Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Vegetables Related Abstracts

15 Determination of Some Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Vegetable and Soil Samples from Alau Dam and Gongulong Agricultural Sites, Borno State, North Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Joseph Clement Akan, Lami Jafiya, Zaynab Muhammad Chellube, Zakari Mohammed, Fanna Inna Abdulrahman

Abstract:

Five vegetables (spinach, lettuce, cabbage, tomato, and onion) were freshly harvested from the Alau Dam and Gongulong agricultural areas for the determination of some organochlorine pesticide residues (o, p-DDE, p,p’-DDD, o,p’-DDD, p,p’-DDT, α-BHC, γ-BHC, metoxichlor, lindane, endosulfan dieldrin, and aldrin.) Soil samples were also collected at different depths for the determination of the above pesticides. Samples collection and preparation were conducted using standard procedures. The concentrations of all the pesticides in the soil and vegetable samples were determined using GC/MS SHIMADZU (GC-17A) equipped with electron capture detector (ECD). The highest concentration was that of p,p’-DDD (132.4±13.45µg/g) which was observed in the leaf of cabbage, while the lowest concentration was that of p,p’-DDT (2.34µg/g) was observed in the root of spinach. Similar trends were observed at the Gongulong agricultural area, with p,p’-DDD having the highest concentration of 153.23µg/g in the leaf of cabbage, while the lowest concentration was that of p,p’-DDT (12.45µg/g) which was observed in the root of spinach. α-BHC, γ-BHC, Methoxychlor, and lindane were detected in all the vegetable samples studied. The concentrations of all the pesticides in the soil samples were observed to be higher at a depth of 21-30cm, while the lowest concentrations were observed at a depth of 0-10cm. The concentrations of all the pesticides in the vegetables and soil samples from the two agricultural sites were observed to be at alarming levels, much higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) and acceptable daily intake values (ADIs) .The levels of the pesticides observed in the vegetables and soil samples investigated, are of such a magnitude that calls for special attention and laws to regulate the use and circulation of such chemicals. Routine monitoring of pesticide residues in these study areas is necessary for the prevention, control and reduction of environmental pollution, so as to minimize health risks.

Keywords: Soil, Vegetables, Alau Dam, gongulong, organochlorine, pesticide residues

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
14 Natural Antioxidant Changes in Fresh and Dried Spices and Vegetables

Authors: Liga Priecina, Daina Karklina

Abstract:

Antioxidants are became the most analyzed substances in last decades. Antioxidants act as in activator for free radicals. Spices and vegetables are one of major antioxidant sources. Most common antioxidants in vegetables and spices are vitamin C, E, phenolic compounds, carotenoids. Therefore, it is important to get some view about antioxidant changes in spices and vegetables during processing. In this article was analyzed nine fresh and dried spices and vegetables- celery (Apium graveolens), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens), leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), onion (Allium cepa), celery root (Apium graveolens var. rapaceum), pumpkin (Curcubica maxima), carrot (Daucus carota)- grown in Latvia 2013. Total carotenoids and phenolic compounds and their antiradical scavenging activity were determined for all samples. Dry matter content was calculated from moisture content. After drying process carotenoid content significantly decreases in all analyzed samples, except one -carotenoid content increases in parsley. Phenolic composition was different and depends on sample – fresh or dried. Total phenolic, flavonoid and phenolic acid content increases in dried spices. Flavan-3-ol content is not detected in fresh spice samples. For dried vegetables- phenolic acid content decreases significantly, but increases flavan-3-ols content. The higher antiradical scavenging activity was observed in samples with higher flavonoid and phenolic acid content.

