Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Values Related Abstracts

29 Contradictions of Contemporary Culture and Civilization, Processes of Tradition and Innovation

Authors: G. K. Abdigalieva, Z. N. Ismagambetova, T. H. Gabitov, K. A. Biazdikova, A. A. Mukhanbet , B. E. Moldagaliyev, Saira Shamahay


In the article was shown attitude to contemporary traditional culture and cultural heritage preservation issues and features of further development of a culture. Concerning innovation, appeal to cultural heritage, ability of reception of a culture and cultural diffusion in the process of globalization, it is offered further positive development of Kazakhstan’s based human experience and achieved with time. System of traditions is considered as a phenomenon which describes unity, harmony and stability of social body. Contradictions of contemporary culture and civilization, processes of tradition and innovation, cultural changes, and creativities are considered as second side of a society development. Innovation is analyzed as a method of renewal of a culture, tradition and innovation are considered as universal feature of any culture.

Keywords: Innovation, Culture, Values, Civilization, Reality, morality‎, Customs, Social Relations, tradition

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28 Aluminum Factories, Values and Regeneration Option

Authors: Tereza Bartosikova


This paper describes the values of a specific type of industrial heritage-aluminum factories. It is an especially endangered kind of industrial heritage with only a little attention paid. The paper aims to highlight the uniqueness of these grounds and to specify several options for revitalizations. The research is based on complex aluminum factories mapping in Europe from archives and bibliographic sources and on site. There is analyzed gained information that could offer a new view on the aluminum grounds. Primarily, the data are described according to the works in Žiar nad Hronom, Slovakia. More than a half aluminum grounds have ended up the production, although they can go on further. They are closely connected with some areas identity and their presence has left striking footsteps in the environment. By saving them, the historical continuity, cultural identity of population and also the economic stability of region would be supported.

Keywords: Values, Regeneration, Industrial Heritage, Aluminum

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27 Consumer Values in the Perspective of Javanese Mataraman Society: Identification, Meaning, and Application

Authors: Anna Triwijayati, Etsa Astridya Setiyati, Titik Desi Harsoyo


Culture is the important determinant of human behavior and desire. Culture influences the consumer through the norms and values established by the society in which they live and reflect it. The cultural values of Javanese society certainly have united in the Javanese society behavior in consumption. This research is expected to give big enough theoretical benefits in the findings of cultural value in consumption in Javanese society. These can be an incentive in finding the local cultural value in many tribes in Indonesia, so one time, the local cultural value in Indonesia about consumption can be fundamental part in education and consumption practice in Indonesia. The approach used in this research is non positivist research or is known as qualitative approach. The method or type of research used in this research is ethnomethodology. The collection data is done in Central Java region. The research subject or informant is determined by the purposive technique by certain criteria determined by the researcher. The data is collected by deep interview and observation. Before the data analysis, the researcher does the storing method data stage and implements the data validity procedures. Then, the data is analyzed by the theme and interactive analysis technique. The Javanese Mataraman society has such consumption values such as has to be sufficient, be careful, economical, submit to the one who creates the life, the way life flow, and the present problem is thought in the present also. In the financial management for consumption, the consumer should have the simple life principles, has to be sufficient, has to be able to eat, has to be able to self-press, well-managed/diligent/accurate/careful, the open or transparent management, has the struggle effort, like to self-sacrifice and think about the future. The meaning of consumption value in family is centered to the submission and full-trust to God. These consumption values are applied in consumer behavior in self, family, investment and credit need in short term and long term perspective.

Keywords: Consumer, Values, consumption, Ethnomethodology, Javanese Mataraman

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26 Culture of Manager of a Medium or Small Enterprises

Authors: Omar Bendjimaa, Karzabi Abdelatif


Small and medium enterprises have witnessed several developments in recent years thanks to the policies and programs of support given by the state, and that is due to their importance in local and national development. Nevertheless, the success and development of these firms depends on a number of factors, especially the human element, for instance, the culture of the manager has its origin in the culture of the community and is of crucial influence in these firms. In fact, this culture is nothing more than a set of values, perceptions, beliefs, symbols and practices repeated, in addition to the knowledge it has received from the readings and the modern means of education. All these factors have an impact on the effectiveness of governance, its resolutions, instructions and performance of its function as a manager of a medium or small enterprise is inevitably affected by these cultural values, it is the driving force, the leader, and the observer at the same time.

Keywords: Performance, Values, beliefs, Small and medium enterprises, perceptions, the culture of the manager, the culture of the community, symbols

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25 Socioeconomic Values and Administration in Northern Nigeria: An Examination of the Impacts of Dearth of Values

Authors: Hassan Alhaji Hassan, Inuwa Abdu Ibrahim


The research looks at the decaying socioeconomic values in northern Nigeria, which is directly affecting the administration of service at different levels. The aim is to establish the consequence of a valueless society on individual and public life at different levels. The result of governments’ continued neglect of education, societal values, which have negatively affected societal development and indeed development in general. Therefore, focus is on governments’ poor performance in Nigeria, using secondary sources of data. In conclusion, the research asserts the need for the application of the values of some traditional values as personal principles and good governance as the way out of the present deteriorating conditions.

