Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

virulence Related Abstracts

9 Identification of Associated-Virulence Genes in Quinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli Strains Recovered from an Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant

Authors: Alouache Souhila, Messai Yamina, Torres Carmen, Bakour Rabah

Abstract:

Objective: It has often been reported an association between antibiotic resistance and virulence. However, resistance to quinolones seems to be an exception, it tends instead to be associated with an attenuation of virulence, particularly in clinical strains. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential virulence of 28 quinolone-resistant E. coli strains recovered from water at the inflow (n=16) and outflow (n=12) of an urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Methods: E. coli isolates were selected on Tergitol-7 agar supplemented with 2µg/ml of ciprofloxacin, they were screened by PCR for 11 virulence genes related to Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC): papC, papG, afa/draBC, sfa/foc, kpsMTII, iutA, iroN, hlyF, ompT, iss and traT. The phylogenetic groups were determined by PCR and clonal relationship was evaluated by ERIC-PCR. Results: Genotyping by ERIC-PCR showed 7 and 12 DNA profiles among strains of wastewater (inflow) and treated water (outflow), respectively. Strains were assigned to the following phylogenetic groups: B2 (n = 1, 3.5%), D (n = 3, 10.7%), B1 (n = 10, 35.7%.) and A (n = 14, 50%). A total of 8 virulence-associated genes were detected, traT (n=19, 67.8%), iroN (n= 16, 57 .1%), hlyF (n=15, 53 .5%), ompT (n=15, 53 .5%), iss (n=14, 50%), iutA (n=9, 32.1%) , sfa/foc (n=7, 25%) and kpsMTII (n=2, 7.1%). Combination of virulence factors allowed to define 16 virulence profiles. The pathotype APEC was observed in 17.8% (D=1, B1=4) and human ExPEC in 7% (B2=1, D=1) of strains. Conclusion: The study showed that quinolone-resistant E. coli strains isolated from wastewater and treated water in WWTP harbored virulence genes with the presence of APEC and human ExPEC strains.

Keywords: E. coli, quinolone-resistance, virulence, WWTP

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8 Genome-Wide Identification of Genes Resistance to Nitric Oxide in Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Authors: Yantao Li, Jun Zheng

Abstract:

Food poison caused by consumption of contaminated food, especially seafood, is one of most serious public health threats worldwide. Vibrio parahaemolyticus is emerging bacterial pathogen and the leading cause of human gastroenteritis associated with food poison, especially in the southern coastal region of China. To successfully cause disease in host, bacterial pathogens need to overcome the host-derived stresses encountered during infection. One of the toxic chemical species elaborated by the host is nitric oxide (NO). NO is generated by acidified nitrite in the stomach and by enzymes of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in the host cell, and is toxic to bacteria. Bacterial pathogens have evolved some mechanisms to battle with this toxic stress. Such mechanisms include genes to sense NO produced from immune system and activate others to detoxify NO toxicity, and genes to repair the damage caused by toxic reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generated during NO toxic stress. However, little is known about the NO resistance in V. parahaemolyticus. In this study, a transposon coupled with next generation sequencing (Tn-seq) technology will be utilized to identify genes for NO resistance in V. parahaemolyticus. Our strategy will include construction the saturating transposon insertion library, transposon library challenging with NO, next generation sequencing (NGS), bioinformatics analysis and verification of the identified genes in vitro and in vivo.

Keywords: Nitric Oxide, vibrio parahaemolyticus, virulence, tn-seq

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7 RNAseq Reveals Hypervirulence-Specific Host Responses to M. tuberculosis Infection

Authors: Gina Leisching, Ray-Dean Pietersen, Carel Van Heerden, Paul Van Helden, Ian Wiid, Bienyameen Baker

Abstract:

The distinguishing factors that characterize the host response to infection with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) are largely confounding. We present an infection study with two genetically closely related M.tb strains that have vastly different pathogenic characteristics. The early host response to infection with these detergent-free cultured strains was analyzed through RNAseq in an attempt to provide information on the subtleties which may ultimately contribute to the virulent phenotype. Murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were infected with either a hyper- (R5527) or hypovirulent (R1507) Beijing M. tuberculosis clinical isolate. RNAseq revealed 69 differentially expressed host genes in BMDMs during comparison of these two transcriptomes. Pathway analysis revealed activation of the stress-induced and growth inhibitory Gadd45 signaling pathway in hypervirulent infected BMDMs. Upstream regulators of interferon activation such as and IRF3 and IRF7 were predicted to be upregulated in hypovirulent-infected BMDMs. Additional analysis of the host immune response through ELISA and qPCR included the use of human THP-1 macrophages where a robust proinflammatory response was observed after infection with the hypervirulent strain. RNAseq revealed two early-response genes (IER3 and SAA3) and two host-defence genes (OASL1 and SLPI) that were significantly upregulated by the hypervirulent strain. The role of these genes under M.tb infection conditions are largely unknown but here we provide validation of their presence with use of qPCR and Western blot. Further analysis into their biological role under infection with virulent M.tb is required.

