Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

ventilation Related Abstracts

21 Prediction of CO2 Concentration in the Korea Train Express (KTX) Cabins

Authors: Duckshin Park, Yong-Il Lee, Do-Yeon Hwang, Won-Seog Jeong

Abstract:

Recently, because of the high-speed trains forced ventilation, it is important to control the ventilation. The ventilation is for controlling various contaminants, temperature, and humidity. The high-speed train route is straight to a destination having a high speed. And there are many mountainous areas in Korea. So, tunnel rate is higher then other country. KTX HVAC block off the outdoor air, when entering tunnel. So the high tunnel rate is an effect of ventilation in the KTX cabin. It is important to reduction rate in CO2 concentration prediction. To meet the air quality of the public transport vehicles recommend standards, the KTX cabin of CO2 concentration should be managed. In this study, the concentration change was predicted by CO2 prediction simulation in route to be opened.

Keywords: ventilation, CO2 prediction, KTX, infrastructure and transportation engineering

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20 CFD Analysis of a Two-Sided Windcatcher Inlet/Outlet Ducts’ Height in Ventilation Flow through a Three Dimensional Room

Authors: Amirreza Niktash, B. P. Huynh

Abstract:

A windcatcher is a structure fitted on the roof of a building for providing natural ventilation by using wind power; it exhausts the inside stale air to the outside and supplies the outside fresh air into the interior space of the building working by pressure difference between outside and inside of the building and using ventilation principles of passive stacks and wind tower, respectively. In this paper, the effect of different heights of inlet/outlets’ ducts of a two-sided windcatcher on the flow rate, flow velocity and flow pattern through a three-dimensional room fitted with the windcatcher are investigated and analysed by using RANS CFD technique and applying standard K-ε turbulence model via a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package. The achieved results show that the inlet/outlet ducts height strongly affects flow rate, flow velocity and flow pattern especially in the living area of the room when the wind velocity is not too low. The results are confirmed by the experimental test for constructed scaled model in the laboratory and it develops the two-sided windcatcher’s performance in ventilation applications.

Keywords: CFD, ventilation, windcatcher, RANS

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19 The Impact and Performances of Controlled Ventilation Strategy on Thermal Comfort and Indoor Atmosphere in Building

Authors: Abbes Azzi, Selma Bouasria, Mahi Abdelkader, Herouz Keltoum

Abstract:

Ventilation in buildings is a key element to provide high indoor air quality. Its efficiency appears as one of the most important factors in maintaining thermal comfort for occupants of buildings. Personal displacement ventilation is a new ventilation concept that combines the positive features of displacement ventilation with those of task conditioning or personalized ventilation. This work aims to study numerically the supply air flow in a room to optimize a comfortable microclimate for an occupant. The room is heated, and a dummy is designed to simulate the occupant. Two types of configurations were studied. The first consist of a room without windows; and the second one is a local equipped with a window. The influence of the blowing speed and the solar radiation coming from the window on the thermal comfort of the occupant is studied. To conduct this study we used the turbulence models, namely the high Reynolds k-e, the RNG and the SST models. The numerical tool used is based on the finite volume method. The numerical simulation of the supply air flow in a room can predict and provide a significant information about indoor comfort.

Keywords: Local, ventilation, comfort, thermique, internal environment

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18 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling of Local with a Hot Temperature in Sahara

Authors: Abbes Azzi, Selma Bouasria, Mahi Abdelkader, Herouz Keltoum

Abstract:

This paper reports concept was used into the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code cfx through user-defined functions to assess ventilation efficiency inside (forced-ventilation local). CFX is a simulation tool which uses powerful computer and applied mathematics, to model fluid flow situations for the prediction of heat, mass and momentum transfer and optimal design in various heat transfer and fluid flow processes to evaluate thermal comfort in a room ventilated (highly-glazed). The quality of the solutions obtained from CFD simulations is an effective tool for predicting the behavior and performance indoor thermo-aéraulique comfort.