Keywords: Education, Good Governance, Values, socioeconomic, Northern Nigeria

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24 Whose Education Is It? Developing Communities Left Out in Framing Higher Education

Authors: Muwanga Zake, Johnnie Wycliffe Frank


Developing communities accommodating institutions of Higher Education (HE) often have no capacity to pay for HE and so do not contribute values and do not participate in Quality Assurance. Only governments, academia, employers and professional organisations determine values, QA and curricula in HE. A gap between the values in HE and those desirable in local communities and environments leads to erroneous conceptions of the purposes of HE, and to graduates who hardly fit into those local communities. Unemployment and under-utilization of local resources are thus expected. As a way to improve and make HE more relevant for local communities and environment, public perceptions, values and needs should be researched and HE courses should relate with local values and environments. Communities should participate in QA.

Keywords: Higher Education, Utilization, Quality assurance, Values

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23 Values Education in Military Schools and Işıklar Air Force High School Sample

Authors: Mehmet Eren Çelik


Values are notions that help people to decide what is good or not and to direct their attitude. Teaching values has always been very important throughout the history. Values should be thought in younger ages to get more efficiency. Therefore military schools are the last stop to learn values effectively. That’s why values education in military schools has vital importance. In this study the military side of values education is examined. The purpose of the study is to show how important values education is and why military students need values education. First of all what value is and what values education means is clearly explained and values education in schools and specifically in military schools is stated. Then values education in Işıklar Air Force High School exemplifies the given information.

Keywords: Values, Values Education, Işıklar Air Force High School, military school

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22 Role of Education in the Transference of Global Values

Authors: Baratali Monfarediraz


Humans’ identity is not only under the influence of a certain society or social structure but also it is influenced by an international identity. This article is a research on role of education in the manifestation of universally accepted values such as, advancement of science, improvement in the quality of education, preservation of the natural environment, preservation, and spread of peace, exchange of knowledge and technology, equal educational opportunities, benefiting from a universal morality and etc. Therefore, the relation between universal beliefs and values and educational approaches and programs is the first thing to pay attention to. Studies indicate that the first step in achieving the above mentioned goals is offering learning strategies. Therefore the importance of educational approaches and programs as a tool for the transference of ideas, experiences and thoughts becomes quite clear. Proper education gives everyone the opportunity of acquiring knowledge while creating tendency toward social activities paves the way for achieving the universal values.

Keywords: Education, Society, Globalization, Values, universal values, universal goal

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21 Orchestra Course Outcomes in Terms of Values Education

Authors: Z. Kurtaslan, H. Hakan Okay, E. Can Dönmez, I. Kuçukdoğan


Music education aims to bring up individuals most appropriately and to advanced levels as a balanced whole physically, cognitively, affectively, and kinesthetically while making a major contribution to the physical and spiritual development of the individual. The most crucial aim of music education, an influential education medium per se, is to make music be loved; yet, among its educational aims are concepts such as affinity, friendship, goodness, philanthropy, responsibility, and respect all extremely crucial bringing up individuals as a balanced whole. One of the most essential assets of the music education is the training of making music together, solidifying musical knowledge and enabling the acquisition of cooperation. This habit requires internalization of values like responsibility, patience, cooperativeness, respect, self-control, friendship, and fairness. If musicians lack these values, the ensemble will become after some certain time a cacophony. In this qualitative research, the attitudes of music teacher candidates in orchestra/chamber music classes will be examined in terms of values.

Keywords: Music, Education, Values, orchestra/chamber music

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20 Value Clusters of Grade 9 Teachers in the District of Trece Martires City, Division of Cavite: Basis for a Revised Values Education Program (RVEP)"

Authors: Juland D. Salayo


With numerous innovations introduced in the Philippine educational system, the country’s struggle of materializing its national goal of transforming lives ends with great loss. Many agree that the failure to emerge the integral values of the program, framework and the implementers impedes realization. Employing a descriptive-correlational method, it aimed to determine the value clusters of the Grade 9 teachers as assessed by themselves and by the students, the significant difference of the assessed values and the significant difference on the values based on their profile. Respondents were composed of sixty-nine (69) teachers and three hundred forty (340) students using simple random sampling. Through a survey-questionnaire, the study revealed that the teachers have high regards on their self-reliance, honesty and trustworthiness, obedience, politeness and respect and self-discipline and spirituality. In contrast, they have ranked the following values fairly: justice and fairness, courage, responsibility and punctuality and nationalism and patriotism. Having assessed by the students, they have highly regarded their teachers’ self-reliance, responsibility and punctuality, obedience, politeness and respect and fair play and sportsmanship. On the other hand, the student-respondents made a low assessment on the level of the teachers’ justice and fairness, nationalism and patriotism, honesty and trustworthiness and excellence. Using t-test, it showed that there is a significant difference between the assessments of the respondents. Finally, among the demographic profiles, only civil status and age rejected the hypothesis. The following were recommended: provide educators value-enhancement trainings and conferences, organize value-oriented organizations and activities, and make intensive value-campaigns heightening the low-assessed values. Thus, a Revised Values Education Program (RVEP) was made to further meet the objectives of the program, address the needs of its clienteles, and responding to the demands of both education and society towards excellence in service, social and economic revolution, and constructive national goals which are based from integral values.

