Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

velocity Related Abstracts

18 Analysis of Big Data

Authors: Sandeep Sharma, Sarabjit Singh


As per the user demand and growth trends of large free data the storage solutions are now becoming more challenge-able to protect, store and to retrieve data. The days are not so far when the storage companies and organizations are start saying 'no' to store our valuable data or they will start charging a huge amount for its storage and protection. On the other hand as per the environmental conditions it becomes challenge-able to maintain and establish new data warehouses and data centers to protect global warming threats. A challenge of small data is over now, the challenges are big that how to manage the exponential growth of data. In this paper we have analyzed the growth trend of big data and its future implications. We have also focused on the impact of the unstructured data on various concerns and we have also suggested some possible remedies to streamline big data.

Keywords: Big Data, Unstructured data, Variety, volume, velocity

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17 Assessment of the Response of Seismic Refraction Tomography and Resistivity Imaging to the Same Geologic Environment: A Case Study of Zaria Basement Complex in North Central Nigeria

Authors: Collins C. Chiemeke, I. B. Osazuwa, S. O. Ibe, G. N. Egwuonwu, C. D. Ani, E. C. Chii


The study area is Zaria, located in the basement complex of northern Nigeria. The rock type forming the major part of the Zaria batholith is granite. This research work was carried out to compare the responses of seismic refraction tomography and resistivity tomography in the same geologic environment and under the same conditions. Hence, the choice of the site that has a visible granitic outcrop that extends across a narrow stream channel and is flanked by unconsolidated overburden, a neutral profile that was covered by plain overburden and a site with thick lateritic cover became necessary. The results of the seismic and resistivity tomography models reveals that seismic velocity and resistivity does not always simultaneously increase with depth, but their responses in any geologic environment are determined by changes in the mechanical and chemical content of the rock types rather than depth.

Keywords: Environment, Seismic, response, resistivity, velocity

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16 The Effect of Impinging WC-12Co Particles Temperature on Thickness of HVOF Thermally Sprayed Coatings

Authors: M. Jalali Azizpour


In this paper, the effect of WC-12Co particle Temperature in HVOF thermal spraying process on the coating thickness has been studied. The statistical results show that the spray distance and oxygen-to-fuel ratio are more effective factors on particle characterization and thickness of HVOF thermal spraying coatings. Spray Watch diagnostic system, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and thickness measuring system were used for this purpose.

Keywords: velocity, HVOF, temperature thickness, WC-12Co

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15 The Effect of Particle Temperature on the Thickness of Thermally Sprayed Coatings

Authors: H.Mohammadi majd, M. Jalali Azizpour


In this paper, the effect of WC-12Co particle Temperature in HVOF thermal spraying process on the coating thickness has been studied. The statistical results show that the spray distance and oxygen-to-fuel ratio are more effective factors on particle characterization and thickness of HVOF thermal spraying coatings. Spray Watch diagnostic system, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and thickness measuring system were used for this purpose.

Keywords: temperature, velocity, HVOF, WC-12Co, thickness

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14 Computational Study of Passive Scalar Diffusion of a Counterflowing round Jet

Authors: Georges Le Palec, Amani Amamou, Sabra Habli, Nejla Mahjoub Saïd


Round jets have been widely studied due to their important application in industry. Many configurations of round jet were encountered in literature as free jet, co-flow jet, couterflowing jet and cross flow jet. In this paper, we are concerned with turbulent round jet in uniform counterflow stream which is known to enhance mixing and dispersion efficiency owing to flow reversal. This type of flow configuration is a typical application in environmental engineering such as the disposal of wastewater into seas or rivers. A computational study of a turbulent circular jet discharging into a uniform counterflow is conducted in order to investigate the characteristics of the diffusion field of the jet effluent. The investigation is carried out for three different cases of jet-to-current velocity ratios; low, medium and high velocity ratios. The Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) is used in the comparison with available experimental measurements. The decay of the center line velocity and the dynamic proprieties of the flow together with the centerline dilution of the passive scalar and the other characteristics of the concentration field are computationally analyzed in this paper.