Keywords: CFD, Indoor Environment, Thermal comfort, ventilation, solar air heater

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17 The Correlation between Nasal Resistance and Obligatory Oronasal Switching Point in Non-Athletic Non-Smoking Healthy Men

Authors: Amir H. Bayat, Mohammad R. Alipour, Saeed Khamneh

Abstract:

As the respiration via nose is important physiologically, many studies have been done about nasal breathing that switches to oronasal breathing during exercise. The aim of this study was to assess the role of anterior nasal resistance as one of the effective factors on this switching. Twelve young, healthy, non-athletic and non-smoker male volunteers with normal BMI were selected after physical examination and participated in exercise protocol, including measurement of the ventilation, work load and oronasal switching point (OSP) during exercise, and anterior rhinomanometry at rest. The protocol was an incremental exercise with 25 watt increase in work load per minute up to OSP occurrence. There was a significant negative correlation between resting total anterior nasal resistance with OSP, work load and ventilation (p<0.05, r= -0.709). Resting total anterior nasal resistance can be considered as an important factor on OSP occurrence. So, the reducing the resistance of nasal passage may increase nasal respiration tolerance for longer time during exercise.

Keywords: Exercise, ventilation, anterior nasal resistance, OSP, work load

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16 Design Criteria for Achieving Acceptable Indoor Radon Concentration

Authors: T. Valdbjørn Rasmussen

Abstract:

Design criteria for achieving an acceptable indoor radon concentration are presented in this paper. The paper suggests three design criteria. These criteria have to be considered at the early stage of the building design phase to meet the latest recommendations from the World Health Organization in most countries. The three design criteria are; first, establishing a radon barrier facing the ground; second, lowering the air pressure in the lower zone of the slab on ground facing downwards; third, diluting the indoor air with outdoor air. The first two criteria can prevent radon from infiltrating from the ground, and the third criteria can dilute the indoor air. By combining these three criteria, the indoor radon concentration can be lowered achieving an acceptable level. In addition, a cheap and reliable method for measuring the radon concentration in the indoor air is described. The provision on radon in the Danish Building Regulations complies with the latest recommendations from the World Health Organization. Radon can cause lung cancer and it is not known whether there is a lower limit for when it is not harmful to human beings. Therefore, it is important to reduce the radon concentration as much as possible in buildings. Airtightness is an important factor when dealing with buildings. It is important to avoid air leakages in the building envelope both facing the atmosphere, e.g. in compliance with energy requirements, but also facing the ground, to meet the requirements to ensure and control the indoor environment. Infiltration of air from the ground underneath a building is the main providing source of radon to the indoor air.

Keywords: barrier, ventilation, radon, natural radiation, pressure lowering

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15 The Impact of Modeling Method of Moisture Emission from the Swimming Pool on the Accuracy of Numerical Calculations of Air Parameters in Ventilated Natatorium

Authors: Piotr Ciuman, Barbara Lipska

Abstract:

The aim of presented research was to improve numerical predictions of air parameters distribution in the actual natatorium by the selection of calculation formula of mass flux of moisture emitted from the pool. Selected correlation should ensure the best compliance of numerical results with the measurements' results of these parameters in the facility. The numerical model of the natatorium was developed, for which boundary conditions were prepared on the basis of measurements' results carried out in the actual facility. Numerical calculations were carried out with the use of ANSYS CFX software, with six formulas being implemented, which in various ways made the moisture emission dependent on water surface temperature and air parameters in the natatorium. The results of calculations with the use of these formulas were compared for air parameters' distributions: Specific humidity, velocity and temperature in the facility. For the selection of the best formula, numerical results of these parameters in occupied zone were validated by comparison with the measurements' results carried out at selected points of this zone.

Keywords: experimental validation, ventilation, indoor swimming pool, moisture emission, natatorium, numerical calculations CFD, thermal and humidity conditions

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14 Characterization of the Airtightness Level in School Classrooms in Mediterranean Climate

Authors: Miguel A. Campano, Jesica Fernández-Agüera, Samuel Domínguez-Amarillo, Juan J. Sendra

Abstract:

An analysis of the air tightness level is performed on a representative sample of school classrooms in Southern Spain, which allows knowing the infiltration level of these classrooms, mainly through its envelope, which can affect both energy demand and occupant's thermal comfort. By using a pressurization/depressurization equipment (Blower-Door test), a characterization of 45 multipurpose classrooms have been performed in nine non-university educational institutions of the main climate zones of Southern Spain. In spite of having two doors and a high ratio between glass surface and outer surface, it is possible to see in these classrooms that there is an adequate level of airtightness, since all the n50 values obtained are lower than 9.0 ACH, with an average value around 7.0 ACH.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Thermal comfort, ventilation, Indoor Air Quality, school buildings, air infiltration

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13 Limited Ventilation Efficacy of Prehospital I-Gel Insertion in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Patients

Authors: Hyuk-Hoon Kim, Eunhye Cho, Sieun Lee, Minjung Kathy Chae

Abstract:

Introduction: I-gel is a commonly used supraglottic advanced airway device in prehospital out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) allowing for minimal interruption of continuous chest compression. However, previous studies have shown that prehospital supraglottic airway had inferior neurologic outcomes and survival compared to no advanced prehospital airway with conventional bag mask ventilation. We hypothesize that continuous compression with i-gel as an advanced airway may cause insufficient ventilation compared to 30:2 chest compression with conventional BVM. Therefore, we investigated the ventilation efficacy of i-gel with the initial arterial blood gas analysis in OHCA patients visiting our ER. Material and Method: Demographics, arrest parameters including i-gel insertion, initial arterial blood gas analysis was retrospectively analysed for 119 transported OHCA patients that visited our ER. Linear regression was done to investigate the association with i-gel insertion and initial pCO2 as a surrogate of prehospital ventilation. Result: A total of 52 patients were analysed for the study. Of the patients who visited the ER during OHCA, 24 patients had i-gel insertion and 28 patients had BVM as airway management in the prehospital phase. Prehospital i-gel insertion was associated with the initial pCO2 level (B coefficient 29.9, SE 10.1, p<0.01) after adjusting for bystander CPR, cardiogenic cause of arrest, EMS call to arrival. Conclusion: Despite many limitations to the study, prehospital insertion of i-gel was associated with high initial pCO2 values in OHCA patients visiting our ER, possibly indicating insufficient ventilation with prehospital i-gel as an advanced airway and continuous chest compressions.

Keywords: ventilation, prehospital, i-gel, arrest

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12 Hybrid Adaptive Modeling to Enhance Robustness of Real-Time Optimization

Authors: Hussain Syed Asad, Richard Kwok Kit Yuen, Gongsheng Huang

Abstract:

Real-time optimization has been considered an effective approach for improving energy efficient operation of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. In model-based real-time optimization, model mismatches cannot be avoided. When model mismatches are significant, the performance of the real-time optimization will be impaired and hence the expected energy saving will be reduced. In this paper, the model mismatches for chiller plant on real-time optimization are considered. In the real-time optimization of the chiller plant, simplified semi-physical or grey box model of chiller is always used, which should be identified using available operation data. To overcome the model mismatches associated with the chiller model, hybrid Genetic Algorithms (HGAs) method is used for online real-time training of the chiller model. HGAs combines Genetic Algorithms (GAs) method (for global search) and traditional optimization method (i.e. faster and more efficient for local search) to avoid conventional hit and trial process of GAs. The identification of model parameters is synthesized as an optimization problem; and the objective function is the Least Square Error between the output from the model and the actual output from the chiller plant. A case study is used to illustrate the implementation of the proposed method. It has been shown that the proposed approach is able to provide reliability in decision making, enhance the robustness of the real-time optimization strategy and improve on energy performance.

Keywords: Heating, ventilation, Real-Time Optimization, Energy Performance, hybrid adaptive modeling, hybrid genetic algorithms, and air-conditioning

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11 Improvement of Ventilation and Thermal Comfort Using the Atrium Design for Traditional Folk Houses-Fujian Earthen Building

Authors: Ying-Ming Su

Abstract:

Fujian earthen building which was known as a classic for ecological buildings was listed on the world heritage in 2008 (UNESCO) in China. Its design strategy can be applied to modern architecture planning and design. This study chose two different cases (Round Atrium: Er-Yi Building, Double Round Atrium: Zhen-Chen Building) of earthen building in Fu-Jian to compare the ventilation effects of different atrium forms. We adopt field measurements and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of temperature, humidity, and wind environment to identify the relationship between external environment and atrium about comfort and to confirm the relationship about atrium H/W (height/width). Results indicate that, through the atrium convection effect, it makes the natural wind guides to each space surrounded and keeps indoor comfort. It illustrates that the smaller the ratio of the H/W which is the relationship between the height and the width of an atrium is, the greater the wind speed generated within the street valley. Moreover, the wind speed is very close to the reference wind speed. This field measurement verifies that the value of H/W has great influence of solar radiation heat and sunshine shadows. The ventilation efficiency is: Er-Yi Building (H/W =0.2778) > Zhen-Chen Building (H/W=0.3670). Comparing the cases with the same shape but with different H/W, through the different size patios, airflow revolves in the atriums and can be brought into each interior space. The atrium settings meet the need of building ventilation, and can adjust the humidity and temperature within the buildings. It also creates good ventilation effect.

Keywords: Building Microclimate, ventilation, traditional folk houses, atrium, tulou

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10 Research on the Impact on Building Temperature and Ventilation by Outdoor Shading Devices in Hot-Humid Area: Through Measurement and Simulation on an Office Building in Guangzhou

Authors: Hankun Lin, Yiqiang Xiao, Qiaosheng Zhan

Abstract:

Shading devices (SDs) are widely used in buildings in the hot-humid climate areas for reducing cooling energy consumption for interior temperature, as the result of reducing the solar radiation directly. Contrasting the surface temperature of materials of SDs to the glass on the building façade could give more analysis for the shading effect. On the other side, SDs are much more used as the independence system on building façade in hot-humid area. This typical construction could have some impacts on building ventilation as well. This paper discusses the outdoor SDs’ effects on the building thermal environment and ventilation, through a set of measurements on a 2-floors office building in Guangzhou, China, which install a dynamic aluminum SD-system around the façade on 2nd-floor. The measurements recorded the in/outdoor temperature, relative humidity, velocity, and the surface temperature of the aluminum panel and the glaze. After that, a CFD simulation was conducted for deeper discussion of ventilation. In conclusion, this paper reveals the temperature differences on the different material of the façade, and finds that the velocity of indoor environment could be reduced by the outdoor SDs.

Keywords: CFD, Measurement, temperature, ventilation, outdoor shading devices, hot-humid area

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9 An Innovative Approach to Solve Thermal Comfort Problem Related to the 100m2 Houses in Erbil

Authors: Haval Sami Ali, Hassan Majeed Hassoon Aldelfi

Abstract:

Due to the rapid growth of Erbil population and the resulting shortage of residential buildings, individuals actively utilized 5x20 m plots for two bedroom residential houses. Consequently, poor and unhealthy ventilation comes about. In this paper, the authors developed an old Barajeel (Wind Catchers) approach for natural ventilation. Two Barajeels (Wind Catchers) are designed and located at both extreme ends of the built unit. The two wind catchers are made as inlet and outlet for the air movement where the rate of air changes at its best. To validate the usage of the wind catchers a CFD Software was used to simulate the operation of the wind catchers for natural ventilations for average wind speed of 2 m/s. The results show a positive solution to solve the problem of the cramped such built units. It can be concluded that such solutions can be deployed by the local Kurdistan authorities.

Keywords: natural, ventilation, Erbil, wind catcher, air changes, Barajeel

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8 Conceptual Design of Low Energy Consumption House in Khartoum, Sudan

Authors: Sawsan M. H. Domi

Abstract:

Approximately 50% of the energy used in buildings, including houses, provide environmental comfortable levels of thermal living. In Khartoum - the city under study- cooling uses the largest portion of energy and the basic idea of Low energy houses is to minimize energy consumption. Therefore, houses are designed to use natural climate strategies to provide thermal comfort. Strategies such as semi-open spaces, shading devices, small high windows and thick walls. The study aims to review these strategies and then, apply them. It aims to change house microclimate by using vegetation, green areas, and other components. A low energy house is being designed s. It will be the first low energy house in Khartoum designed to create a low-cost energy efficient building without any mechanical systems. Three different types of houses in Khartoum are examined and evaluated according to their energy loads which provides the basis for the designed house. The designed house uses passive design strategies to reduce the need for cooling. These results show that the house reduced energy cooling loads by more than 60% compared to the average of the three given types. The design house is economically viable when taking into consideration the energy prices in Sudan.