Keywords: Values, Values Education, value clusters, values education program, teachers' assessed values

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19 CSR and Employer Attractiveness: The Relationship of Value Orientation of High-Potential Applicants and Their Decision for an Employer

Authors: Silke Bustamante, Andrea Pelzeter, Andreas Deckmann, Rudi Ehlscheidt, Franziska Freudenberger


Against the background of demographic changes and the need for motivated and talented employees, companies have a growing interest in being perceived as an attractive employer and gain a competitive edge in the market for talents. Research indicates that corporate social responsibility plays an important role employer choice. This is assumed to be particularly true for the cohorts of the so-called generations y younger applicants born later. Several studies identified cultural, educational and generational differences in CSR preferences. However, until now literature that links preferences for employers’ responsibility with the individual value orientation of the job applicant is scarce. This paper seeks to close this gap and analyzes the preference structure of 500 German university graduates for CSR-related and non-CSR-related employer attributes contingent on their value orientation. In a first step, we identified 17 CSR related attributes in five CSR dimensions (ecology, community, workplace, governance, and market) as well as 11 traditional attributes such as salary, reputation, personal development etc. based on literature review and focus groups. We then used an adapted Conjoint Analysis framework in order to understand the relative preference of each attribute for each participant. Additionally, we surveyed the value orientation of participants based on the European Social Survey (ESS) 21-item human values scale that allow a differentiation of participants into clusters of value orientation. The results allow us not only to operationalize preferences for CSR and other important employer attributes, but – more importantly – to answer the question how different values structures play together with CSR preferences of potential employees. They hereby allow companies to customize employee directed messages to their respective target group and design their employer brand accordingly.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Values, employer brand, employer attractiveness, recruiting

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18 Changing Roles and Skills of Urban Planners in the Turkish Planning System

Authors: Fatih Eren


This research aims to find an answer to the question of which knowledge and skills do the Turkish urban planners need in their business practice. Understanding change in cities, making a prediction, making an urban decision and putting it into practice, working together with actors from different organizations from various academic disciplines, persuading people to accept something and developing good personal and professional relationships have become very complex and difficult in today’s world. The truth is that urban planners work in many institutions under various positions which are not similar to each other by field of activity and all planners are forced to develop some knowledge and skills for success in their business in Turkey. This study targets to explore what urban planners do in the global information age. The study is the product of a comprehensive nation-wide research. In-depth interviews were conducted with 174 experienced urban planners, who work in different public institutions and private companies under varied positions in the Turkish Planning System, to find out knowledge and skills needed by next-generation urban planners. The main characteristics of next-generation urban planners are defined; skills that planners needed today are explored in this paper. Findings show that the positivist (traditional) planning approach has given place to anti-positivist planning approaches in the Turkish Planning System so next-generation urban planners who seek success and want to carve out a niche for themselves in business life have to equip themselves with innovative skills. The result section also includes useful and instructive findings for planners about what is the meaning of being an urban planner and what is the ideal content and context of planning education at universities in the global age.

Keywords: Values, Roles, Skills, global information age, Turkish Planning System, the institutional approach, urban planners

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17 The Brand Value of Cosmetics in the View of Customers in Thailand

Authors: Mananya Meenakorn


The purpose of this research is to study the relationship customer perception and brand value of cosmetics in the view of customers in Thailand. The research is quantitative research using the survey method by questionnaire. Data were collected from female cosmetics consumer that residents in Bangkok, aged between 25-55 years. Researchers have determined the size of the sample by using Taro Yamane technic a total of 400 people. The study found the Shiseido cosmetics brand image always come with the new products innovation is in the height level. The average was 3.812, second is Shiseido brand has used innovation to produce the product for 3.792. And brand Shiseido looks luxury with an average of 3.707 respectively. In additional in terms of Lancôme cosmetic brand found the brand image is luxury at the height levels for 4.170 average. The seductive glamor is considered in the moderate with an average of 3.822 respectively.

