Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

visual search Related Abstracts

3 Improving Similarity Search Using Clustered Data

Authors: Deokho Kim, Wonwoo Lee, Jaewoong Lee, Teresa Ng, Gun-Ill Lee, Jiwon Jeong

Abstract:

This paper presents a method for improving object search accuracy using a deep learning model. A major limitation to provide accurate similarity with deep learning is the requirement of huge amount of data for training pairwise similarity scores (metrics), which is impractical to collect. Thus, similarity scores are usually trained with a relatively small dataset, which comes from a different domain, causing limited accuracy on measuring similarity. For this reason, this paper proposes a deep learning model that can be trained with a significantly small amount of data, a clustered data which of each cluster contains a set of visually similar images. In order to measure similarity distance with the proposed method, visual features of two images are extracted from intermediate layers of a convolutional neural network with various pooling methods, and the network is trained with pairwise similarity scores which is defined zero for images in identical cluster. The proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art object similarity scoring techniques on evaluation for finding exact items. The proposed method achieves 86.5% of accuracy compared to the accuracy of the state-of-the-art technique, which is 59.9%. That is, an exact item can be found among four retrieved images with an accuracy of 86.5%, and the rest can possibly be similar products more than the accuracy. Therefore, the proposed method can greatly reduce the amount of training data with an order of magnitude as well as providing a reliable similarity metric.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Deep learning, visual search, convolutional neural network

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
2 The Dangers of Attentional Inertia in the Driving Task

Authors: Catherine Thompson, Maryam Jalali, Peter Hills

Abstract:

The allocation of visual attention is critical when driving and anything that limits attention will have a detrimental impact on safety. Engaging in a secondary task reduces the amount of attention directed to the road because drivers allocate resources towards this task, leaving fewer resources to process driving-relevant information. Yet the dangers associated with a secondary task do not end when the driver returns their attention to the road. Instead, the attentional settings adopted to complete a secondary task may persist to the road, affecting attention, and therefore affecting driver performance. This 'attentional inertia' effect was investigated in the current work. Forty drivers searched for hazards in driving video clips while their eye-movements were recorded. At varying intervals they were instructed to attend to a secondary task displayed on a tablet situated to their left-hand side. The secondary task consisted of three separate computer games that induced horizontal, vertical, and random eye movements. Visual search and hazard detection in the driving clips were compared across the three conditions of the secondary task. Results showed that the layout of information in the secondary task, and therefore the allocation of attention in this task, had an impact on subsequent search in the driving clips. Vertically presented information reduced the wide horizontal spread of search usually associated with accurate driving and had a negative influence on the detection of hazards. The findings show the additional dangers of engaging in a secondary task while driving. The attentional inertia effect has significant implications for semi-autonomous and autonomous vehicles in which drivers have greater opportunity to direct their attention away from the driving task.

Keywords: Attention, visual search, Hazard Perception, eye-movements

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
1 The Impact of Sign Language on Generating and Maintaining a Mental Image

Authors: Yi-Shiuan Chiu

Abstract:

Deaf signers have been found to have better mental image performance than hearing nonsigners. The goal of this study was to investigate the ability to generate mental images, to maintain them, and to manipulate them in deaf signers of Taiwanese Sign Language (TSL). In the visual image task, participants first memorized digits formed in a cell of 4 × 5 grids. After presenting a cue of Chinese digit character shown on the top of a blank cell, participants had to form a corresponding digit. When showing a probe, which was a grid containing a red circle, participants had to decide as quickly as possible whether the probe would have been covered by the mental image of the digit. The ISI (interstimulus interval) between cue and probe was manipulated. In experiment 1, 24 deaf signers and 24 hearing nonsigners were asked to perform image generation tasks (ISI: 200, 400 ms) and image maintenance tasks (ISI: 800, 2000 ms). The results showed that deaf signers had had an enhanced ability to generate and maintain a mental image. To explore the process of mental image, in experiment 2, 30 deaf signers and 30 hearing nonsigners were asked to do visual searching when maintaining a mental image. Between a digit image cue and a red circle probe, participants were asked to search a visual search task to see if a target triangle apex was directed to the right or left. When there was only one triangle in the searching task, the results showed that both deaf signers and hearing non-signers had similar visual searching performance in which the searching targets in the mental image locations got facilitates. However, deaf signers could maintain better and faster mental image performance than nonsigners. In experiment 3, we increased the number of triangles to 4 to raise the difficulty of the visual search task. The results showed that deaf participants performed more accurately in visual search and image maintenance tasks. The results suggested that people may use eye movements as a mnemonic strategy to maintain the mental image. And deaf signers had enhanced abilities to resist the interference of eye movements in the situation of fewer distractors. In sum, these findings suggested that deaf signers had enhanced mental image processing.

Keywords: visual search, mental image, deaf signers, image maintain

Procedia PDF Downloads 24