Keywords: Concentration, velocity, Counterflow stream, jet

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13 Measurement of Turbulence with PITOT Static Tube in Low Speed Subsonic Wind Tunnel

Authors: Gopikrishnan, Bharathiraja, Boopalan, Jensin Joshua


The Pitot static tube has proven their values and practicability in measuring velocity of fluids for many years. With the aim of extensive usage of such Pitot tube systems, one of the major enabling technologies is to use the design and fabricate a high sensitive pitot tube for the purpose of calibration of the subsonic wind tunnel. Calibration of wind tunnel is carried out by using different instruments to measure variety of parameters. Using too many instruments inside the tunnel may not only affect the fluid flow but also lead to drag or losses. So, it is essential to replace the different system with a single system that would give all the required information. This model of high sensitive Pitot tube has been designed to ease the calibration process. It minimizes the use of different instruments and this single system is capable of calibrating the wind tunnel test section. This Pitot static tube is completely digitalized and so that the velocity data`s can be collected directly from the instrument. Since the turbulence factors are dependent on velocity, the data’s that are collected from the pitot static tube are then processed and the level of turbulence in the fluid flow is calculated. It is also capable of measuring the pressure distribution inside the wind tunnel and the flow angularity of the fluid. Thus, the well-designed high sensitive Pitot static tube is utilized in calibrating the tunnel and also for the measurement of turbulence.

Keywords: Turbulence, Wind Tunnel, velocity, pitot static tube

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12 Brinkman Flow Past an Impervious Spheroid under Stokesian Assumption

Authors: T. K. V. Iyengar, D. Satish Kumar


In this paper, we study the Brinkman flow, under Stokesian assumption, past an impervious prolate spheroid and obtain the expressions for the velocity and pressure fields in terms of Legendre functions, Associated Legendre functions, prolate radial and angular spheroidal wave functions. We further obtain an expression for the drag experienced by the spheroid and numerically study its variation with respect to the flow parameters and display the results through graphs.

Keywords: Pressure, porous medium, velocity, drag, prolate spheoid, stokesian assumption, brinkman model

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11 Measurements of Radial Velocity in Fixed Fluidized Bed for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Using LDV

Authors: Xiaolai Zhang, Weiyong Ying, Haitao Zhang, Weixin Qian, Qiwen Sun


High temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process use fixed fluidized bed as a reactor. In order to understand the flow behavior in the fluidized bed better, the research of how the radial velocity affect the entire flow field is necessary. Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) was used to study the radial velocity distribution along the diameter direction of the cross-section of the particle in a fixed fluidized bed. The velocity in the cross-section is fluctuating within a small range. The direction of the speed is a random phenomenon. In addition to r/R is 1, the axial velocity are more than 6 times of the radial velocity, the radial velocity has little impact on the axial velocity in a fixed fluidized bed.

Keywords: velocity, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, Fixed fluidized bed, LDV

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10 Analysis of Hydraulic Velocity in Fishway Using CCHE2D Model

Authors: Amir Abbas Kamanbedast, Masood Mohammad Shafipor, Amir Ghotboddin


Fish way is a structure that in generally using to migrate to the place where they are spawned and is made near the spillway. Preventing fish spawning or migrating to their original place by fishway structures can affect their lives in the river or even erase one access to intended environment. The main objective of these structures is establishing a safe path for fish migration. In the present study first the hydraulic specifications of Hamidieh diversion dam were assessed and then it is problems were evaluated. In this study the dimensions of the fish way, including velocity of pools, were evaluated by CCHE2D software. Then by change slope in this structure streamlines like velocity in the pools were measured. For calibration can be use measuring local velocities in some pools. The information can be seen the fishway width of 0.3 m has minimum rate of descent in the total number of structures (pools and overflow).