Keywords: Values, Brand Image, Working Women, international fashion dress

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16 Effects of an Educative Model in Socially Responsible Behavior and Other Psychological Variables

Authors: Gracia V. Navarro, Maria V. Gonzalez, Carlos G. Reed


The eudaimonic perspective in philosophy and psychology suggests that a good life is closely related to developing oneself in order to contribute to the well-being and happiness of other people and of the world as a whole. Educational psychology can help to achieve this through the design and validation of educative models. Since 2004, the University of Concepcion and other Chilean universities apply an educative model to train socially responsible professionals, people that in the exercise of their profession contribute to generate equity for the development and assess the impacts of their decisions, opting for those that serve the common good. The main aim is to identify if a relationship exists between achieved learning, attitudes toward social responsibility, self-attribution of socially responsible behavior, value type, professional behavior observed and, participation in a specific model to train socially responsible (SR) professionals. The Achieved Learning and Attitudes Toward Social Responsibility Questionnaire, interview with employers and Values Questionnaire and Self-attribution of SR Behavior Questionnaire is applied to 394 students and graduates, divided into experimental and control groups (trained and not trained under the educative model), in order to identify the professional behavior of the graduates. The results show that students and graduates perceive cognitive, affective and behavioral learning, with significant differences in attitudes toward social responsibility and self-attribution of SR behavior, between experimental and control. There are also differences in employers' perceptions about the professional practice of those who were trained under the model and those who were not. It is concluded that the educative model has an impact on the learning of social responsibility and educates for a full life. It is also concluded that it is necessary to identify mediating variables of the model effect.

Keywords: Values, educative model, good life, professional social responsibility

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15 Exploring the Relationship between Organisational Identity and Value Systems: Reflecting on the Values-Crafting Process in a Multi-National Organisation within the Entertainment Industry

Authors: Dieter Veldsman, Theo Heyns Veldsman


The knowledge economy demands an organisation that is flexible, adaptable and able to navigate the ever-changing environment. This fast-paced environment has however resulted in an organizational landscape that battles to engage employees, retain top talent and create meaningful work for its members. In the knowledge economy, the concept of organizational identity has become an important consideration as organisations aim to create a compelling and inviting narrative for all stakeholders across the business value chain. Values are often seen as the behavioural framework that informs organisational culture, yet often values are perceived to be inauthentic and misaligned with the true character or identity of the organisation and how it is perceived by different role players. This paper focuses on exploring the relationship between organisational identity and value systems by focusing on a case study within a multi-national organisation within South Africa. The paper evaluates the implementation of mixed methods OD approach that gathered collaborative inputs of more than 4500 employees who participated in crafting the newly established values system post a retrenchment process. The paper will evaluate the relationship between the newly crafted value system and the identity of the organisation as described by various internal and external stakeholders in order to explore potential alignment, dissonance and key insights into understanding the relationship between organisational identity and values. The case study will be reported from the perspective of an OD consultant who supported the transformation process over a period of 8 months and aims to provide key insights into values and identity alignment within knowledge economy organisations. From a practical perspective, the paper provides insights into how values are created, perceived and lived within organisations and the impact on employee engagement and culture.

Keywords: Culture, Values, organisational development, organisational identity

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14 The Educational, Social and Cultural Significance of Boys Choirs

Authors: Johannes Van Der Sandt


Worldwide, there are many boys choirs, but the Drakensberg Boys Choir is one of only a few of its kind: selected from a residential boys choir school using choral music as a significant vehicle for holistic education. With ongoing debates as to whether single-gender education is advantageous for boys, and research on the missing males in choirs problem, this presentation‘s purpose is to explore the perceived benefits and values for boys singing in the world-renowned Drakensberg Boys Choir, and to establish educational grounds for the existence of boys choirs. Semi-structured questionnaires were given to choristers, known as Drakies, to ascertain their perceptions of their choir membership. Their experiences are noted in terms of musical, social and behavioral skills gained. The main emerging themes in each category are discussed in order to lay claim to the assumption that boys choirs exist not only to entertain, and nor are their goals purely musical or pedagogical, but that they can be regarded as unique, cultural artifacts that aid boys‘ development into well-equipped and well-rounded young men.

Keywords: Education, Values, Skills, boys, choirs, choral

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13 Enabling Rather Than Managing: Organizational and Cultural Innovation Mechanisms in a Heterarchical Organization

Authors: Sarah M. Schoellhammer, Stephen Gibb


Bureaucracy, in particular, its core element, a formal and stable hierarchy of authority, is proving less and less appropriate under the conditions of today’s knowledge economy. Centralization and formalization were consistently found to hinder innovation, undermining cross-functional collaboration, personal responsibility, and flexibility. With its focus on systematical planning, controlling and monitoring the development of new or improved solutions for customers, even innovation management as a discipline is to a significant extent based on a mechanistic understanding of organizations. The most important drivers of innovation, human creativity, and initiative, however, can be more hindered than supported by central elements of classic innovation management, such as predefined innovation strategies, rigid stage gate processes, and decisions made in management gate meetings. Heterarchy, as an alternative network form of organization, is essentially characterized by its dynamic influence structures, whereby the biggest influence is allocated by the collective to the persons perceived the most competent in a certain issue. Theoretical arguments that the non-hierarchical concept better supports innovation than bureaucracy have been supported by empirical research. These prior studies either focus on the structure and general functioning of non-hierarchical organizations or on their innovativeness, that means innovation as an outcome. Complementing classic innovation management approaches, this work aims to shed light on how innovations are initiated and realized in heterarchies in order to identify alternative solutions practiced under conditions of the post-bureaucratic organization. Through an initial individual case study, which is part of a multiple-case project, the innovation practices of an innovative and highly heterarchical medium-sized company in the German fire engineering industry are investigated. In a pragmatic mixed methods approach media resonance, company documents, and workspace architecture are analyzed, in addition to qualitative interviews with the CEO and employees of the case company, as well as a quantitative survey aiming to characterize the company along five scaled dimensions of a heterarchy spectrum. The analysis reveals some similarities and striking differences to approaches suggested by classic innovation management. The studied heterarchy has no predefined innovation strategy guiding new product and service development. Instead, strategic direction is provided by the CEO, described as visionary and creative. Procedures for innovation are hardly formalized, with new product ideas being evaluated on the basis of gut feeling and flexible, rather general criteria. Employees still being hesitant to take responsibility and make decisions, hierarchical influence is still prominent. Described as open-minded and collaborative, culture and leadership were found largely congruent with definitions of innovation culture. Overall, innovation efforts at the case company tend to be coordinated more through cultural than through formal organizational mechanisms. To better enable innovation in mainstream organizations, responsible practitioners are recommended not to limit changes to reducing the central elements of the bureaucratic organization, formalization, and centralization. The freedoms this entails need to be sustained through cultural coordination mechanisms, with personal initiative and responsibility by employees as well as common innovation-supportive norms and values. These allow to integrate diverse competencies, opinions, and activities and, thus, to guide innovation efforts.