Keywords: Spices, Vegetables, Carotenoids, Phenolic Compounds, antiradical scavenging activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
13 The Determination of Sodium/Potassium Ion Ratio in Selected Edible Leafy Vegetables in North-Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Raymond D. Uzoh, Philip K. Shallsuku, Christopher S. Vaachia

Abstract:

Selected edible leafy vegetables from North-eastern Nigeria were analysed for their sodium and potassium content in mg/100 g and the ratio Na+/K+ worked out. From experimental results, Venonia amydalina (bitter leaf) contained 150 mg (0.15 g) of sodium and 20500 mg (20.5 g) potassium with a ratio of 0.007, Brassica oleracea var capitata (cabbage) contained 300 mg (0.3 g) of sodium and 19000 mg (19 g) of potassium with a ration of 0.012. Others are Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) with 400 mg (0.45 g) of sodium and 19500 mg (19.5 g) of potassium with a ratio of 0.020; Hibiscus sabdriffa (sorrel) has 200 mg (0.2 g) of sodium and 600 mg (0.6 g) of potassium with a ratio of 0.300; and Amarantus caudatus (spinach) contained 450 mg (0.45 g) of sodium and 23000 mg (23 g) of potassium with a ratio of 0.020. The presence of sodium and potassium in foods has become increasingly important as recent studies and dietary information gathered in this research has shown that sodium intake is not the sole consideration in elevated blood pressure but its considered as a ratio Na+/K+ fixed at 0.6. This ratio has been found to be a more important factor, suggesting that our diet should contain 67 % more potassium than sodium.

Keywords: diet, Vegetables, Blood Pressure, Foods, potassium, sodium

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
12 Designing of Food Products with Seasoned Plant Components Assigned for Obese and Diabetic Individuals

Authors: A. Gramza-Michałowska, J. Skręty, M. Antczak, J. Kobus-Cisowska, D. Kmiecik, J. Korczak, Kulczyński Bartosz

Abstract:

Background: Modern consumer highly appreciates the correlation between eating habits and health. Intensified research showed many proofs confirming that food besides its basic nutritional function, possess also significant prophylactic and therapeutic potential. Preventive potential of selected food is commonly used as improvement factor of patients life standard. World Health Organization indicates that diabetes (Diabetes mellitus) and obesity are two of the most common and dangerous diseases. Diet therapy is an element of diabetes education program and a part of healing process, allowing maintaining and remaining the optimal metabolic state of the system. It must be remembered that diabetes treatment should be individualized to each patient. One of highly recommended vegetable for diabetes is asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), low calories common plant, growing in European countries. Objective: To propose the technology of unsweetened muesli production with addition of new components, we investigated the effects of selected vegetable addition on antioxidative capacity and consumer’s acceptance of muesli as representative of breakfast product. Methods: Muesli was formulated from a composition of oat flakes, flaxseed, bran, carrots, broccoli and asparagus. Basic composition of muesli was evaluated as content of protein, lipids, fatty acid composition, ash, selected minerals and caloricity. Antioxidant capacity of muesli was evaluated with use radical scavenging methods (DPPH, ABTS), ORAC value and PCL - photochemiluminescence antiradical potential. Proposed muesli as new product was also characterized with sensory analysis, which included color, scent, taste, consistency and overall acceptance of a product. Results: Results showed that addition of freeze-dried asparagus into muesli allowed to lower the fat content and caloricity of a product according to the base product. No significant loss in antioxidant potential was evaluated, also the sensory value of a product was not negative. Conclusion: Designed muesli would be an answer for obese people looking for healthy snack during the daytime. Results showed that product with asparagus addition would be accepted by the consumers and because of its antidiabetic potential could be a n important factor in prevention of diabetes or obesity. Financial support by the UE Project no PO IG 01.01.00.00-061/09

Keywords: Lipids, Vegetables, muesli, asparagus, antioxidant potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
11 Green Fruit and Vegetables Have Favorable Effects on 3-Year Changes of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: A Cohort Study

Authors: Parvin Mirmiran, Zahra Bahadoran, Nazanin Moslehi, Fereidoun Azizi

Abstract:

Background and aim: We aimed to investigate the effects of green fruits and vegetables (green FV) consumption on the 3-year changes of cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted in the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, between 2006-2008 and 2009-2011, on 1272 adults. Dietary intake of green FV, including green cabbage, broccoli, lettuce, celery, green beans, green peas, cucumber, leafy vegetables, zucchini, green chili and bell pepper, and kiwi fruit, has been assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline and second examination. Demographics, anthropometrics and biochemical measures were evaluated at baseline and 3 years later. The associations of cardiometabolic risk changes with mean intake of green FV were estimated. Results: The mean age of men and women at baseline was 39.8±12.7 and 37.3±12.1 years, respectively. Mean intake of green FV was 152±77 g/d. More intake from green FV was accompanied to more intake of vitamin A, α and β-carotene, lutein, β-criptoxanthine, potassium, magnesium and fiber. Consumption of green FV was inversely associated with 3-year change of waist circumference (β= -0.07, P=0.01), total cholesterol (β= -0.11, P=0.01) and triglycerides (β= -0.13, P=0.01). Each 25 g/d increase in consumption of green FV decreased the incidence of hyper-triglyceridemia by 12% (OR:0.88, 95%CI:0.71-0.99) in men. In women, no significant association was observed between consumption of green FV with cardiometabolic risk factors. Conclusion: Higher consumption of green FV could have preventive effects against abdominal fat gain and lipid disorders.