Keywords: velocity, fishway, Hamidieh-Diversion Dam, CCHE2D model

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9 Numerical Modeling for Water Engineering and Obstacle Theory

Authors: Mounir Adal, Baalal Azeddine, Afifi Moulay Larbi


Numerical analysis is a branch of mathematics devoted to the development of iterative matrix calculation techniques. We are searching for operations optimization as objective to calculate and solve systems of equations of order n with time and energy saving for computers that are conducted to calculate and analyze big data by solving matrix equations. Furthermore, this scientific discipline is producing results with a margin of error of approximation called rates. Thus, the results obtained from the numerical analysis techniques that are held on computer software such as MATLAB or Simulink offers a preliminary diagnosis of the situation of the environment or space targets. By this we can offer technical procedures needed for engineering or scientific studies exploitable by engineers for water.

Keywords: Simulation, Engineering, Water, Computer, Underground, numerical modeling, Numerical Analysis Methods, MATLAB, velocity, iteration, obstacles solving

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8 Study of Low Loading Heavier Phase in Horizontal Oil-Water Liquid-Liquid Pipe Flow

Authors: Aminu J. A. Koguna, Aliyu M. Aliyu, Olawale T. Fajemidupe, Yahaya D. Baba


Production fluids are transported from the platform to tankers or process facilities through transfer pipelines. Water being one of the heavier phases tends to settle at the bottom of pipelines especially at low flow velocities and this has adverse consequences for pipeline integrity. On restart after a shutdown this could result in corrosion and issues for process equipment, thus the need to have the heavier liquid dispersed into the flowing lighter fluid. This study looked at the flow regime of low water cut and low flow velocity oil and water flow using conductive film thickness probes in a large diameter 4-inch pipe to obtain oil and water interface height and the interface structural velocity. A wide range of 0.1–1.0 m/s oil and water mixture velocities was investigated for 0.5–5% water cut. Two fluid model predictions were used to compare with the experimental results.

Keywords: Liquid, velocity, interface height, flow regime, dispersed, water cut

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7 Numerical Investigation of a Slightly Oblique Round Jet Flowing into a Uniform Counterflow Stream

Authors: Georges Le Palec, Philippe Bournot, Amani Amamou, Sabra Habli, Nejla Mahjoub Saïd


A counterflowing jet is a particular configuration of turbulent jets issuing into a moving ambient which has not carried much attention in literature compared with jet in a coflow or in a crossflow. This is due to the marked instability of the jet in a counterflow coupled with experimental and theoretical difficulties related to the flow inversion phenomenon. Nevertheless, jets in a counterflow are encountered in many engineering applications which required enhanced mixing as combustion, process and environmental engineering. In this work, we propose to investigate a round turbulent jet flowing into a uniform counterflow stream through a numerical approach. A hydrodynamic and thermal study of a slightly oblique round jets issuing into a uniform counterflow stream is carried out for different jet-to-counterflow velocity ratios ranging between 3.1 and 15. It is found that even a slight inclination of the jet in the vertical direction of the flow affects the structure and the velocity field of the counterflowing jet. In addition, the evolution of passive scalar temperature and pertinent length scales are presented at various velocity ratios, confirming that the flow is sensitive to directional perturbations.

Keywords: temperature, velocity, jet, counterflow, jet inclination

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6 An Ultrasonic Approach to Investigate the Effect of Aeration on Rheological Properties of Soft Biological Materials with Bubbles Embedded