Keywords: Innovation Management, Values, Bureaucracy, heterarchy

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12 Exploration of FOMO, or the 'Fear of Missing out' and the Use of Mindfulness and Values-Based Interventions for Alleviating Its Effects and Bolstering Well-Being

Authors: Chasity O'Connell


The use of social media and networking sites play a significant role in the lives of adolescents and adults. While research supports that social support and connectedness in general is beneficial; the nature of communication and interaction through social media and its subsequent benefits and impacts could be arguably different. As such, this research aims to explore a specific facet of social media interaction called fear of missing out, or 'FOMO' and investigate its relationship within the context of life stressors, social media usage, anxiety and depressive-symptoms, mindfulness, and psychological well-being. FOMO is the 'uneasy and sometimes all-consuming feeling that you’re missing out—that your peers are doing, in the know about, or in possession of more or something better than you'. Research suggests that FOMO can influence an individual’s level of engagement with friends and social media consumption, drive decisions on participating in various online or offline activities, and ultimately impact mental health. This study hopes to explore the potentially mitigating influence of mindfulness and values-based interventions in reducing the discomfort and distress that can accompany FOMO and increase the sense of psychological well-being in allowing for a more thoughtful and deliberate engagement in life. This study will include an intervention component wherein participants (comprised of university students and adults in the community) will partake in a six-week, group-based intervention focusing on learning practical mindfulness skills and values-exploration exercises (along with a waitlist control group). In doing so, researchers hope to understand if interventions centered on increasing one’s awareness of the present moment and one’s internal values impact decision-making and well-being with regard to social interaction and relationships.

Keywords: Values, Intervention, stress, Distress, Mindfulness, psychological well-being, FOMO

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11 Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders in South Korea

Authors: Kim Eunha


This study examined a group-based intervention for alcohol use disorders based on the principles of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) in patients (N=22; 63.7% female; M = 38.2 years old; 100% South Korean) in a residential alcohol addiction treatment program. Patients were randomly assigned to either ACT group (receiving the ACT intervention) or control group (receiving treatment as usual). The ACT intervention consisted of four 2-hr group sessions scheduled during two weeks. The first session focused on the negative effects of suppression and avoidance, and a rationale for defusion and acceptance using several of the well-known ACT metaphors (e.g., Two Scales Metaphor, Man in the Hole). The second session taught defusion and acceptance skills through such exercises as mindfulness, cutting a sour fruit, naming one’s thoughts, and physicalizing. The third session included another mindfulness exercise and encouraged the participants to identify their values and set up life goals. The last session included more discussion on values and life goals, especially related to family and intimacy. The effects of the interventions were assessed using intent-to-treat analyses. The ACT interventions resulted in smaller immediate gains in motivation to stay sober and reductions in depression, anxiety, and experiential avoidance. In addition, at a 2-month follow up, those who attended the ACT group reported a lower average level of alcohol consumption and higher treatment attendance compared to the control group. These preliminary findings suggest that additional treatment and testing of ACT for alcohol use disorders will be crucial.

Keywords: Values, acceptance and commitment therapy, alcohol use disorders, defusion

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10 Drivers of Energy Saving Behaviour: The Relative Influence of Normative, Habitual, Intentional, and Situational Processes

Authors: Karlijn Van Den Broek, Ian Walker, Christian Klöckner


Campaigns aiming to induce energy-saving behaviour among householders use a wide range of approaches that address many different drivers thought to underpin this behaviour. However, little research has compared the relative importance of the different factors that influence energy behaviour, meaning campaigns are not informed about where best to focus resources. Therefore, this study applies the Comprehensive Action Determination Model (CADM) to compare the role of normative, intentional, habitual, and situational processes on energy-saving behaviour. An online survey on a sample of households (N = 247) measured the CADM variables and the data was analysed using structural equation modelling. Results showed that situational and habitual processes were best able to account for energy saving behaviour while normative and intentional processes had little predictive power. These findings suggest that policymakers should move away from motivating householders to save energy and should instead focus their efforts on changing energy habits and creating environments that facilitate energy saving behaviour. These findings add to the wider development in social and environmental psychology that emphasizes the importance of extra-personal variables such as the physical environment in shaping behaviour.