Keywords: Vegetables, Fruits, lipid disorders, cardiometabolic risk factors, abdominal obesity

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
10 Smallholder Participation in Organized Retail Markets: Evidence from India

Authors: Kedar Vishnu, Parmod Kumar

Abstract:

India is becoming most favored retail destination in the world. The organized retail has presented many opportunities to farmers to increase income by shifting cropping pattern from food grains to commercial crops. Previous research revealed potential benefits for farmers by supplying fruits and vegetables to organized retail channels. However the supply of fruits and vegetables from small and marginal farmers remain low than expected. The main objective of this paper is to identify the factors determining market participation of smallholder farmers in modern organized retail chains. Attempt is also made to find out factors influencing the choice of participation in particular organized retail collection centers as compared to other organized retail. The paper was based on primary survey of 40 Beans and Tomato farmers who supply to organized retail collection centers from Karnataka, India. Multiple regression technique is used to identify the factors determining quantity sold at collection centers. The regression result, show that area under vegetables, yield, and price from modern collection center and having access to technical help were found significantly affecting quantity sold into modern organized retail channels. On the opposite, increased rejection rates and vegetable prices at APMC were found influencing farmers decision into the reverse side. Empirical result of the multinomial logit model show that Reliance fresh has tendency to prefer large farmers who can supply more quality and better quantity compared with TESCO and More collection centers. The negative sign of area, having access to technical help, transportation cost, and number of bore wells led to higher probability of farmers to participate in Reliance Fresh collection centers as compared with More and TESCO.

Keywords: Vegetables, Fruits, organized retail markets, multinomial logit model

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
9 Fruits and Vegetable Consumers' Behaviour towards Organised Retailers: Evidence from India

Authors: K. B. Ramappa, A. V. Manjunatha

Abstract:

Consumerism in India is witnessing unprecedented growth driven by favourable demographics, rising young and working population, rising income levels, urbanization and growing brand orientation. In addition, the increasing level of awareness on health, hygiene and quality has made the consumers to think on the fairly traded goods and brands. This has made retailing extremely important to everyone because without retailers’ consumers would not have access to day-to-day products. The increased competition among different retailers has contributed significantly towards rising consumer awareness on quality products and brand loyalty. Many existing empirical studies have mainly focused on net saving of consumers at organised retail via-a-vis unorganised retail shops. In this article, authors have analysed the Bangalore consumers' attitudes towards buying of fruits and vegetables and their choice of retail outlets. The primary data was collected from 100 consumers belonging to the Bangalore City during October 2014. Sample consumers buying at supermarkets, convenience stores and hypermarkets were purposively selected. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and multinomial logit model. It was found that among all variables, quality and prices were major accountable factors for buying fruits and vegetables at organized retail shops. The empirical result of multinomial logit model reveals that annual net income was positively associated with the Big Bazar and Food World consumers and negatively associated with the Reliance Fresh, More and Niligiris consumers, as compared with the HOPCOMS consumers. Per month expenditure on fruits and vegetables was positively and age of the consumer was negatively related to the consumers’ choice of buying at modern retail markets. Consumers were willing to buy at modern retail outlets irrespective of the distance.