Authors: Hussein M. Elmehdi


In this paper, we present the results of our recent experiments done to examine the effect of air bubbles, which were introduced to bio-samples during preparation, on the rheological properties of soft biological materials. To effectively achieve this, we three samples each prepared with differently. Our soft biological systems comprised of three types of flour dough systems made from different flour varieties with variable protein concentrations. The samples were investigated using ultrasonic waves operated at low frequency in transmission mode. The sample investigated included dough made from bread flour, wheat flour and all-purpose flour. During mixing, the main ingredient of the samples (the flour) was transformed into cohesive dough comprised of the continuous dough matrix and air pebbles. The rheological properties of such materials determine the quality of the end cereal product. Two ultrasonic parameters, the longitudinal velocity and attenuation coefficient were found to be very sensitive to properties such as the size of the occluded bubbles, and hence have great potential of providing quantitative evaluation of the properties of such materials. The results showed that the magnitudes of the ultrasonic velocity and attenuation coefficient peaked at optimum mixing times; the latter of which is taken as an indication of the end of the mixing process. There was an agreement between the results obtained by conventional rheology and ultrasound measurements, thus showing the potential of the use of ultrasound as an on-line quality control technique for dough-based products. The results of this work are explained with respect to the molecular changes occurring in the dough system as the mixing process proceeds; particular emphasis is placed on the presence of free water and bound water.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Attenuation, velocity, soft biological materials

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5 Soil Moisture Regulation in Irrigated Agriculture

Authors: I. Kruashvili, I. Inashvili, K. Bziava, M. Lomishvili


Seepage capillary anomalies in the active layer of soil, related to the soil water movement, often cause variation of soil hydrophysical properties and become one of the main objectives of the hydroecology. It is necessary to mention that all existing equations for computing the seepage flow particularly from soil channels, through dams, bulkheads, and foundations of hydraulic engineering structures are preferable based on the linear seepage law. Regarding the existing beliefs, anomalous seepage is based on postulates according to which the fluid in free volume is characterized by resistance against shear deformation and is presented in the form of initial gradient. According to the above-mentioned information, we have determined: Equation to calculate seepage coefficient when the velocity of transition flow is equal to seepage flow velocity; by means of power function, equations for the calculation of average and maximum velocities of seepage flow have been derived; taking into consideration the fluid continuity condition, average velocity for calculation of average velocity in capillary tube has been received.

Keywords: Water, Soil, velocity, seepage

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4 Experimental Study on Using the Aluminum Sacrificial Anode as a Cathodic Protection for Marine Structures

Authors: A. Radwan, A. Elbatran, A. Mehanna, M. Shehadeh


The corrosion is natural chemical phenomenon that is applied in many engineering structures. Hence, it is one of the important topics to study in the engineering research. Ship and offshore structures are most exposed to corrosion due to the presence of corrosive medium of air and the seawater. Consequently, investigation of the corrosion behavior and properties over ship and offshore hulls is one of the important topics to study in the marine engineering research. Using sacrificial anode is the most popular solution for protecting marine structures from corrosion. Hence, this research investigates the extent of corrosion between the composite ship model and relative velocity of water, along with the sacrificial aluminum anode consumption and its degree of protection in seawater. In this study, the consumption rate of sacrificial aluminum anode with respect to relative velocity at different Reynold’s numbers was studied experimentally, and it was found that, the degree of cathodic protection represented by the cathode potential at a given distance from the aluminum anode was decreased slightly with increment of the relative velocity.

Keywords: Corrosion, velocity, sacrificial anode, Reynold's numbers

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3 The Effect of Six-Weeks of Elastic Exercises with Reactionary Ropes on Nerve Conduction Velocity and Balance in Females with Multiple Sclerosis

