Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

vanadium Related Abstracts

9 Removal of Metals from Heavy Oil

Authors: Ali Noorian

Abstract:

Crude oil contains various compounds of hydrocarbons but low concentrations of inorganic compounds or metals. Vanadium and Nickel are the most common metals in crude oil. These metals usually exist in solution in the oil and residual fuel oil in the refining process is condensed. Deleterious effects of metals in petroleum have been known for some time. These metals do not only contaminate the product but also cause intoxication and loss of catalyst and corrosion to equipment. In this study, removal of heavy metals and petroleum residues were investigated. These methods include physical, chemical and biological treatment processes. For example, processes such as solvent extraction and hydro-catalytic and catalytic methods are effective and practical methods, but typically often have high costs and cause environmental pollution. Furthermore, biological methods that do not cause environmental pollution have been discussed in recent years, but these methods have not yet been industrialized.

Keywords: Metal, heavy oil, Nickel, removal, vanadium

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
8 The Effect of Vanadium Addition on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of A319 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: Musbah Mahfoud, Ibtisam Mustafa

Abstract:

The present work highlights some of our up-to-date findings on the effect of vanadium addition on the mechanical properties and microstructure of one of the most versatile aluminum-silicon alloys, i.e., A319. In terms of microstructure, it was found that in addition to its ability to refine some of the constituent phases, vanadium also helps in retarding the formation of some of the detrimental intermetallic compounds, such as those involving Al-Fe-Si. Preliminary studies of the effect of vanadium on the mechanical properties of A319 have shown that vanadium additions up to 0.4% cause slight increase in the yield and tensile strength. However, the vanadium addition did not show a significant effect on the hardness of the alloy.

Keywords: Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, Aluminium, vanadium, intermetallic

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
7 Packaging Improvement for Unit Cell Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (V-RFB)

Authors: A. C. Khor, M. R. Mohamed, M. H. Sulaiman, M. R. Daud

Abstract:

Packaging for vanadium redox flow battery is one of the key elements for successful implementation of flow battery in the electrical energy storage system. Usually the bulky battery size and low energy densities make this technology not available for mobility application. Therefore RFB with improved packaging size and energy capacity are highly desirable. This paper focuses on the study of packaging improvement for unit cell V-RFB to the application on Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle. Two different designs of 25 cm2 and 100 cm2 unit cell V-RFB at same current density are used for the sample in this investigation. Further suggestions on packaging improvement are highlighted.

Keywords: packaging, Electric Vehicle, vanadium, redox flow battery

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
6 Magnetic Activated Carbon: Preparation, Characterization, and Application for Vanadium Removal

Authors: Hakimeh Sharififard, Mansooreh Soleimani

Abstract:

In this work, the magnetic activated carbon nanocomposite (Fe-CAC) has been synthesized by anchorage iron hydr(oxide) nanoparticles onto commercial activated carbon (CAC) surface and characterized using BET, XRF, SEM techniques. The influence of various removal parameters such as pH, contact time and initial concentration of vanadium on vanadium removal was evaluated using CAC and Fe-CAC in batch method. The sorption isotherms were studied using Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R) isotherm models. These equilibrium data were well described by the Freundlich model. Results showed that CAC had the vanadium adsorption capacity of 37.87 mg/g, while the Fe-AC was able to adsorb 119.01 mg/g of vanadium. Kinetic data was found to confirm pseudo-second-order kinetic model for both adsorbents.

Keywords: nanocomposite, vanadium, magnetic activated carbon, remove, freundlich

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
5 Effect of Vanadium Addition to Aluminum Grain Refined by Ti or Ti + B on Its Microstructure, Mechanical Behavior, Fatigue Strength and Life

Authors: Adnan I. O. Zaid

Abstract:

As aluminum solidifies in columnar structure with large grain size which reduces its surface quality and mechanical strength; therefore it is normally grain refined either by titanium or titanium + boron (Ti or Ti + B). In this paper, the effect of addition of either Ti or Ti + B to commercially pure aluminum on its grain size, Vickers hardness, mechanical strength and fatigue strength and life is presented and discussed. Similarly, the effect of vanadium addition to Al grain refined by Ti or Ti+ B is presented and discussed. Two binary master alloys Al-Ti and Al-Vi were laboratory prepared from which five different micro-alloys in addition to the commercially pure aluminum namely Al-Ti, Al-Ti-B, Al-V, Al-Ti-V and Al-Ti-B-V were prepared for the investigation. Finally, the effect of their addition on the fatigue cracks initiation and propagation, using scanning electron microscope, SEM, is also presented and discussed. Photomirographs and photoscans are included in the paper.

Keywords: Fatigue, Titanium, Aluminum, vanadium, grain refinement, titanium+boron

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
4 Adsorptive Performance of Surface Modified Montmorillonite in Vanadium Removal from Real Mine Water

Authors: Opeyemi Atiba-Oyewo, Taile Y. Leswfi, Maurice S. Onyango, Christian Wolkersdorfer

Abstract:

This paper describes the preparation of surface modified montmorillonite using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br) for the removal of vanadium from mine water. The adsorbent before and after adsorption was characterised by Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the amount of vanadium adsorbed was determined by ICP-OES. The batch adsorption method was employed using vanadium concentrations in solution ranging from 50 to 320 mg/L and vanadium tailings seepage water from a South African mine. Also, solution pH, temperature and sorbent mass were varied. Results show that the adsorption capacity was affected by solution pH, temperature, sorbent mass and the initial concentration. Electrical conductivity of the mine water before and after adsorption was measured to estimate the total dissolved solids in the mine water. Equilibrium isotherm results revealed that vanadium sorption follows the Freundlich isotherm, indicating that the surface of the sorbent was heterogeneous. The pseudo-second order kinetic model gave the best fit to the kinetic experimental data compared to the first order and Elovich models. The results of this study may be used to predict the uptake efficiency of South Africa montmorillonite in view of its application for the removal of vanadium from mine water. However, the choice of this adsorbent for the uptake of vanadium or other contaminants will depend on the composition of the effluent to be treated.