Keywords: Climate, Building Envelope, ventilation, energy loads

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7 Wood as a Climate Buffer in a Supermarket

Authors: Kristine Nore, Alexander Severnisen, Petter Arnestad, Dimitris Kraniotis, Roy Rossebø

Abstract:

Natural materials like wood, absorb and release moisture. Thus wood can buffer indoor climate. When used wisely, this buffer potential can be used to counteract the outer climate influence on the building. The mass of moisture used in the buffer is defined as the potential hygrothermal mass, which can be an energy storage in a building. This works like a natural heat pump, where the moisture is active in damping the diurnal changes. In Norway, the ability of wood as a material used for climate buffering is tested in several buildings with the extensive use of wood, including supermarkets. This paper defines the potential of hygrothermal mass in a supermarket building. This includes the chosen ventilation strategy, and how the climate impact of the building is reduced. The building is located above the arctic circle, 50m from the coastline, in Valnesfjord. It was built in 2015, has a shopping area, including toilet and entrance, of 975 m². The climate of the area is polar according to the Köppen classification, but the supermarket still needs cooling on hot summer days. In order to contribute to the total energy balance, wood needs dynamic influence to activate its hygrothermal mass. Drying and moistening of the wood are energy intensive, and this energy potential can be exploited. Examples are to use solar heat for drying instead of heating the indoor air, and raw air with high enthalpy that allow dry wooden surfaces to absorb moisture and release latent heat. Weather forecasts are used to define the need for future cooling or heating. Thus, the potential energy buffering of the wood can be optimized with intelligent ventilation control. The ventilation control in Valnesfjord includes the weather forecast and historical data. That is a five-day forecast and a two-day history. This is to prevent adjustments to smaller weather changes. The ventilation control has three zones. During summer, the moisture is retained to dampen for solar radiation through drying. In the winter time, moist air let into the shopping area to contribute to the heating. When letting the temperature down during the night, the moisture absorbed in the wood slow down the cooling. The ventilation system is shut down during closing hours of the supermarket in this period. During the autumn and spring, a regime of either storing the moisture or drying out to according to the weather prognoses is defined. To ensure indoor climate quality, measurements of CO₂ and VOC overrule the low energy control if needed. Verified simulations of the Valnesfjord building will build a basic model for investigating wood as a climate regulating material also in other climates. Future knowledge on hygrothermal mass potential in materials is promising. When including the time-dependent buffer capacity of materials, building operators can achieve optimal efficiency of their ventilation systems. The use of wood as a climate regulating material, through its potential hygrothermal mass and connected to weather prognoses, may provide up to 25% energy savings related to heating, cooling, and ventilation of a building.

Keywords: Energy, Wood, ventilation, climate buffer, hygrothermal mass, weather forecast

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6 Baby Cot’s Indoor Air Quality

Authors: Wim Zeiler

Abstract:

The indoor quality of occupied space is very important for the well-being of its occupants, especially in the case of babies. The lungs of a young child are still growing and adverse conditions could affect this development. Presently little children spend a lot of their time in day care centers while parents are at work. Little is known about the effects of different indoor environmental factors present in these day care centers and the quality of air of baby cots in which the babies are accommodated in these day care centers. Therefore this research investigated the quality of the accommodation of Dutch day care centers. Besides an extensive literature research actual measurements were performed in baby cots within three-day care center. Some experiments were performed to find out the importance of the configuration and types of baby cots. This research investigated the quality of the accommodation of a Dutch day care center which led to a tool describing the quality needs (e.g., quality standard) for the accommodation of day care centers. The results of our detailed studies were compared with the results of earlier Dutch more global studies in day care centers, in which more than 60 day care centers were investigated. Also the results are compared with the outcomes of research on school ventilation. The results proved that the situation in day care centers is even worse than that of schools within the Netherlands. More attention is needed to improve the current situation.