Authors: Mostafa Sarabzadeh, Masoumeh Helalizadeh, Seyyed Mahmoud Hejazi


Multiple Sclerosis is considered as diseases related to central nerve system, the chronic and progressive disease impress on sensory and motor function of people. Due to equilibrium problems in this patients that related to disorder of nerve conduction transmission from central nerve system to organs and the nature of elastic bands that can make changes in neuromuscular junctions and momentary actions, the aim of this research is evaluate elastic training effect by reactionary ropes on nerve conduction velocity (in lower and upper limb) and functional balance in female patients with Multiple Sclerosis. The study was a semi-experimental study that was performed based on pre and post-test method, The statistical community consisted of 16 women with MS in the age mean 25-40yrs, at low and intermediate levels of disease EDSS 1-4 (Expanded Disability Status Scale) that were divided randomly into elastic and control groups, so the training program of experimental group lasted six weeks, 3 sessions per week of elastic exercises with reactionary ropes. Electroneurography parameters (nerve conduction velocity- latency) of Upper and lower nerves (Median, Tibial, Sural, Peroneal) along with balance were investigated respectively by the Electroneurography system (ENG) and Timed up and go (TUG) functional test two times in before and after the training period. After that, To analyze the data were used of Dependent and Independent T-test (with sig level p<0.05). The results showed significant increase in nerve conduction velocity of Sural (p=0.001), Peroneal (p=0.01), Median (p=0.03) except Tibial and also development Latency Time of Tibial (p= 0), Peroneal (p=0), Median (p=0) except Sural. The TUG test showed significant decreases in execution time too (p=0.001). Generally, based on what the obtained data can indicate, modern training with elastic bands can contribute to enhanced nerve conduction velocity and balance in neurosis patients (MS) so lead to reduce problems, promotion of mobility and finally more life expectancy in these patients.

Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, Balance, velocity, elastic bands, nerve conduction

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2 Computational Fluid Dynamic Investigation into the Relationship between Pressure and Velocity Distributions within a Microfluidic Feedback Oscillator

Authors: Zara L. Sheady


Fluidic oscillators are being utilised in an increasing number of applications in a wide variety of areas; these include on-board vehicle cleaning systems, flow separation control on aircraft and in fluidic circuitry. With this increased use, there is a further understanding required for the mechanics of the fluidics of the fluidic oscillator and why they work in the manner that they do. ANSYS CFX has been utilized to visualise the pressure and velocity within a microfluidic feedback oscillator. The images demonstrate how the pressure vortices build within the oscillator at the points where the velocity is diverted from linear motion through the oscillator. With an enhanced understanding of the pressure and velocity distributions within a fluidic oscillator, it will enable users of microfluidics to more greatly tailor fluidic nozzles to their specification.

Keywords: Mechanics, Relationship, Control, Pressure, velocity, ANSYS CFX, fluidic oscillators

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1 Turbulent Flow Characteristics and Bed Morphology around Circular Bridge Pier

Authors: Pratik Acharya


Scour is the natural phenomenon brought about by erosive action of the flowing stream in alluvial channels. Frequent scouring around bridge piers may cause damage to the structures. In alluvial channels, a complex interaction between the streamflow and the bed particles results in scouring around piers. Thus, the study of characteristics of flow around piers can give sound knowledge about the scouring process. The present research has been done to investigate the turbulent flow characteristics around bridge piers and corresponding changes in bed morphology. Laboratory experiments were carried out in a tilting flume with a sand bed. The velocities around the pier are measured by Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter. Measurements show that at upstream of the pier velocity and Reynolds stresses are negative near the bed and near the free surface at downstream of the pier. At the downstream of the pier, Reynolds stresses changes rapidly due to the formation of wake vortices. Experimental results show that secondary currents are more predominant at the downstream of the pier. As the flowing stream hits the pier, the flow gets separated in the form of downflow along the face of the pier due to a strong pressure gradient and along the sides of the piers. Separation of flow around the pier leads to scour the bed material and develop the vortex. The downflow hits the bed and removes the bed material, which can be carried forward by the flow circulations along sides of the piers. Eroded bed material is deposited along the centerline at the rear side of the pier and produces hump in the downstream region. Initially, the rate of scouring is high and reduces gradually with increasing time. After a certain limit, equilibrium sets between the erosive capacity of the flowing stream and resistance to the motion by bed particles.

Keywords: velocity, pier, scour depth, acoustic doppler velocimeter, Reynolds stress

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