Keywords: Equilibrium, Kinetics, Adsorption, vanadium, modified montmorillonite, mine water

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
3 Deasphalting of Crude Oil by Extraction Method

Authors: A. N. Kurbanova, G. K. Sugurbekova, N. K. Akhmetov

Abstract:

The asphaltenes are heavy fraction of crude oil. Asphaltenes on oilfield is known for its ability to plug wells, surface equipment and pores of the geologic formations. The present research is devoted to the deasphalting of crude oil as the initial stage refining oil. Solvent deasphalting was conducted by extraction with organic solvents (cyclohexane, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform). Analysis of availability of metals was conducted by ICP-MS and spectral feature at deasphalting was achieved by FTIR. High contents of asphaltenes in crude oil reduce the efficiency of refining processes. Moreover, high distribution heteroatoms (e.g., S, N) were also suggested in asphaltenes cause some problems: environmental pollution, corrosion and poisoning of the catalyst. The main objective of this work is to study the effect of deasphalting process crude oil to improve its properties and improving the efficiency of recycling processes. Experiments of solvent extraction are using organic solvents held in the crude oil JSC “Pavlodar Oil Chemistry Refinery. Experimental results show that deasphalting process also leads to decrease Ni, V in the composition of the oil. One solution to the problem of cleaning oils from metals, hydrogen sulfide and mercaptan is absorption with chemical reagents directly in oil residue and production due to the fact that asphalt and resinous substance degrade operational properties of oils and reduce the effectiveness of selective refining of oils. Deasphalting of crude oil is necessary to separate the light fraction from heavy metallic asphaltenes part of crude oil. For this oil is pretreated deasphalting, because asphaltenes tend to form coke or consume large quantities of hydrogen. Removing asphaltenes leads to partly demetallization, i.e. for removal of asphaltenes V/Ni and organic compounds with heteroatoms. Intramolecular complexes are relatively well researched on the example of porphyinous complex (VO2) and nickel (Ni). As a result of studies of V/Ni by ICP MS method were determined the effect of different solvents-deasphalting – on the process of extracting metals on deasphalting stage and select the best organic solvent. Thus, as the best DAO proved cyclohexane (C6H12), which as a result of ICP MS retrieves V-51.2%, Ni-66.4%? Also in this paper presents the results of a study of physical and chemical properties and spectral characteristics of oil on FTIR with a view to establishing its hydrocarbon composition. Obtained by using IR-spectroscopy method information about the specifics of the whole oil give provisional physical, chemical characteristics. They can be useful in the consideration of issues of origin and geochemical conditions of accumulation of oil, as well as some technological challenges. Systematic analysis carried out in this study; improve our understanding of the stability mechanism of asphaltenes. The role of deasphalted crude oil fractions on the stability asphaltene is described.

Keywords: Extraction, Nickel, vanadium, IR spectroscopy, ICP-MS, asphaltenes, deasphalting, metalloporphyrins

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
2 Removal of Vanadium from Industrial Effluents by Natural Ion Exchanger

Authors: Shashikant R. Kuchekar, Haribhau R. Aher, Priti M. Dhage

Abstract:

The removal vanadium from aqueous solution using natural exchanger was investigated. The effects of pH, contact time and exchanger dose were studied at ambient temperature (25 0C ± 2 0C). The equilibrium process was described by the Langmuir isotherm model with adsorption capacity for vanadium. The natural exchanger i.e. tamarindus seeds powder was treated with formaldehyde and sulpuric acid to increase the adsorptivity of metals. The maximum exchange level was attained as 80.1% at pH 3 with exchanger dose 5 g and contact time 60 min. Method is applied for removal of vanadium from industrial effluents.

Keywords: vanadium, industrial effluent, natural ion exchange, Tamarindous indica

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
1 Influence of Aluminium on Grain Refinement in As-Rolled Vanadium-Microalloyed Steels

Authors: Kevin Mark Banks, Dannis Rorisang Nkarapa Maubane, Carel Coetzee

Abstract:

The influence of aluminium content, reheating temperature, and sizing (final) strain on the as-rolled microstructure was systematically investigated in vanadium-microalloyed and C-Mn plate steels. Reheating, followed by hot rolling and air cooling simulations were performed on steels containing a range of aluminium and nitrogen contents. Natural air cooling profiles, corresponding to 6 and 20mm thick plates, were applied. The austenite and ferrite/pearlite microstructures were examined using light optical microscopy. Precipitate species and volume fraction were determined on selected specimens. No influence of aluminium content was found below 0.08% on the as-rolled grain size in all steels studied. A low Al-V-steel produced the coarsest initial austenite grain size due to AlN dissolution at low temperatures leading to abnormal grain growth. An Al-free V-N steel had the finest initial microstructure. Although the as-rolled grain size for 20mm plate was similar in all steels tested, the grain distribution was relatively mixed. The final grain size in 6mm plate was similar for most compositions; the exception was an as-cast V low N steel, where the size of the second phase was inversely proportional to the sizing strain. This was attributed to both segregation and a low VN volume fraction available for effective pinning of austenite grain boundaries during cooling. Increasing the sizing strain refined the microstructure significantly in all steels.

Keywords: Nitrogen, steel, Aluminium, reheating, grain size, vanadium, sizing strain

Procedia PDF Downloads 7