Keywords: ventilation, Case study, baby cots, day care centers

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5 Roof Integrated Photo Voltaic with Air Collection on Glasgow School of Art Campus Building: A Feasibility Study

Authors: Rosalie Menon, Angela Reid

Abstract:

Building integrated photovoltaic systems with air collectors (hybrid PV-T) have proved successful however there are few examples of their application in the UK. The opportunity to pull heat from behind the PV system to contribute to a building’s heating system is an efficient use of waste energy and its potential to improve the performance of the PV array is well documented. As part of Glasgow School of Art’s estate expansion, the purchase and redevelopment of an existing 1950’s college building was used as a testing vehicle for the hybrid PV-T system as an integrated element of the upper floor and roof. The primary objective of the feasibility study was to determine if hybrid PV-T was technically and financially suitable for the refurbished building. The key consideration was whether the heat recovered from the PV panels (to increase the electrical efficiency) can be usefully deployed as a heat source within the building. Dynamic thermal modelling (IES) and RetScreen Software were used to carry out the feasibility study not only to simulate overshadowing and optimise the PV-T locations but also to predict the atrium temperature profile; predict the air load for the proposed new 4 No. roof mounted air handling units and to predict the dynamic electrical efficiency of the PV element. The feasibility study demonstrates that there is an energy reduction and carbon saving to be achieved with each hybrid PV-T option however the systems are subject to lengthy payback periods and highlights the need for enhanced government subsidy schemes to reward innovation with this technology in the UK.

Keywords: ventilation, building integrated, photovoltatic thermal, pre-heat air

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4 Assessment of Interior Environmental Quality and Airborne Infectious Risk in a Commuter Bus Cabin by Using Computational Fluid Dynamics with Computer Simulated Person

Authors: Sung-Jun Yoo, Kazuhide Ito, Yutaro Kyuma

Abstract:

A commuter bus remains important as a means to network public transportation between railway stations and terminals within cities. In some cases, the boarding time becomes longer, and the boarding rate tends to be higher corresponding to the development of urban cities. The interior environmental quality, e.g. temperature and air quality, in a commuter bus is relatively heterogeneous and complex compared to that of an indoor environment in buildings due to several factors: solar radiative heat – which comes from large-area windows –, inadequate ventilation rate caused by high density of commuters, and metabolic heat generation from travelers themselves. In addition to this, under conditions where many passengers ride in the enclosed space, contact and airborne infectious risk have attracted considerable attention in terms of public health. From this point of view, it is essential to develop the prediction method for assessment of interior environmental quality and infection risk in commuter bus cabins. In this study, we developed a numerical commuter bus model integrated with computer simulated persons to reproduce realistic indoor environment conditions with high occupancy during commuting. Here, computer simulated persons were newly designed considering different types of geometries, e.g., standing position, seating position, and individual differences. Here we conducted coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis with radiative heat transfer analysis under steady state condition. Distributions of heterogeneous air flow patterns, temperature, and moisture surrounding the human body under some different ventilation system were analyzed by using CFD technique, and skin surface temperature distributions were analyzed using thermoregulation model that integrated into computer simulated person. Through these analyses, we discussed the interior environmental quality in specific commuter bus cabins. Further, inhaled air quality of each passenger was also analyzed. This study may have possibility to design the ventilation system in bus for improving thermal comfort of occupants.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD, Public Health, Indoor Environment, CSP, ventilation, contaminant, computer simulated person

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3 The IVAIRE Study: Relative Performance of Energy and Heat Recovery Ventilators in Cold Climates

Authors: D. Aubin, D. Won, H. Schleibinger, P. Lajoie, D. Gauvin, J.-M. Leclerc

Abstract:

This paper describes the results obtained in a two-year randomized intervention field study investigating the impact of ventilation rates on indoor air quality (IAQ) and the respiratory health of asthmatic children in Québec City, Canada. The focus of this article is on the comparative effectiveness of heat recovery ventilators (HRVs) and energy recovery ventilators (ERVs) at increasing ventilation rates, improving IAQ, and maintaining an acceptable indoor relative humidity (RH). In 14% of the homes, the RH was found to be too low in winter. Providing more cold and dry outside air to under-ventilated homes in winter further reduces indoor RH. Thus, low-RH homes in the intervention group were chosen to receive ERVs (instead of HRVs) to increase the ventilation rate. The installation of HRVs or ERVs led to a near doubling of the ventilation rates in the intervention group homes which led to a significant reduction in the concentration of several key of pollutants. The ERVs were also effective in maintaining an acceptable indoor RH since they avoided excessive dehumidification of the home by recovering moisture from the exhaust airstream through the enthalpy core, otherwise associated with increased cold supply air rates.

