultrasonic Treatment on Bioactive Compounds and Rehydration Capacity of Dried Plums

Authors: Elena Corina Popescu, Magda Gabriela Bratu

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Increasing interest in keeping bioactive compounds (anthocyanins, vitamin C) and dried fruit quality has motivated the researchers to investigate new combined drying technologies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of convective dryness combined with osmotic dehydration, blanching, microwave treatment and ultrasonic treatment on the quality of dried plums. Osmotic dehydration was achieved by maintaining plums for 1 h in sucrose solution (300Brix). For microwave treatment, the plums were kept at 400 W for 80 sec. For ultrasonic treatment, plums were immersed in distilled water and sonicated for 30 minutes at 40 kHz and 200 W. The blanching consists of immersing plums in hot water at 90°C for 20 seconds and cooling them rapidly. Conventional drying was carried out at 70°C for 630 minutes. Drying curves, drying rate, anthocyanin and vitamin C stability, acidity variation (expressed as malic acid), reducing sugar content, and rehydration capacity of dried plums were analyzed. Blanching led to the largest amount of evaporated water. Blanched plums have had 13.36% less water than sonicated ones. The lowest anthocyanal loss of 34.5% was obtained in osmotically dehydrated plums, and 2.93% vitamin C is found in the plums sonicated. There were no significant differences in regards acidity and reducing sugar. The plums blanched before drying have had a high capacity of rehydration.

Keywords: vitamin C, pretreatments, anthocyanin, dried plums

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3 Pellet Feed Improvements through Vitamin C Supplementation for Snakehead (Channa striata) Culture in Vietnam

Authors: Pham Minh Duc, Tran Thi Thanh Hien, David A. Bengtson

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Laboratory feeding trial: the study was conducted to find out the optimal dietary vitamin C, or ascorbic acid (AA) levels in terms of the growth performance of snakehead. The growth trial included six treatments with five replications. Each treatment contained 0, 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg AA equivalent kg⁻¹ diet which included six iso-nitrogenous (45% protein), iso-lipid (9% lipid) and isocaloric (4.2 Kcal.g¹). Eighty snakehead fingerlings (6.24 ± 0.17 g.fish¹) were assigned randomly in 0.5 m³ composite tanks. Fish were fed twice daily on demand for 8 weeks. The result showed that growth rates increased, protein efficiency ratio increased and the feed conversion ratio decreased in treatments with AA supplementation compared with control treatment. The survival rate of fish tends to increase with increase AA level. The number of RBCs, lysozyme in treatments with AA supplementation tended to rise significantly proportional to the concentration of AA. The number of WBCs of snakehead in treatments with AA supplementation was higher 2.1-3.6 times. In general, supplementation of AA in the diets for snakehead improved growth rate, feed efficiency and immune response. Hapa on-farm trial: based on the results of the laboratory feeding trial, the effects of AA on snakehead in hapas to simulate farm conditions, was tested using the following treatments: commercial feed; commercial feed plus hand mixed AA at 500; 750 and 1000 mg AA.kg⁻¹; SBM diet without AA; SBM diet plus 500; 750 and 1000 mg AA.kg⁻¹. The experiment was conducted in two experimental ponds (only SBM diet without AA placed in one pond and the rest in the other pond) with four replicate hapa each. Stocking density was 150 fish.m² and culture period was 5 months until market size was attained. The growth performance of snakehead and economic aspects were examined in this research.

Keywords: Fish Health, vitamin C, growth rate, snakehead

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2 Physiological Response of Water-Restricted Xhosa Goats Supplemented with Vitamin C

Authors: O.F. Akinmoladun, F.N. Fon, C.T. Mpendulo, O. Okoh

Abstract:

The sustainability of livestock production is under threat as a result of water scarcity, fluctuating precipitation, and high environmental temperature. These combined stressors have impacted negatively on general animal production and welfare, necessitating a very reliable and cost-effective management practices, especially in arid and water-limited regions of the world. Instead of the above, this study was designed to investigate the growth performance and physiological response of water-restricted Xhosa ear-lobe goats fed diets supplemented with single or multiple vitamin C (VC) during summer. The total forty-eight goats used for the experiment were balanced for body weight and randomly assigned to the seven treatment groups (seven goats/treatment): GI (W100%); GII (W70%); GIII (W50%); GIV (W70%+3g/day VC); GV ((W50% +3g/day VC); GVI (W70%+3g/d VC+extra 5g on every eight-day); GVII (W50%+3g/d VC+extra 5g on every eight-day). The design was a complete randomized design and VC was administered per os. At the end of the 75-day feeding trial, GIII (W50%) animals were the most affected (P<0.05) and the effect was more pronounced in their body condition scores (BCs). Weight loss and depression in feed intake due to water restriction (P<0.05) were attenuated by VC treated groups (GIV-GVII). Changes in body thermal gradient (BTG) and rectal temperature (RcT) were similar (P>0.05) across the various experimental groups. The attenuation effect of VC was significant in responses to respiratory rate (RR) and cortisol. Supplementation of VC (either single or multiple) did not significantly (P>0.05) improve water restriction effect on body condition scores (BCs) and FAMACHA©. The current study found out that Xhosa ear lobe goats can adapt to the prevailing bioclimatic changes and limited water intake. However, supplementation of vitamin C can be beneficial at modulating these stressful stimuli. Continuous consistencies in the outcome of vitamin C on water-stressed animals can help validate recommendations especially to farmers in the arid and water-limited regions across the globe.

Keywords: water stress, vitamin C, Xhosa ear-lobe, thermotolerance

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1 Changes in Some Bioactive Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Different Brassica Herbals after Pretreatment and Herbal Infusion

Authors: Evren C. Eroglu, Ridvan Arslan

Abstract:

Over the course of herbal production, various pretreatments are performed and some of which have serious effect on the bioactive properties. Especially in the production of herbal tea from fresh herbals, it is considered that elapsed time from blending to last product may affect the bioactive properties and antioxidant contents. Herbal infusion is basically prepared by mixing herbs with hot water for 10-20 min. During the brewing of these herbs, it is supposed to be significant decrease in the antioxidant and phenolics content. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of vitamin C (VitC), total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant contents (AO) of two brassica varieties (brussel sprouts and white head cabbage) with different holding time after blending. Second aim of this study was to understand the effect of herbal infusion on VitC, TPC and AO contents. In this study, fresh samples were subjected to 0-30 min holding time after blending. Then, samples was immediately taken to -80 °C and freeze drying process was performed. Herbal infusion was performed for 20 minutes. According to results, VitC contents in brussel sprouts was not changed significantly (p=0.12). However, there was a significant decreasing of VitC content in cabbage sample (p=0.034). 20 min of brewing caused a significant decrement in VitC of brussel sprouts by approximately 76% (1071 ppm dw), while decline in cabbage VitC content was 87% (531 ppm dw). AO and TPC values of unprocessed cabbage control sample (13791.87 ppm FeSO4·7H2O eq. dw and 5301.85 ppm gallic acid eq. dw) were higher than brussel sprouts control samples (11571.75 ppm FeSO4·7H2O dw and 5202.76 ppm, respectively). The change in AO and TPC of both brussel sprouts and cabbage samples were not statistically significant at the end of 30 minutes holding time (p=0.24 and p=0.38). After 20 minutes of brewing, AO content in brussel sprouts significantly decreased by 44% (p ˂0.05). Although, the decreasing of AO in white head cabbage was statistically important (p=0.034), decreasing was just 8%. TPC values were found to decrease by 54% in cabbage, while it was 35% in brussel sprouts after herbal infusion. It was observed that 30 min holding time had no statistically important effect on TPC values of both cabbage and brussel sprouts. As a conclusion, herbal infusion has more or less effect on VitC, TPC and AO contents of samples. Therefore, it is important to decrease brewing time. Another result was that there were no significant differences in TPC and AO content of both samples when holding samples 30 min outside after blending. However, this process had significant effect on VitC content of white head cabbage.

Keywords: vitamin C, total phenolic content, antioxidant content, brussel sprouts, herbal infusion, white head cabbage

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