Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

vascular endothelial growth factor Related Abstracts

4 Right Atrial Tissue Morphology in Acquired Heart Diseases

Authors: Edite Kulmane, Mara Pilmane, Romans Lacis

Abstract:

Introduction: Acquired heart diseases remain one of the leading health care problems in the world. Changes in myocardium of the diseased hearts are complex and pathogenesis is still not fully clear. The aim of this study was to identify appearance and distribution of apoptosis, homeostasis regulating factors, and innervation and ischemia markers in right atrial tissue in different acquired heart diseases. Methods: During elective open heart surgery were taken right atrial tissue fragments from 12 patients. All patients were operated because of acquired heart diseases- aortic valve stenosis (5 patients), coronary heart disease (5 patients), coronary heart disease and secondary mitral insufficiency (1 patient) and mitral disease (1 patient). The mean age was (mean±SD) 70,2±7,0 years (range 58-83 years). The tissues were stained with haematoxylin and eosin methods for routine light-microscopical examination and for immunohistochemical detection of protein gene peptide 9.5 (PGP 9.5), human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANUP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), chromogranin A and endothelin. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL method. Results: All specimens showed degeneration of cardiomyocytes with lysis of myofibrils, diffuse vacuolization especially in perinuclear region, different size of cells and their nuclei. The severe invasion of connective tissue was observed in main part of all fragments. The apoptotic index ranged from 24 to 91%. One specimen showed region of newly performed microvessels with cube shaped endotheliocytes that were positive for PGP 9.5, endothelin, chromogranin A and VEGF. From all fragments, taken from patients with coronary heart disease, there were observed numerous PGP 9.5-containing nerve fibres, except in patient with secondary mitral insufficiency, who showed just few PGP 9.5 positive nerves. In majority of specimens there were regions observed with cube shaped mixed -VEGF immunoreactive endocardial and epicardial cells. Only VEGF positive endothelial cells were observed just in few specimens. There was no significant difference of hANUP secreting cells among all specimens. All patients operated due to the coronary heart disease moderate to numerous number of chromogranin A positive cells were seen while in patients with aortic valve stenosis tissue demonstrated just few factor positive cells. Conclusions: Complex detection of different factors may indicate selectively disordered morphopathogenetical event of heart disease: decrease of PGP 9.5 nerves suggests the decreased innervation of organ; increased apoptosis indicates the cell death without ingrowth of connective tissue; persistent presence of hANUP proves the unchanged homeostasis of cardiomyocytes probably supported by expression of chromogranins. Finally, decrease of VEGF detects the regions of affected blood vessels in heart affected by acquired heart disease.

Keywords: apoptosis, heart, protein-gene peptide 9.5, atrial natriuretic peptide, vascular endothelial growth factor, chromogranin A, endothelin

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3 The Effect of Aerobic Training and Aqueous Extract of C. monogyna (Hawthorn) on Plasma and Heart Angiogenic Mediators in Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Ahmad Abdi, Asieh Abbassi Daloii

Abstract:

Introduction: Sports information suggests that physical inactivity increases the risk of many diseases, including atherosclerosis. Coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease, atherosclerosis and clinical protests. However, exercise can have beneficial effects on risk factors for atherosclerosis by reducing hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obesity, plaque density, increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance is improved. Despite these findings, there is little information about the molecular mechanisms of interaction between the body and its relation to sport and there arteriosclerosis. The present study aims to investigate the effect of six weeks of progressive aerobic training and aqueous extract of crataegus monogyna on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) variations and angiopoetin-1/2 (ANG- 1/2) in plasma and heart tissue in male Wistar rats. Methods: 30 male Wistar rats, 4-6 months old, were randomly divided into four groups: control crataegus monogyna (N=8), training crataegus monogyna (N=8), control saline (N=6), and training saline (N=8). The aerobic training program included running on treadmill at the speed of 34 meters per minute for 60 minutes per day. The training was conducted for six weeks, five days a week. Following each training session, both experimental and control subjects of crataegus monogyna groups were orally fed with 0.5 mg crataegus monogyna extract per gram of the body weight. The normal saline group was given the same amount of the normal saline solution (NS). Eventually, 72 hours after the last training session, blood samples were taken from inferior Verna cava. Conclusion: It is likely that crataegus monogyna extract compared with aerobic training and even combination of both training and crataegus monogyna extract is more effective on angiogenesis.

Keywords: Aerobic Exercise, vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoietin 1

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2 Neuroprotective Effect of Crocus sativus against Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

Authors: Sally A. El Awdan, Dina F. Mansour, Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman, Rehab R. Hegazy, Hanan A. Ogaly, Marwan Abdelbaset

Abstract:

Disorders of the cerebral circulation are the leading cause of numerous neurological and psychiatric illnesses. The transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model (MCAO) is considered to be a reliable and reproducible rodent model of cerebral ischemia. The purpose of the current study was to examine the neuroprotective effects of Crocus sativus (saffron) in a rat model of left middle cerebral artery MCAO. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized and subjected to 1 h of MCAO followed by 48 h reperfusion or sham surgery. One group of the ischemia operated animals was kept as left brain ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Another 2 operated groups received saffron extract (100 or 200 mg/kg, i.p) four times (60 min before the surgery, during the surgery, and on days 1 and 2 after the occlusion). During the experiment, behavioral tests were performed. After 72 h the animals were euthanized and their left brain hemispheres were used in the biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical studies. Saffron administration revealed an improvement in I/R-induced alteration of locomotor balance and coordination ability of rats. Moreover, saffron decreased the brain content of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, brain natriuretic peptide and vascular endothelial growth factor with significant increase of reduced glutathione. Immunohistochemical evaluation of caspase-3 and Bax protein expression revealed reduction in I/R-enhanced apoptosis in saffron treated rats. In conclusion, saffron treatment decreases ischemic brain injury in association with inhibition of apoptotic and oxidative cell death in a dose dependent manner.

Keywords: rats, caspase-3, vascular endothelial growth factor, cerebral ischemia, Crocus sativus

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1 Effects of Valproate on Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in the Retina Associated with Choroidal Neovascularization

Authors: Zhang Zhenzhen

Abstract:

Valproate (VPA) is commonly used in the treatment of bipolar disorder and epilepsy. The mechanism is complicated, including its ability to inhibit histone deacetylases (HDACs). Here, we show that VPA attenuated VEGF gene expression and the morphological changes in choroidal neovascularization (CNV) induced by photocoagulation in retina. C57BL/6 mice were injected subcutaneously at 300mg/kg twice daily with VPA before insult. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and VEGF-B were examined in the eyes of VPA-treated mice and in human retinal pigment epithelial cell lines (ARPE-19) exposed to VPA. In addition, CNV was induced by photocoagulation in mice injected with VPA, and the volume of CNV was compared by fluorescence-labeled choroidal flat mount. Morphological changes were analyzed on stained histological sections. Western blot analysis was used to determine protein levels of VEGF-A and VEGF-B, and acetylation of histone H3 in each group. VPA injected intraperitoneally attenuated the VEGF-A and VEGF-B expression in the retina, accompanied by the hyperacetylation of retina tissue, indicating that VPA acts directly on retina tissues through acetylation to reduce the expression of VEGF. VPA also attenuated the VEGF-A mRNA expression in the retinal pigment epithelium showed by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, the administration of VPA significantly attenuated photocoagulation-induced CNV in mice. These results demonstrate that VPA attenuated VEGF production in retina associated with choroidal neovascularization possibly via the HDAC inhibition.

Keywords: Retina, vascular endothelial growth factor, acetylation, chorodial neovascularization

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