Keywords: Vegetables, Fruits, organized retailers, consumers' attitude, consumers' preference, multinomial logit, Bangalore

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
8 Impact on Vegetables Irrigated with Municipal and Industrial Wastewater from Korangi Drain near IoBM, Karachi

Authors: Nida Rabab

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to assess the Impact on Vegetables Irrigated with Municipal and Industrial wastewater from Korangi Drain near IoBM, Karachi. Some vegetables are grown using sewage and industrial wastewater laden with alarmingly high levels of heavy metals and bacteriological contamination. Maximum concentration of lead was found in spinach 8.20 mg/l as against safe limits of 0.01 mg/l and maximum nickel concentration was found in banana 3.114 mg/l as against 0.02 mg/l, whereas all vegetables were invariably bacteriologically contaminated much beyond safe limits. Appropriate legislations in Sindh and competent manpower for rigorous monitoring to gage the harmful impact on vegetables grown with untreated municipal and industrial wastewater to effectively combat the problems of growing vegetables. The emptying of untreated municipal and industrial wastewater through Korangi Drain in fresh water bodies into Karachi cost should be banned to save the coast becoming hypoxic causing irreparable loss to marine life.

Keywords: Vegetables, Concentration, laden, hypoxic

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
7 Assessment of Cadmium Levels in Soil and Vegetables Grown Along Kubanni Stream Channels, Zaria, Kaduna State

Authors: M. D. Saeed, S. O. Oladeji

Abstract:

Quantitative determination of cadmium levels in soil and vegetables grown along Kubanni stream channels were seasonally analyzed for a period of two years using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Results revealed cadmium concentrations ranging from 1.00 – 3.50 mg/Kg for the year 2013 and 1.31 – 7.15 mg/Kg in 2014 for the soil samples while the vegetables (carrot, lettuce, onion, spinach, cabbage, tomato and okro) had concentrations in the range of 0.20 – 6.10 mg/Kg in 2013 and 0.60 – 5.60 mg/Kg in 2014 respectively. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in cadmium levels across the locations and seasons for soil and vegetable analyzed. Pearson correlation results for cadmium concentrations between the year 2013 and 2014 revealed negligible (r = 0.002) relationship for soils while low (r = 0.395) relationship was obtained for vegetable and these were attributed to heavy application of fertilizers and nature of wastewater use for irrigation. Cadmium levels for both soil and vegetable exceeded the maximum allowable limit set by Standard Organization such as FAO and WHO.

Keywords: Soil, Vegetables, cadmium, level

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
6 Imidacloprid and Acetamiprid Residues in Okra and Brinjal Grown in Peri-Urban Environments and Their Dietary Intake Assessment

Authors: Muhammad Atif Randhawa, Adnan Amjad

Abstract:

Assessment of insecticides used for growing vegetables in comparison with their safety status was the main purpose of this study. A total of 180 samples of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) and brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) comprising 30 samples of each vegetable were collected from the peri-urban farming system of Multan, Faisalabad and Gujranwala. The mean value for imidacloprid residues found in brinjal (0.226 mg kg-1) and okra (0.176 mg kg-1) from Multan region were greater than the residues reported from Gujranwala and Faisalabad, showing excessive application of imidacloprid in Multan. Out of total 180 samples analysed for imidacloprid and acetamaprid residues, (90 samples for each of okra and brinjal), 104 (58%) and 117 (65%) samples contained detectable imidacloprid and acetamiprid residues, respectively. Whereas 10% and 15% samples exceeded their respective MRLs for imidacloprid and acetamiprid residues. Dietary intake assessment for imidacloprid and acetamiprid was calculated according to their MPI values 3.84 and 4.48 mg person-1day-1, respectively. The dietary intake assessment data revealed that although a reasonable proportion of samples exceeded the MRLs in studied areas but their consumption was found within safe limit in comparison to values obtained for MPI.

Keywords: Risk Assessment, Insecticides, Vegetables, Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), Maximum Residual Limits (MRLs)

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
5 Broad Spectrum Biofilm Inhibition by Chitosanase Purified from Bacillus licheniformis Isolated from Spoilt Vegetables

Authors: Sahira Nsayef Muslim, Israa M. S. Al-Kadmy, Nadheema Hammood Hussein, Alaa Naseer Mohammed Ali, Buthainah Mohammed Taha, Rayim Sabah Abbood, Sarah Naji Aziz

Abstract:

A novel strain of Bacillus licheniformis isolated from spoilt cucumber and pepper samples have the ability to produce the chitosanase enzyme when grown on chitosan substrate. Chitosanase was purified to homogeneity with a recovery yield of 35.71% and 5.5 fold of purification by using ammonium sulfate at 45% saturation followed by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose column and gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100 column. The purified chitosanase inhibited the biofilm formation ability for all Gram-negative and Gram-positive biofilm-forming bacteria (biofilm producers) after using Congo Red agar and Microtiter plates methods. Highly antibiofilm of chitosanase recorded against Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae with reduction of biofilm formation ratio to 22 and 29%, respectively compared with (100)% of control. Thus, chitosanase has promising benefit as antibiofilm agent against biofilm forming pathogenic bacteria and has promising application as alternative antibiofilm agents to combat the growing number of multidrug-resistant pathogen-associated infections, especially in situation where biofilms are involved.

Keywords: Biofilm, Vegetables, chitosanase, Bacillus licheniformis

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
4 Developing Well-Being Indicators and Measurement Methods as Illustrated by Projects Aimed at Preventing Obesity in Children

Authors: E. Grochowska-Niedworok, K. Brukało, M. Hadasik, M. Kardas

Abstract:

Consumption of vegetables by school children and adolescents is essential for their normal growth, development and health, but a significant minority of the world's population consumes the right amount of these products. The aim of the study was to evaluate the preferences and frequency of consumption of vegetables by school children and adolescents. It has been assumed that effectively implemented nutrition education programs should have an impact on increasing the frequency of vegetable consumption among the recipients. The study covered 514 students of five schools in the Opole Voivodeship aged 9 years to 22 years. The research tool was an author's questionnaire, which consisted of closed questions on the frequency of vegetable consumption and the use of 10 ways to treat them. Preferences and frequencies are shown in percentages, while correlations were estimated on the basis of Cramer`s V and gamma coefficients. In each of the examined age groups, the relationship between sex and vegetable consumption (the Cramer`s V coefficient value was 0.06 to 0.38) was determined and the various methods of culinary processing were used (V Craméra was 0.08 to 0.34). For both sexes, the relationship between age and frequency of vegetable consumption was shown (gamma values ranged from ~ 0.00 to 0.39) and different cooking methods (gamma values were 0.01 to 0.22). The most important determinant of nutritional choices is the taste and availability of products. The fact that they have a positive effect on their health is only in third position. As has been shown, obesity prevention programs can not only address nutrition education but also teach about new flavors and increase the availability of healthy foods. In addition, the frequency of vegetable consumption can be a good indicator reflecting the healthy behaviors of children and adolescents.

Keywords: Vegetables, Children and Adolescents, Frequency, welfare rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
3 Dietary Exposure Assessment of Potentially Toxic Trace Elements in Fruits and Vegetables Grown in Akhtala, Armenia

Authors: Davit Pipoyan, Meline Beglaryan, Nicolò Merendino

Abstract:

Mining industry is one of the priority sectors of Armenian economy. Along with the solution of some socio-economic development, it brings about numerous environmental problems, especially toxic element pollution, which largely influences the safety of agricultural products. In addition, accumulation of toxic elements in agricultural products, mainly in edible parts of plants represents a direct pathway for their penetration into the human food chain. In Armenia, the share of plant origin food in overall diet is significantly high, so estimation of dietary intakes of toxic trace elements via consumption of selected fruits and vegetables are of great importance for observing the underlying health risks. Therefore, the present study was aimed to assess dietary exposure of potentially toxic trace elements through the intake of locally grown fruits and vegetables in Akhtala community (Armenia), where not only mining industry is developed, but also cultivation of fruits and vegetables. Moreover, this investigation represents one of the very first attempts to estimate human dietary exposure of potentially toxic trace elements in the study area. Samples of some commonly grown fruits and vegetables (fig, cornel, raspberry, grape, apple, plum, maize, bean, potato, cucumber, onion, greens) were randomly collected from several home gardens located near mining areas in Akhtala community. The concentration of Cu, Mo, Ni, Cr, Pb, Zn, Hg, As and Cd in samples were determined by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Precision and accuracy of analyses were guaranteed by repeated analysis of samples against NIST Standard Reference Materials. For a diet study, individual-based approach was used, so the consumption of selected fruits and vegetables was investigated through food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Combining concentration data with contamination data, the estimated daily intakes (EDI) and cumulative daily intakes were assessed and compared with health-based guidance values (HBGVs). According to the determined concentrations of the studied trace elements in fruits and vegetables, it can be stressed that some trace elements (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) among the majority of samples exceeded maximum allowable limits set by international organizations. Meanwhile, others (Cr, Hg, As, Cd, Mo) either did not exceed these limits or still do not have established allowable limits. The obtained results indicated that only for Cu the EDI values exceeded dietary reference intake (0.01 mg/kg/Bw/day) for some investigated fruits and vegetables in decreasing order of potato > grape > bean > raspberry > fig > greens. In contrast to this, for combined consumption of selected fruits and vegetables estimated cumulative daily intakes exceeded reference doses in the following sequence: Zn > Cu > Ni > Mo > Pb. It may be concluded that habitual and combined consumption of the above mentioned fruits and vegetables can pose a health risk to the local population. Hence, further detailed studies are needed for the overall assessment of potential health implications taking into consideration adverse health effects posed by more than one toxic trace element.