Keywords: Energy Consumption, Values, Behavioural Modelling, Habits, environmental psychology theory

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9 Culture and Mental Health in Nigeria: A Qualitative Study of Berom, Hausa, Yoruba and Igbo Cultural Beliefs

Authors: Dung Jidong, Rachel Tribe, Poul Rohlerder, Aneta Tunariu


Cultural understandings of mental health problems are frequently overshadowed by the western conceptualizations. Research on culture and mental health in the Nigerian context seems to be lacking. This study examined the linguistic understandings and cultural beliefs that have implications for mental health among the Berom, Hausa, Yoruba and Igbo people of Nigeria. A purposive sample of 53 participants underwent semi-structured interviews that lasted approximately 55 minutes each. Of the N=53 participants, n=26 were psychology-aligned practitioners and n=27 ‘laypersons’. Participants were recruited from four states in Nigeria, Plateau, Kaduna, Ekiti, and Enugu. All participants were self-identified as members of their ethnic groups who speak and understand their native-languages, cultural beliefs, and also are domiciled within their ethnic communities. Thematic analysis using socio-constructionism from a critical-realist position was employed to explore the participants’ beliefs about mental health, and the clash between western trained practitioners’ views and the cultural beliefs of the ‘laypersons’. Data analysis found three main themes that re-emerged across the four ethnic samples: (i) beliefs about mental health problems as a spiritual curse (ii) traditional and religious healing are used more often than western mental health care (iii) low levels of mental health awareness. In addition, the Nigerian traditional and religious healing are also revealed to be helpful as the practice gives prominence to the native-languages, religious and cultural values. However, participants described the role of ‘false’ traditional or religious healers in communities as being potentially harmful. Finally, due to the current lack of knowledge about mental health problems, awareness creation and re-orientation may be beneficial for both rural and urban Nigerian communities.

Keywords: Values, health mental, beliefs cultures, languages religions

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8 Examination of Activity Preferences in Leisure Time of Y and Z Generations

Authors: Esma Ozkan, Sumeyye Belhan


The aim of this study is to examine the activity preferences of individuals in Y and Z generation. 90 Y and 90 Z generation individuals with a mean age of 32,76 ± 4,76 and 15,35 ± 2,61 years respectively, participated in the study and their activity preferences assessed. Results show that Y and Z generations preferred swimming and cycling among health related activities. For leisure activities, listening to music was favored by 87.5% and 100% of the Y and Z generations respectively. Reading (90%) was the most popular among Y generation and the second preferred for Z generation after technology (77.5%). Therefore, school based occupational therapy including activity analysis is key to enable adolescents to engage in proper activities. Inviting/visiting friends and family (socialization) was chosen by 100% of Y generation compared to 75% for Z generation. Since our culture and traditions are based on eating and socializing, these activities are well regarded across generations in Turkish society. Educational activities were preferred by 35% of Z generation compared to 75% in Y generation. Also, Z generation was more interested in history compared to sciences. Educational system changes, due to domestic politics and society, may have caused such differences among generations.

Keywords: Values, Lifestyle, Y and Z generations, activity preference

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7 A Research on a Historical Architectural Heritage of the Village: Zriba El Olia

Authors: Yosra Ben Salah, Wang Li Jun, Salem Bellil


The village Hammem Zriba is a lost little paradise in the middle of a beautiful landscape that captures the eyes of every visitor. The village alone is a rich expression of different elements such as urban, architecture, technical and vernacular elements, as well as sociological, spiritual and religious behaviors. This heritage is in degrading conditions and is threatened by disappearing soon; thus, actions have to be taken as soon as possible to preserve this heritage, record, analyze and learn from its traditional ways of construction. The strategy of this study is to examine the architecture within the Berber society over a period of time and influenced by a certain location and its relationship to the social and cultural aspects; this research will focus on historical, environmental, social and cultural aspects influencing architecture. The contents of this paper should mainly be constructed by three successive layouts of historical view, a cultural view and an architectural view that will include the urban and domestic scale. This research relies on the integration of both theoretical and empirical investigations. On the theoretical level: A documentary analysis of secondary data is used. Documentary analysis means content analysis of the relevant documents that include books, journals, magazines, archival data, and field survey and observations. On the empirical level: analysis of these traditional ways of planning and house building will be carried out. Through the Analysis, three techniques will be employed to collect primary data. These techniques are; systematic analysis of the architectural drawings, quantitative analysis to the houses statistics, and a direct observation. Through this research, the technical, architectural and urban achievements of the Berber people who represent a part of the general history and architectural history will be emphasized. And on a second point the potential for the sustainability present in this traditional urban planning and housing to be used to formulate guidelines for modern urban and housing development.