Keywords: Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, virulence, RNAseq, host-response

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6 In vitro and in vivo Infectivity of Coxiella burnetii Strains from French Livestock

Authors: Joulié Aurélien, Jourdain Elsa, Bailly Xavier, Gasqui Patrick, Yang Elise, Leblond Agnès, Rousset Elodie, Sidi-Boumedine Karim

Abstract:

Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Following the recent outbreaks in the Netherlands, a hyper virulent clone was found to be the cause of severe human cases of Q fever. In livestock, Q fever clinical manifestations are mainly abortions. Although the abortion rates differ between ruminant species, C. burnetii’s virulence remains understudied, especially in enzootic areas. In this study, the infectious potential of three C. burnetii isolates collected from French farms of small ruminants were compared to the reference strain Nine Mile (in phase II and in an intermediate phase) using an in vivo (CD1 mice) model. Mice were challenged with 105 live bacteria discriminated by propidium monoazide-qPCR targeting the icd-gene. After footpad inoculation, spleen and popliteal lymph node were harvested at 10 days post-inoculation (p.i). The strain invasiveness in spleen and popliteal nodes was assessed by qPCR assays targeting the icd-gene. Preliminary results showed that the avirulent strains (in phase 2) failed to pass the popliteal barrier and then to colonize the spleen. This model allowed a significant differentiation between strain’s invasiveness on biological host and therefore identifying distinct virulence profiles. In view of these results, we plan to go further by testing fifteen additional C. burnetii isolates from French farms of sheep, goat and cattle by using the above-mentioned in vivo model. All 15 strains display distant MLVA (multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeat analysis) genotypic profiles. Five of the fifteen isolates will bee also tested in vitro on ovine and bovine macrophage cells. Cells and supernatants will be harvested at day1, day2, day3 and day6 p.i to assess in vitro multiplication kinetics of strains. In conclusion, our findings might help the implementation of surveillance of virulent strains and ultimately allow adapting prophylaxis measures in livestock farms.

Keywords: virulence, ruminant, Q fever, invasiveness

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5 Biocontrol Potential of Trichoderma longibrachiatum as an Entomopathogenic Fungi against Bemisia tabaci

Authors: Ahmad Ali Shahid, Muhammad Saleem Haider, Sehrish Iftikhar, Kiran Nawaz, Waheed Anwar

Abstract:

The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is a complex insect species, including many cryptic species or biotypes. Whitefly causes damage to many ornamental and horticultural crops through directly feeding on phloem sap, resulting in sooty mould and critically decreases the rate of photosynthesis of many host plants. Biological control has emerged as one of the most important methods for the management of soil-borne plant pathogens. Among the natural enemies of insects different entomopathogenic fungi are mostly used as biological control of the pest. The purpose of this research was to find indigenous insect-associated fungi and their virulence against Bemisia tabaci. A detailed survey of cotton fields in sample collection was conducted during July and August 2013 from the central mixed zone of Punjab, Pakistan. For the isolation of T. longibrachiatum, sabouraud dextrose peptone yeast extract agar (SDAY) media was used and morphological characterization of isolated T. longibrachiatum was studied using different dichotomous keys. Molecular Identification of the pathogen was confirmed by amplifying the internal transcribed spacer region. Blastn analysis showed 100% homology with already reported sequences on the database. For these bioassays, two conidial concentrations 4 × 108/mL & 4 × 104/mL of T. longibrachiatum was sprayed in clip cages for nymph and adult B. tabaci respectively under controlled environmental conditions. The pathogenicity of T. longibrachiatum was tested on nymph and adult whitefly to check mortality. Mortality of B. tabaci at nymphal and adult stages were observed after 24-hour intervals. Percentage mortality of nymphs treated with 4 x 104/mL conidia of T. longibrachiatum was 20, 24, 36 and 40% after 48, 72, 96, 72, 96, 120 and 144 hours respectively. However, no considerable difference was recorded in percentage mortality of whitefly after 120 and 144 hours. There were great variations after 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours in the rate of mortality. The efficacy of T. longibrachiatum as entomopathogenic fungi was evaluated in adult and nymphal stages of whitefly. Trichoderma longibrachiatum showed maximum activity on nymphal stages of whitefly as compared to adult stages. The percentage of conidial germination was also recorded on the outer surface of adult and nymphal stages of B. tabaci. The present findings indicated that T. longibrachiatum is an entomopathogenic fungus against B. tabaci and many species of Trichoderma were already reported as an antagonistc organism against a wide range of bacterial and fungal pathogens.

