Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

vanillin Related Abstracts

5 Statistical Optimization of Vanillin Production by Pycnoporus Cinnabarinus 1181

Authors: Swarali Hingse, Shraddha Digole, Uday Annapure


The present study investigates the biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin by Pycnoporus cinnabarinus and its optimization using one-factor-at-a-time method as well as statistical approach. Effect of various physicochemical parameters and medium components was studied using one-factor-at-a-time method. Screening of the significant factors was carried out using L25 Taguchi orthogonal array and then these selected significant factors were further optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Significant media components obtained using Taguchi L25 orthogonal array were glucose, KH2PO4 and yeast extract. Further, a Box Behnken design was used to investigate the interactive effects of the three most significant media components. The final medium obtained after optimization using RSM containing glucose (34.89 g/L), diammonium tartrate (1 g/L), yeast extract (1.47 g/L), MgSO4•7H2O (0.5 g/L), KH2PO4 (0.15 g/L), and CaCl2•2H2O (20 mg/L) resulted in amplification of vanillin production from 30.88 mg/L to 187.63 mg/L.

Keywords: response surface methodology, ferulic acid, pycnoporus cinnabarinus, vanillin

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4 Kinetics and Specificity of Drosophila melanogaster Molybdo-Flavoenzymes towards Their Substrates

Authors: Khaled S. Al Salhen


Aldehyde oxidase (AO) and xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) catalyze the oxidation of many different N-heterocyclic compounds as well as aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes to their corresponding lactam and carboxylic acids respectively. The present study examines the oxidation of dimethylamino-cinnamaldehyde (DMAC), vanillin and phenanthridine by AO and xanthine by XOR from Drosophila cytosol. Therefore, the results obtained in the present study showed the DMAC, vanillin and phenanthridine substrates used were found to be good substrates of Drosophila AO and xanthine is the preferred substrate for Drosophila XOR. Km values of AO substrates were observed with DMAC (50±5.4 µM), phenanthridine (80±9.1 µM) and vanillin (303±11.7 µM) respectively for Drosophila cytosol. The Km values for DMAC and phenanthridine were ~6 and ~4 fold lower than that for vanillin as a substrate. The Km for XOR with xanthine using NAD+ as an electron acceptor was 27±4.1 µM. Relatively low Vmax values were obtained with phenanthridine (1.78±0.38 nmol/min/mg protein) and DMAC (1.80±0.35 nmol/min/mg protein). The highest Vmax was obtained from Drosophila cytosol with vanillin (7.58±2.11 nmol/min/mg protein). It is concluded these results that AO and XOR in Drosophila were able to catalyse the biotransformation of numerous substrates of the well-characterised mammalian AO and XOR. The kinetic parameters have indicated that the activity of AO of Drosophila may be a significant factor the oxidation of aromatic aldehyde compounds.

Keywords: aldehyde oxidase, phenanthridine, Xanthine oxidoreductase, vanillin, dimethylamino-cinnamaldehyde, Drosophila melanogaster

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3 Impact of Flavor on Food Product Quality, A Case Study of Vanillin Stability during Biscuit Preparation

Authors: N. Yang, R. Linforth, I. Fisk


The influence of food processing and choice of flavour solvent was investigated using biscuits prepared with vanillin flavour as an example. Powder vanillin either was added directly into the dough or dissolved into flavour solvent then mixed into the dough. The impact of two commonly used flavour solvents on food quality was compared: propylene glycol (PG) or triacetin (TA). The analytical approach for vanillin detection was developed by chromatography (HPLC-PDA), and the standard extraction method for vanillin was also established. The results indicated the impact of solvent choice on vanillin level during biscuit preparation. After baking, TA as a more heat resistant solvent retained more vanillin than PG, so TA is a better solvent for products that undergo a heating process. The results also illustrated the impact of mixing and baking on vanillin stability in the matrices. The average loss of vanillin was 33% during mixing and 13% during baking, which indicated that the binding of vanillin to fat or flour before baking might cause larger loss than evaporation loss during baking.

Keywords: Food Quality, biscuit, vanillin, flavour stability

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2 New Platform of Biobased Aromatic Building Blocks for Polymers

Authors: Sylvain Caillol, Maxence Fache, Bernard Boutevin


Recent years have witnessed an increasing demand on renewable resource-derived polymers owing to increasing environmental concern and restricted availability of petrochemical resources. Thus, a great deal of attention was paid to renewable resources-derived polymers and to thermosetting materials especially, since they are crosslinked polymers and thus cannot be recycled. Also, most of thermosetting materials contain aromatic monomers, able to confer high mechanical and thermal properties to the network. Therefore, the access to biobased, non-harmful, and available aromatic monomers is one of the main challenges of the years to come. Starting from phenols available in large volumes from renewable resources, our team designed platforms of chemicals usable for the synthesis of various polymers. One of these phenols, vanillin, which is readily available from lignin, was more specifically studied. Various aromatic building blocks bearing polymerizable functions were synthesized: epoxy, amine, acid, carbonate, alcohol etc. These vanillin-based monomers can potentially lead to numerous polymers. The example of epoxy thermosets was taken, as there is also the problematic of bisphenol A substitution for these polymers. Materials were prepared from the biobased epoxy monomers obtained from vanillin. Their thermo-mechanical properties were investigated and the effect of the monomer structure was discussed. The properties of the materials prepared were found to be comparable to the current industrial reference, indicating a potential replacement of petrosourced, bisphenol A-based epoxy thermosets by biosourced, vanillin-based ones. The tunability of the final properties was achieved through the choice of monomer and through a well-controlled oligomerization reaction of these monomers. This follows the same strategy than the one currently used in industry, which supports the potential of these vanillin-derived epoxy thermosets as substitutes of their petro-based counterparts.

Keywords: Lignin, epoxy, carbonate, amine, vanillin

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1 Substitution of Formaldehyde in Phenolic Resins with Innovative and Bio-Based Vanillin Derived Compounds

Authors: Sylvain Caillol, Ghislain David


Phenolic resins are industrially used in a wide range of applications from commodity and construction materials to high-technology aerospace industry. They are mainly produced from the reaction between phenolic compounds and formaldehyde. Nevertheless, formaldehyde is a highly volatile and hazardous compound, classified as a Carcinogenic, Mutagenic and Reprotoxic chemical (CMR). Vanillin is a bio-based and non-toxic aromatic aldehyde compound obtained from the abundant lignin resources. Also, its aromaticity is very interesting for the synthesis of phenolic resins with high thermal stability. However, because of the relatively low reactivity of its aldehyde function toward phenolic compounds, it has never been used to synthesize phenolic resins. We developed innovative functionalization reactions and designed new bio-based aromatic aldehyde compounds from vanillin. Those innovative compounds present improved reactivity toward phenolic compounds compared to vanillin. Moreover, they have target structures to synthesize highly cross-linked phenolic resins with high aromatic densities. We have obtained phenolic resins from substituted vanillin, thus without the use of any aldehyde compound classified as CMR. The analytical tests of the cured resins confirmed that those bio-based resins exhibit high levels of performance with high thermal stability and high rigidity properties

Keywords: Bio-based, vanillin, phenolic resins, formaldehyde-free, non-toxic

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