Keywords: Vegetables, Fruits, Trace Elements, dietary exposure, daily intake

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
2 Preparation and Evaluation of Herbal Extracts for Washing of Vegetables and Fruits

Authors: Pareshkumar Umedbhai Patel

Abstract:

Variety of microbes were isolated from surface of fruit and vegetables to get idea about normal flora of their surface. The process of isolation of microbes involved use of sterilized cotton swabs to wipe the surface of the samples. For isolation of Bacteria, yeast and fungi microbiological media used were nutrient agar medium, GYE agar medium and MRBA agar medium respectively. The microscopical and macroscopical characteristics of all the isolates were studied. Different plants with known antimicrobial activity were selected for obtaining samples for extraction e.g. Ficus (Ficus religosa) stem, Amla (Phyllanthus emblica) fruit, Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) leaves and Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) oil. Antimicrobial activity of these samples was tested initially against known bacteria followed by study against microbes isolated from surface of vegetables and fruits. During the studies carried out throughout the work, lemongrass oil and Amla extract were found superior. Lemongrass oil and Amla extract respectively inhibited growth of 65% and 42% microbes isolated from fruit and vegetable surfaces. Rest two studied plant extracts showed only 11% of inhibition against the studied isolates. The results of isolate inhibition show the antibacterial effect of lemongrass oil better than the rest of the studied plant extracts.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Vegetables, Fruits, herbal extracts

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
1 Postprandial Glycemic and Appetite Responses of Muffins Supplemented with Different Vegetables in Young Males

Authors: Muhammad Umair Arshad

Abstract:

Background and Objectives: Different vegetables have been reported to possess diabetic potential in in-vitro studies; however, the same role of these vegetables has not been much explored through human intervention. Therefore, the present study was conducted to examine the comparative effects of muffins supplemented with bitter gourd (BGM), and other vegetables like spinach (SPM) and eggplant (EPM) on subjective appetite, blood glucose (BG), gut hormones and food intake in healthy young males through a randomized, cross over experiment. Methods and Study Design: After 12 hours fasting, twenty-four healthy young males (18-30 Y) were fed 250ml of plain muffins (control) or supplemented with bitter gourd powder, BGM (10g/100g flour), or spinach powder, SPM (10g/100g flour), or eggplant powder, EPM (10g/100g flour). An ad libitum pizza meal was served at 120min to measure the food intake. Subjective appetite, blood glucose, and gut hormones (insulin, GLP-1, active ghrelin) were measured at intervals from baseline to 120min. Results: Post-treatment (0-120min) glucose, but not insulin, decreased following all the vegetables supplemented muffins compared to the control (p < 0.0001) with a more pronounced effect of BGM. However, post-treatment avg. subjective appetite (p=0.0017) and food intake (p=0.0021) were reduced following BGM but not SPM and EPM. BGM further improved GLP-1 concentration (p < 0.0001), and reduced active ghrelin (p=0.0022), compared with control. Conclusions: The bitter gourd supplemented baked foods possess potential more than other vegetables to regulate postprandial appetite and glycemic responses, without a disproportionate increase in insulin concentration.

Keywords: Vegetables, food intake, muffins, glucose homeostasis, subjective appetite

Procedia PDF Downloads 5