Keywords: Culture, History, Values, Traditional Architecture

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6 Developing Social Responsibility Values in Nascent Entrepreneurs through Role-Play: An Explorative Study of University Students in the United Kingdom

Authors: David W. Taylor, Fernando Lourenço, Carolyn Branston, Paul Tucker


There are an increasing number of students at Universities in the United Kingdom engaging in entrepreneurship role-play to explore business start-up as a career alternative to employment. These role-play activities have been shown to have a positive influence on students’ entrepreneurial intentions. Universities also play a role in developing graduates’ awareness of social responsibility. However, social responsibility is often missing from these entrepreneurship role-plays. It is important that these role-play activities include the development of values that support social responsibility, in-line with those running hybrid, humane and sustainable enterprises, and not simply focus on profit. The Young Enterprise (YE) Start-Up programme is an example of a role-play activity that is gaining in popularity amongst United Kingdom Universities seeking ways to give students insight into a business start-up. A Post-92 University in the North-West of England has adapted the traditional YE Directorship roles (e.g., Marketing Director, Sales Director) by including a Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Director in all of the team-based YE Start-Up businesses. The aim for introducing this Directorship was to observe if such a role would help create a more socially responsible value-system within each company and in turn shape business decisions. This paper investigates role-play as a tool to help enterprise educators develop socially responsible attitudes and values in nascent entrepreneurs. A mixed qualitative methodology approach has been used, which includes interviews, role-play, and reflection, to help students develop positive value characteristics through the exploration of unethical and selfish behaviors. The initial findings indicate that role-play helped CSR Directors learn and gain insights into the importance of corporate social responsibility, influenced the values and actions of their YE Start-Ups, and increased the likelihood that if the participants were to launch a business post-graduation, that the intent would be for the business to be socially responsible. These findings help inform educators on how to develop socially responsible nascent entrepreneurs within a traditionally profit orientated business model.

Keywords: Social Responsibility, Values, Student Entrepreneurship, role-play, young enterprise

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5 Significance of Life Values in Relationship: A Detailed Analysis of Teenage Population

Authors: Preeti Nakhat


Background: Values are essential part of one's life. They are inculcated since the early years of life and shape the personality of the individual. They play a tremendous role in decision making. Teenagers are seen perplexed about the values of their life. The challenge faced by majority of the teenage population in choosing between a positive and negative value is high. The values they adopt remain throughout their life and in every decision, hence it is a crucial topic of research. Research Methodology: This research aimed at finding out the value conflict of teenagers in relations. Hypothesis of the study are: H₀- There is no significant association between the life values and value conflict of higher secondary students; H₁– There is a significant association between the life values and value conflict of higher secondary students. For the same, the standardized tool, value conflict scale by R. L. Bhardwaj has been used. The tool consists 24 questions of different life situations with multiple choice options. Findings: There is 96% variation in value conflict due to evasion vs. fortitude, dependence vs. self-reliance, selfishness vs. probity, hate vs. love, fear vs. assertion and pragmatism vs. idealism life values. There is a positive association between all the life values and value conflict of higher secondary school students. Percentages of association are: 0.17% between value conflict and evasion vs. fortitude value, 0.16% between value conflict and dependence vs. self-reliance value, 0.17% between value conflict and selfishness vs. probity value, 0.16% between value conflict and hate vs. love value, 0.17% between value conflict and fear vs. assertion, 0.17% between value conflict and pragmatism vs. idealism value. Discussions: The dilemma faced by the students regarding value conflict is high. Bewilderment of being honest or lying, of loving or hating family and friends, being pragmatic or idealistic in life decision, being selfish or selfless is seen among the students. It is the challenge for the future. Teaching of values with a practical aspect should be added in the school curriculum.

Keywords: Conflict, Values, School, dilemma

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4 The Construct of Assessment Instrument for Value, Attitude and Professionalism among Students Faculty of Sports Science and Coaching

Authors: Ahmad Hashim, Thariq Khan Azizuddin Khan, Zulakbal Abd Karim, Nohazira Abdul Karim


This research aims to obtain the validity and reliability of a survey instrument to evaluate the values, attitudes, and professionalism of sports science students, from the Faculty of Sports Science and Coaching, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI). It is a survey which is divided into two components namely first; moral, self-esteem, proactive, self-reliant and voluntary and second; ethics and professionalism. Development of the survey instrument is based on the Malaysian Education Development Plan, Higher Education Malaysia. There are 50 items prepared based on the five-point Likert scale which were tested at the pilot test level. It involved 212 research subjects selected based on random sampling. In addition, the research method applied is in the form of pre-experimental one group pre-test-post-test. Results of the analysis showed that overall field expert validity is r = .89, while the Cronbach alpha reliability correlation value of outdoor education instrument evaluation survey is r = .85. Next, this survey was tested again for construct validity using the factor analysis method for statistical analysis which would validate each item tested was supposed to be in the right component. From the analysis, results show that Bartlett's test is significant p < .05 and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin index range is r = .87. The result showed 39 survey items are produced out of 50 items of the survey based on this factor analysis method. Research has shown that the survey instrument developed is valid and reliable to be used for the Faculty of Sports Sciences and Coaching, UPSI.