Keywords: Efficacy, virulence, bioassay, Trichoderma

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4 Ganoderma Infection in Acacia mangium: Difference of Plant Hosts to Virulency of Ganoderma

Authors: Rosa Suryantini, Reine S. Wulandari, Slamet Rifanjani

Abstract:

Acacia (Acacia mangium) is a forest plant species which is produced to pulp and paper. The high demand for pulp and paper increase the acacia plantation forest area. However, the outbreak of Ganoderma (root rot pathogen) infection becomes obstacles for the development of acacia plantations. This is due to the extent of host range and species of Ganoderma. Ganoderma has also the ability to survive the long-term without hosts. The diversity of the host and Ganoderma species affects its virulence. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the virulence of Ganoderma from different hosts (acacia, palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis)). The methods were isolation and morphology identification of Ganoderma, and inoculation of Ganoderma isolates on acacia seedlings. The results showed that the three isolates of Ganoderma from different hosts had a morphological similarity with G. Lucidum (according to Ganoderma isolated from acacia or G1), G. boninense (according to Ganoderma isolated from palm oil or G2) and G. applanatum (according to Ganoderma isolated from rubber or G3). Symptoms of infection in acacia were seen at 3 months of age. The symptoms were begun with chlorosis, necrosis and death of seedlings (such as burning). Necrosis was started from the tip of the leaf. Based on this visible symptoms, G1 was moderate virulence isolate and G2 was low virulence isolate while G3 was avirulen isolate. The symptoms were still growing in accordance with the development of plant so it affected the value of diseases severity index. Ganoderma infection decreased the dry weight of seedlings, ie. 3.82 g (seedlings that were inoculated by G1), 4.01 g (seedlings that were inoculated by G2); and 5.02 g (seedlings that were inoculated by G3) when the dry weight of seedlings control was 10,02 g. These results provide information for early control of Ganoderma diseases on acacia especially those planted near rubber and oil palm crops.

Keywords: Infection, virulence, Ganoderma, Acacia

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3 Genetic and Virulence Diversity among Alternaria carthami Isolates of India

Authors: Garima Anand, Rupam Kapoor

Abstract:

Alternaria leaf spot caused by Alternaria carthami is one of the most devastating diseases of safflower. It has resulted in huge losses in crop production and cultivation leading to a fall out of India’s rank as the leading producer of safflower in the world. Understanding the diversity of any pathogen is essential for its management and for the development of disease control strategies. The diversity of A. carthami was therefore analysed on the basis of biochemical, pathogenicity and genetic lines using ISSR markers. Collections and isolations of 95 isolates of A. carthami were made from major safflower producing states of India. Virulence was analysed to evaluate the pathogenic potential of these isolates. The isolates from Bijapur, Dharwad districts (Karnataka), and Parbhani and Solapur districts (Maharashtra) were found to be highly virulent. The virulence assays showed low virulence levels (42%) for the largest part of the population. Biochemical characterization to assess aggressiveness of these isolates was done by estimating the activity of cell wall degrading enzymes where isolates from districts Dharwad, Bijapur of Karnataka and districts Parbhani and Latur of Maharashtra were found to be most aggressive. Genetic diversity among isolates of A. carthami was determined using eighteen ISSR markers. Distance analysis using neighbour joining method and PCoA analysis of the ISSR profiles divided the isolates into three sub-populations. The most virulent isolates clustered in one group in the dendrogram. The study provided no evidence for geographical clustering indicating that isolates are randomly spread across the states, signifying the high potential of the fungus to adapt to diverse regions. The study can, therefore, aid in the breeding and deployment of A. carthami resistant safflower varieties and in the management of Alternaria leaf spot disease.

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, alternaria leaf spot, virulence, pathogenic potential

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2 Transcriptomic Analysis of Acanthamoeba castellanii Virulence Alteration by Epigenetic DNA Methylation

Authors: Stephen Ambu, Yi-Hao Wong, Li-Li Chan, Chee-Onn Leong, Joon-Wah Mak, Priyasashi Sahu

Abstract:

Background: Acanthamoeba is a genus of amoebae which lives as a free-living in nature or as a human pathogen that causes severe brain and eye infections. Virulence potential of Acanthamoeba is not constant and can change with growth conditions. DNA methylation, an epigenetic process which adds methyl groups to DNA, is used by eukaryotic cells, including several human parasites to control their gene expression. We used qPCR, siRNA gene silencing, and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to study DNA-methyltransferase gene family (DNMT) in order to indicate the possibility of its involvement in programming Acanthamoeba virulence potential. Methods: A virulence-attenuated Acanthamoeba isolate (designation: ATCC; original isolate: ATCC 50492) was subjected to mouse passages to restore its pathogenicity; a virulence-reactivated isolate (designation: AC/5) was generated. Several established factors associated with Acanthamoeba virulence phenotype were examined to confirm the succession of reactivation process. Differential gene expression of DNMT between ATCC and AC/5 isolates was performed by qPCR. Silencing on DNMT gene expression in AC/5 isolate was achieved by siRNA duplex. Total RNAs extracted from ATCC, AC/5, and siRNA-treated (designation: si-146) were subjected to RNA-Seq for comparative transcriptomic analysis in order to identify the genome-wide effect of DNMT in regulating Acanthamoeba gene expression. qPCR was performed to validate the RNA-Seq results. Results: Physiological and cytophatic assays demonstrated an increased in virulence potential of AC/5 isolate after mouse passages. DNMT gene expression was significantly higher in AC/5 compared to ATCC isolate (p ≤ 0.01) by qPCR. si-146 duplex reduced DNMT gene expression in AC/5 isolate by 30%. Comparative transcriptome analysis identified the differentially expressed genes, with 3768 genes in AC/5 vs ATCC isolate; 2102 genes in si-146 vs AC/5 isolate and 3422 genes in si-146 vs ATCC isolate, respectively (fold-change of ≥ 2 or ≤ 0.5, p-value adjusted (padj) < 0.05). Of these, 840 and 1262 genes were upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in si-146 vs AC/5 isolate. Eukaryotic orthologous group (KOG) assignments revealed a higher percentage of downregulated gene expression in si-146 compared to AC/5 isolate, were related to posttranslational modification, signal transduction and energy production. Gene Ontology (GO) terms for those downregulated genes shown were associated with transport activity, oxidation-reduction process, and metabolic process. Among these downregulated genes were putative genes encoded for heat shock proteins, transporters, ubiquitin-related proteins, proteins for vesicular trafficking (small GTPases), and oxidoreductases. Functional analysis of similar predicted proteins had been described in other parasitic protozoa for their survival and pathogenicity. Decreased expression of these genes in si146-treated isolate may account in part for Acanthamoeba reduced pathogenicity. qPCR on 6 selected genes upregulated in AC/5 compared to ATCC isolate corroborated the RNA sequencing findings, indicating a good concordance between these two analyses. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation and its effects on gene expression in Acanthamoeba spp. The present data indicate that DNA methylation has substantial effect on global gene expression, allowing further dissection of the genome-wide effects of DNA-methyltransferase gene in regulating Acanthamoeba pathogenicity.

Keywords: DNA Methylation, RNA Sequencing, virulence, Acanthamoeba

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1 Studies on Virulence Factors Analysis in Streptococcus agalactiae from the Clinical Isolates

Authors: Natesan Balasubramanian, Palpandi Pounpandi, Venkatraman Thamil Priya, Vellasamy Shanmugaiah, Karubbiah Balakrishnan, Mandayam Anandam Thirunarayan

Abstract:

Streptococcus agalactiae is commonly known as Group B Streptococcus (GBS) and it is the most common cause of life-threatening bacterial infection. GBS first considered as a veterinary pathogen causing mastitis in cattle later becomes a human pathogen for severe neonatal infections. In this present study, a total of 20 new clinical isolates of S. agalactiae were collected from male (6) and female patient (14) with different age group. The isolates were from Urinary tract infection (UTI), blood, pus and eye ulcer. All the 20 S. agalactiae isolates has clear hemolysis properties on blood agar medium and were identified by serogrouping and MALTI-TOF-MS analysis. Antibiotic susceptibility/resistance test was performed for 20 S. agalactiae isolates, further phenotypic resistance pattern was observed for tetracycline, vancomycin, ampicillin and penicillin. Genotypically we found two antibiotic resistance genes such as Betalactem antibiotic resistance gene (Tem) (70%) and tetracycline resistance gene Tet(O) 15% in our isolates. Six virulence factors encoding genes were performed by PCR in twenty GBS isolates, cfb gene (100%), followed by, cylE(90.47%), lmp(85.7%), bca(71.42%), rib (38%) and low frequency in bac gene (4.76%) were determined. Most of the S. agalactiae isolates produced strong biofilm in the polystyrene surface (hydrophobic), and low-level biofilm formation was found in glass tube (hydrophilic) surface. lytR is secreted protein and localized in bacterial cell wall, extra cellular membrane, and cytoplasm. In silico docking studies were performed for lytR protein with four antibiofilm compounds, including a peptide (PR39) with the docking study showed peptide has strong interaction followed by ellagic acid and interaction length is 2.95, 2.97 and 2.95 A°. In ligand EGCGO10 and O11 two atoms intract with lytR (Leu271), with binding bond affinity length is 3.24 and 3.14. The aminoacid Leu 271 is act as an impartant aminoacid, since ellagic acid and EGCG interact with same aminoacid.

Keywords: Biofilms, Antibiotics, virulence, clinical isolates, S. agalactiae

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