Keywords: Asthma, ventilation, Indoor Air Quality, Field Study

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2 Numerical Simulation of a Combined Impact of Cooling and Ventilation on the Indoor Environmental Quality

Authors: Matjaz Prek

Abstract:

Impact of three different combinations of cooling and ventilation systems on the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) has been studied. Comparison of chilled ceiling cooling in combination with displacement ventilation, cooling with fan coil unit and cooling with flat wall displacement outlets was performed. All three combinations were evaluated from the standpoint of whole-body and local thermal comfort criteria as well as from the standpoint of ventilation effectiveness. The comparison was made on the basis of numerical simulation with DesignBuilder and Fluent. Numerical simulations were carried out in two steps. Firstly the DesignBuilder software environment was used to model the buildings thermal performance and evaluation of the interaction between the environment and the building. Heat gains of the building and of the individual space, as well as the heat loss on the boundary surfaces in the room, were calculated. In the second step Fluent software environment was used to simulate the response of the indoor environment, evaluating the interaction between building and human, using the simulation results obtained in the first step. Among the systems presented, the ceiling cooling system in combination with displacement ventilation was found to be the most suitable as it offers a high level of thermal comfort with adequate ventilation efficiency. Fan coil cooling has proved inadequate from the standpoint of thermal comfort whereas flat wall displacement outlets were inadequate from the standpoint of ventilation effectiveness. The study showed the need in evaluating indoor environment not solely from the energy use point of view, but from the point of view of indoor environmental quality as well.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Thermal comfort, ventilation, Indoor Environmental Quality, Cooling, Ventilation effectiveness, IEQ

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1 Measuring the Effect of Ventilation on Cooking in Indoor Air Quality by Low-Cost Air Sensors

Authors: Andres Gonzalez, Adam Boies, Jacob Swanson, David Kittelson

Abstract:

The concern of the indoor air quality (IAQ) has been increasing due to its risk to human health. The smoking, sweeping, and stove and stovetop use are the activities that have a major contribution to the indoor air pollution. Outdoor air pollution also affects IAQ. The most important factors over IAQ from cooking activities are the materials, fuels, foods, and ventilation. The low-cost, mobile air quality monitoring (LCMAQM) sensors, is reachable technology to assess the IAQ. This is because of the lower cost of LCMAQM compared to conventional instruments. The IAQ was assessed, using LCMAQM, during cooking activities in a University of Minnesota graduate-housing evaluating different ventilation systems. The gases measured are carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The particles measured are particle matter (PM) 2.5 micrometer (µm) and lung deposited surface area (LDSA). The measurements are being conducted during April 2019 in Como Student Community Cooperative (CSCC) that is a graduate housing at the University of Minnesota. The measurements are conducted using an electric stove for cooking. The amount and type of food and oil using for cooking are the same for each measurement. There are six measurements: two experiments measure air quality without any ventilation, two using an extractor as mechanical ventilation, and two using the extractor and windows open as mechanical and natural ventilation. 3The results of experiments show that natural ventilation is most efficient system to control particles and CO2. The natural ventilation reduces the concentration in 79% for LDSA and 55% for PM2.5, compared to the no ventilation. In the same way, CO2 reduces its concentration in 35%. A well-mixed vessel model was implemented to assess particle the formation and decay rates. Removal rates by the extractor were significantly higher for LDSA, which is dominated by smaller particles, than for PM2.5, but in both cases much lower compared to the natural ventilation. There was significant day to day variation in particle concentrations under nominally identical conditions. This may be related to the fat content of the food. Further research is needed to assess the impact of the fat in food on particle generations.

Keywords: ventilation, Indoor Air Quality, cooking, low-cost sensor

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