Keywords: Ethics, Values, attitudes, Professionalism

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3 Foreign Television Programme Contents and Effects on Youths

Authors: Eyitayo Francis Adanlawo


Television is one of humanity’s most important means of communication, a channel through which societal norms and values can be transferred to youths. The imagination created by foreign television programmes ultimately leads to strong emotional responses. Though some foreign films and programmes are educational in nature, the view that the majority of them are inimical to the youths’ positive-believe-system is rife. This has been occasioned by the adoption of repugnant alien cultures, imitation of vulgar slangs, weird hairdo and most visibly an adjustment in values. This study theoretically approaches two research questions: do youths act out the life style of characters seeing in foreign films? Is moral decadence, indiscipline, and vulgar habits being the results of the contents of foreign programmes and films? To establish the basis for relating foreign films watched to social vices as violence, sexual pervasiveness, cultural and traditional moral pollution on youths; Observational learning Theory and Reinnforcement Theory were utilized to answer the research questions and established the effect of foreign films content on youths. We conclude that constant showcasing of violent themes was highly responsible for the upsurge in social vices prevalent among the youths and can destroy the basis of the societal, cultural orientation. Recommendations made range from the need for government to halt the importation of foreign films not censored; the need for local films to portray more positive messages and the need for concrete steps to be taken to eradicate or minimise the use of programme capable of exerting negative influence.

Keywords: Values, youths, moral decadence, media (television), observation learning theory, reinforcement theory

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2 Educational Path for Pedagogical Skills: A Football School Experience

Authors: A. Giani


The current pedagogical culture recognizes an educational scope within the sports practices. It is widely accepted, in the pedagogical culture, that thanks to the acquisition and development of motor skills, it is also possible to exercise abilities that concern the way of facing and managing the difficulties of everyday life. Sport is a peculiar educational environment: the children have the opportunity to discover the possibilities of their body, to correlate with their peers, and to learn how to manage the rules and the relationship with authorities, such as coaches. Educational aspects of the sport concern both non-formal and formal educational environments. Coaches play a critical role in an agonistic sphere: exactly like the competencies developed by the children, coaches have to work on their skills to properly set up the educational scene. Facing these new educational tasks - which are not new per se, but new because they are brought back to awareness - a few questions arise: does the coach have adequate preparation? Is the training of the coach in this specific area appropriate? This contribution aims to explore the issue in depth by focusing on the reality of the Football School. Starting from a possible sense of pedagogical inadequacy detected during a series of meetings with several football clubs in Piedmont (Italy), there have been highlighted some important educational needs within the professional training of sports coaches. It is indeed necessary for the coach to know the processes underlying the educational relationship in order to better understand the centrality of the assessment during the educational intervention and to be able to manage the asymmetry in the coach-athlete relationship. In order to provide a response to these pedagogical needs, a formative plan has been designed to allow both an in-depth study of educational issues and a correct self-evaluation of certain pedagogical skills’ control levels, led by the coach. This plan has been based on particular practices, the Educational Practices of Pre-test (EPP), a specific version of community practices designed for the extracurricular activities. The above-mentioned practices realized through the use of texts meant as pre-tests, promoted a reflection within the group of coaches: they set up real and plausible sports experiences - in particular football, triggering a reflection about the relationship’s object, spaces, and methods. The characteristic aspect of pre-tests is that it is impossible to anticipate the reflection as it is necessarily connected to the personal experience and sensitivity, requiring a strong interest and involvement by participants: situations must be considered by the coaches as possible settings in which they could be found on the field.

Keywords: Values, Responsibility, self-evaluation, relational needs

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1 A Behaviourally Plausible Decision Centred Perspective on the Role of Corporate Governance in Corporate Failures

Authors: Navdeep Kaur


The primary focus of this study is to answer “What is the role of corporate governance in corporate failures? Does poor corporate governance lead to corporate failures? If so, how?”. In doing so, the study examines the literature from multiple fields, including corporate governance, corporate failures and organizational decision making, and presents a research gap to analyze and explore the relationship between corporate governance practices and corporate failures through a behavioral lens. In approaching this, a qualitative research methodology is adopted to analyze the failure of Enron Corporation (United States). The research considered the case study organizations as the primary unit of analysis and the decision-makers as the secondary unit of analysis. Based on this research approach, the study reports the analytical results drawn from extensive and triangulated secondary data. The study then interprets the results in the context of the theoretical synthesis. The study contributes towards filling a gap in the research and presents a behaviourally plausible decision centered model of the role of corporate governance in corporate failures. The model highlights the critical role of the behavioral aspects of corporate governance decision making in corporate failures and focuses attention on the under-explored aspects of corporate governance decision making. The study also suggests a further understanding of ‘A Behavioral Theory of the Firm’ in relation to corporate failures.

Keywords: Decision Making, Corporate Governance, Behavior, Values, corporate failure

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