Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

viscous Related Abstracts

2 Concentration of Waste Waters by Enzyme-Assisted Low-Temperature Evaporation

Authors: Ahokas Mikko, Taskila Sanna, Varrio Kalle, Tanskanen Juha

Abstract:

The present research aimed at the development of an energy efficient process for the concentration of starchy waste waters. The selected principle is mechanical vapor recompression evaporation (MVR) which leads to concentrated solid material and evaporated water phase. Evaporation removes water until a certain viscosity limit is reached. Materials with high viscosity cannot be concentrated using standard evaporators due to limitations of pumps and other constraints, such as wetting. Control of viscosity is thus essential for efficient evaporation. This applies especially to fluids in which due starch or other compounds the viscosity tends to increase via removal of water. In the present research, the effect of enzymes on evaporation of highly viscous starch industry waste waters was investigated. Wastewater samples were received from starch industry at pH of 4.8. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied for the investigation of factor effects on the behaviour of concentrate during evaporation. The RSM was prepared using quadratic face-centered central composite design (CCF). The evaporation performance was evaluated by monitoring the viscosity of fluid during processing. Based on viscosity curves, the addition of glucoamylase reduced the viscosity during evaporation. This assumption was confirmed by CCF, suggesting that the use of starch decomposing glucoamylase allowed evaporation of the starchy wastewater to a relatively high total solid concentration without a detrimental increase in the viscosity. The results suggest that use of enzymes for reduction of viscosity during the evaporation allows more effective concentration of the wastewater and thereby recovery of potable water.

Keywords: wastewater, treatment, Concentration, evaporation, viscous

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1 Seismic Retrofit of Tall Building Structure with Viscous, Visco-Elastic, Visco-Plastic Damper

Authors: Nicolas Bae, Theodore L. Karavasilis

Abstract:

Increasingly, a large number of new and existing tall buildings are required to improve their resilient performance against strong winds and earthquakes to minimize direct, as well as indirect damages to society. Those advent stationary functions of tall building structures in metropolitan regions can be severely hazardous, in socio-economic terms, which also increase the requirement of advanced seismic performance. To achieve these progressive requirements, the seismic reinforcement for some old, conventional buildings have become enormously costly. The methods of increasing the buildings’ resilience against wind or earthquake loads have also become more advanced. Up to now, vibration control devices, such as the passive damper system, is still regarded as an effective and an easy-to-install option, in improving the seismic resilience of buildings at affordable prices. The main purpose of this paper is to examine 1) the optimization of the shape of visco plastic brace damper (VPBD) system which is one of hybrid damper system so that it can maximize its energy dissipation capacity in tall buildings against wind and earthquake. 2) the verification of the seismic performance of the visco plastic brace damper system in tall buildings; up to forty-storey high steel frame buildings, by comparing the results of Non-Linear Response History Analysis (NLRHA), with and without a damper system. The most significant contribution of this research is to introduce the optimized hybrid damper system that is adequate for high rise buildings. The efficiency of this visco plastic brace damper system and the advantages of its use in tall buildings can be verified since tall buildings tend to be affected by wind load at its normal state and also by earthquake load after yielding of steel plates. The modeling of the prototype tall building will be conducted using the Opensees software. Three types of modeling were used to verify the performance of the damper (MRF, MRF with visco-elastic, MRF with visco-plastic model) 22-set seismic records used and the scaling procedure was followed according to the FEMA code. It is shown that MRF with viscous, visco-elastic damper, it is superior effective to reduce inelastic deformation such as roof displacement, maximum story drift, roof velocity compared to the MRF only.

Keywords: Seismic retrofit, Performance Based Design, viscous, tall steel building, viscoelastic damper, resilience based design

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